Journal of Multidisciplinary Research Advancements 2024-06-14T09:30:43+00:00 Ms Suja Giri Open Journal Systems <p>The Journal of Multidisciplinary Research Advancements (JOMRA) is an international, open access, peer reviewed research journal published by the Global Research Institute and Training Center (GRIT). Research papers, reviews, case studies, technical notes and short communications are published online in this journal.</p> READ Methodology: Community Library and Resource Center a Transformative Instrument in Socio-Economic Development 2024-06-11T11:03:17+00:00 Pawan Rana Magar <p>READ methodology focuses on setting up the “Community Library and Resource Centers,” which stimulates social and economic transformation integrating with education, enterprise, and community development, collaborations with rural communities, and to seed for-profit sustaining enterprises to ensure their durable functioning and success. Within the demand from the community, the READ CLRC service delivery mechanism of the room library model was further expanded into a children's section, women's section, youth section, information, communication and technology section, meeting hall, and audio / visual section. CLRCs also partner with local government, community people, and other stakeholders to deliver community outreach activities such as practical action programs which basically address the issues related to agriculture and livestock, income-generating skills, health sessions, literacy classes, safe migration, disaster risk reduction, social institutional and cooperative literacy and etc. The systematic review approach was used for analysis because it detects themes, theoretical perspectives, or common issues within a specific research discipline or methodology or identifies a theoretical concept's components. This paper examines the READ methodology as a transformative instrument for socio-economic development that aligns with Madon’s theoretical model and the DFID Sustainable Livelihood Framework. So, in this order, various literature and focus group discussion findings have demonstrated strong evidence that READ methodology can be recommended as a transformative instrument in community development driven locally.</p> 2024-06-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Impact of Migration among Farmers of Surkhet, Nepal 2024-06-11T11:08:47+00:00 Esther Budha Magar Bhawani Sharma Bhumi Kumari Budha Ghana Shyam Khatri DB Gurung Deepak Marhatta <p>Despite 66% of people's engagement in agriculture in 2021, shifts from farming to adopting alternative jobs have been observed due to reduced income and poverty, leading to migration. Arable lands are left abandoned due to a shortage of farmers across Nepal. The research objectives were to assess the status of assets among farmers with any family members who migrated and those who did not migrate and to understand farmers' opinions regarding external migration. A cross-sectional study was conducted randomly through a lottery in wards 2 and 11 of Birendranagar municipality in Surkhet district. The study purposively selected seventy-five farmers and prepared semi-structured questionnaires, which we pretested among 10% of farmers. After obtaining written informed consent, the data were entered in Excel and analyzed in SPSS version 16. Out of 64 farmers holding agricultural land, the majority without migrated family members (54.7%) had their land, whereas 3.1% of farmers left their rain-fed agricultural land barren. 24.2% of farmers without any migrated members reared 11 to 20 livestock, compared to 12% of farmers with migrated members in the family. 53% of farmers without migrated members planted trees within their lands, compared to 34.7% having migrated members. 84% of farmers believe external migration is essential, whereas 16% believe in staying in their homeland and continuing agriculture. The farmers without any migrated family members were observed to have more agricultural land, rear livestock, and plant trees around their houses. The majority of farmers were found to believe that external migration is vital for development, and they expressed their interest in shifting towards alternative jobs if provided with the opportunities. In the long term, the interests of farmers may lead to a shortage of agricultural labor and food insecurity.</p> 2024-06-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Parental Engagement to Promote a Reading Culture in the Tharu Community 2024-06-11T11:16:20+00:00 Tripti Chaudhary <p>This study adopted an ethnography approach to dig into the reading culture among parents of the public school in Kalilai district of Nepal. By examining the role of parents in creating a conducive reading environment at home and in school, the study aimed to highlight the impact of parental engagement on enhancing reading literacy and academic achievement.&nbsp; It looked into how parents of the Tharu community establish a reading culture in their homes. The findings underscore the crucial role of parents in nurturing a love for reading and strengthening children's interest in education. The findings of the study show the crucial role of parental engagement in nurturing a love for reading and strengthening children's interest in education within the Tharu community. The findings show the impact of parental involvement in creating a conducive reading environment at home and in school, emphasizing the significance of parental engagement in enhancing reading literacy and academic achievement. It is evident that parental participation, both home-based and school-based, plays a fundamental role in fostering a culture of reading and positively influencing students' academic success. This research contributes to a better understanding of how parental engagement can effectively promote a reading culture within the Tharu community and potentially in other similar contexts.</p> 2024-06-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Reflective Teaching and Practices in the Classroom 2024-06-11T12:11:08+00:00 Muna Aryal <p>A reflective practice has been warmly influenced in teacher education and development programs on pedagogical practices. A classroom is like a laboratory where a teacher relates teaching theory to teaching practice and observes the students' responses. This paper attempts to focus on the importance of reflective teaching and check the teachers' awareness of reflective teaching. It shows the need for reflective practice in classroom practices or how a teacher's practice in the classroom can be improved through reflective teaching. The information of this study was generated through secondary sources and interviews of research participants, two English teachers of public schools from different parts of Nepal. Also, the study examines how the teacher educator created opportunities for student teachers to develop their reflective practices during their practice teaching sessions.</p> 2024-06-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Impact of Street-Vended Bean Cake on Residents in Makurdi Town, Nigeria 2024-06-11T12:17:15+00:00 Akaawase Alexander Mchi Doosuur Beatrice Akaawase Ayadu Edwin Koffi <p>With the rate of urbanization in third-world cities, street-vended foods play a vital role in providing many urban residents with cheap, nutritious, and accessible food regardless of its safety, quality, and hygiene. This study assessed the impact of street-vended bean cake on residents in Makurdi town, Nigeria, which covered two council wards, namely North-Bank Ward I and North-Bank Ward II. A sample of 30 street-vended bean cakes was collected from vendors in 10 locations within Makurdi town for laboratory analysis. Miles and Misra's technique was performed in triplicate to determine the total bacterial counts. The vendor’s socioeconomic characteristics, cleanliness, and bean cake security were assessed. The bean cake vendors are between the age group 26 - 35 years. Most vendors have completed primary school and earn ₦11,000 - ₦25,000 monthly from bean cake vending.&nbsp; Although 66.7 % of bean cake street vendors wear a neat apron and trim their nails short, however, 73.3 % serve their customers with bare hands, which implies a high possibility of bean cake contamination. It also implied that vendor’s hygiene factors and improper handling of bean cake can cumulatively affect the quality of bean cake available to Makurdi residents and could lead to loss of man-hour productivity. Four bacterial pathogens were identified in the study area; Bacillus spp. had the highest percentage (33.33 %), closely followed by Staphylococcus aureus (30.00%), Proteus spp. (20.00 %), while E. Coli maintained the least with (16.67%). The presence of Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus spp., and E. Coli implied a threat to human health. The study recommended proactive measures to be taken to forestall food-borne diseases, public awareness campaigns on food hygiene, and routine inspection of street bean cake vending locations.</p> 2024-06-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Addressing Mental Health Challenges in Nepal: A Review of Policies, Status, and Strategies for Improvement 2024-06-11T16:13:43+00:00 Rama Prajapati Aarju Lamichhane Bhanu Shrestha Lata Kusum Shah Mariyam Siddique Pankaj Kumar Singh Stuti Bhattarai Sujina Manandhar Suja Giri <p>Mental health is a crucial aspect of overall well-being, encompassing an individual's emotional, psychological, and social well-being. In Nepal, mental health issues are a significant concern, with challenges related to governance, policy implementation, and service delivery. This review examines the mental health status in Nepal, analyzes existing policies, and proposes strategies for improvement. Databases, including ScienceDirect, Springer, NepJol, PubMed, and Google Scholar, were searched to gather relevant literature. The review identified key challenges in Nepal's mental health system, including the lack of a revised and fully implemented mental health policy, discriminatory provisions in the legislation, inadequate planning and funding at the district level, and limited workforce and resources. Despite positive developments, such as including mental health in general health policies and NGO involvement, significant barriers remain. To improve mental health in Nepal, it is essential to implement public policies favoring mental health, train individuals in personal skills, promote healthy lifestyles, and intervene through community actions. These strategies aim to create supportive environments and increase awareness of mental health issues, ultimately improving the population's overall well-being.</p> 2024-06-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Role of Serum Vitamin D Level in the Progression of Dengue Viral Illness: A Potential Immunomodulator?: A Literature Review 2024-06-11T16:36:20+00:00 Binod Limbu Birochan Kumar Chaudhary Suraj Kumar Jha <p>This is a literature review on the role of serum vitamin D levels in dengue viral illness as a potential immunomodulator. The dengue virus is an RNA virus that causes many symptoms, from asymptomatic phases to severe forms like dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. The review methodology was based on evidence-based rapid review, and the review's objectives are to scrutinize all the available articles on dengue virus and vitamin D from standard databases and literature searches. It was found that there are no specific antivirals for the definitive management of the dengue virus, and vitamin D, with its potential antiviral and immunomodulatory effects, can play a significant role against the dengue viral illness. It was also found that there are limited reviews on the association between dengue virus and vitamin D. The review concludes that there is a possible association between supplementing with vitamin D and lowering the risk of progression to severe dengue viral illness and that regular testing of serum vitamin D levels is highly encouraged during the illness as vitamin D levels get depleted with the progression of the illness.</p> 2024-06-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Parental Awareness of Gender Stereotypes in Early Childhood Development 2024-06-11T16:41:57+00:00 Shobha Aryal <p>The study aimed to address the gaps in understanding the significant impact of parental supervision and discourse on children's interpretation of gender norms in society. To achieve this, a comprehensive methodology was employed, involving an in-depth analysis of parental views, language use, toy and clothing choices, and activities. The findings of the study highlighted the crucial role of parental influence in either reinforcing or challenging established gender norms, thus impacting children's choices and self-expression. This research sheds light on the importance of parental involvement in cultivating a more inclusive and diverse understanding of gender for the next generation. Furthermore, the article delved into the complex ways in which parents shape their children's conceptions of gender in the early years of their lives. The study underscored the significance of parental supervision and emphasized how parental attitudes are transmitted to children, influencing their perspectives and actions with respect to gender stereotypes. Additionally, the research explored several facets of parental discourse, clarifying the ways in which language and conversations within the home have significant effects on children's understanding of societal gender norms.</p> 2024-06-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Enhanced Production of Microbial Cellulases as an Industrial Enzyme - A Short Review 2024-06-11T16:45:22+00:00 Jyoti Sarwan Vijaya Nazim Uddin Jagadeesh Chandra Bose K <p>Enzymes are biocatalysts that exist with the ability to degrade complex molecules. Enzymes play a major role in every individual's life and for commercial purposes. Various microbes can produce high-yield enzymes. Microbial cellulases have an integral part in our biosphere because cellulose is present in abundance on our earth. Cellulose is a major component of every plant cell, and it is responsible in plant cells to maintain processes like photosynthesis. The methodology for this review paper involved an extensive literature review to gather information on the production and industrial applications of microbial cellulases. Relevant data was collected from scientific journals, research papers, and reputable online databases and was thoroughly analyzed to identify key concepts and emerging trends. The primary motive of this study was to compile all the numerous applications of cellulases as well as to describe some strategies to modify microbial cellulases with the help of genetic engineering and other tools in brief. This study has involved describing the structure, role, and mode of action, economic importance, and strain improvement of cellulases. Cellulases have applications in various sectors such as pharma, food, brewery, paper, pulp, textile, detergent, and many more. This study mainly focuses on microbial cellulases retarding chemical cellulases with their versatile behavior.</p> 2024-06-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Aspects of Community Participation in Eco-tourism: A Systematic Review 2024-06-11T16:54:50+00:00 Shankar Tiwari Deepak Marahatta Hari Devkota <p>Encouraging community involvement in ecotourism initiatives fosters a sense of local ownership and responsibility, which are crucial for ecotourism's lasting success and sustainability. This long-term environmental stewardship is vital for ensuring the preservation and protection of natural resources and promoting responsible tourism practices. This study comprehensively analyzes the significance of community participation in ecotourism. The study explores the types, roles, and challenges of community participation in ecotourism. Through a systematic review, the literature is collected mainly from the Scopus database, Science Direct, and Google Scholar, which were published after 2005. By following four steps of conducting thematic analysis: searching, selecting, extracting, and synthesizing, 53 articles were selected as per selection criteria. The findings highlight the diverse array of community participation, ranging from active to passive, including the role of participation of women in ecotourism. It further identified the role of community participation in economic, socio-cultural, and environmental aspects and explored possible challenges of ecotourism. The possible challenges of community participation in ecotourism, such as disparities of benefits sharing, lack of sufficient cooperation among the stakeholders, and lack of community involvement in different activities, underline the urgent need to develop comprehensive strategies to address these issues. Recommendations for future research advocate for comparative studies across diverse regions, longitudinal research, and deeper explorations of power dynamics within communities to inform more equitable and sustainable ecotourism practices.</p> 2024-06-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024