Journal of NELTA Gandaki 2022-01-26T10:12:33+00:00 Mr. Pitambar Paudel Open Journal Systems <p>A peer-reviewed research journal published by the Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association Gandaki Province, Pokhara, Nepal. Full text articles available.</p> List of Reviewers 2022-01-25T09:22:10+00:00 Pitambar Paudel <p>not available</p> 2022-01-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Editorial Vol.4(1-2) 2022-01-25T07:56:10+00:00 Pitambar Paudel <p>Not available</p> 2021-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal English Language Teachers' Association Gandaki Province Awareness and Initiatives on Language Policy in Local Governments 2022-01-25T08:04:01+00:00 Basanta Kandel <p>In Nepal, the Constitution of Nepal 2015 has abolished the centralized ruling system and established federalism which has opened up new insights into language policy issues. The Constitution empowers local government for language policy and planning, protection, promotion and use of languages, and scripts. Applying the ethnographic observation of the qualitative method, this study explores the awareness and initiatives of Nepali policymakers and language policy arbiters for the creation of language policy in local governments. Using purposive sampling, the study situates in two local governments of Gandaki Province, Nepal. The information collected through unstructured interviews, ethnographic observation, and informal interaction with language policymakers and arbiters has been analyzed and interpreted employing multiple methods. The findings show that local policy makers and actors impose multiple ideologies, therefore, language policy has become a contested issue and created a new public debate in the changing political-social and multilingual context of Nepal. Gradually, there is an increasing awareness on creating language policy, and constructive initiatives have taken for preservation and promotion of languages which is a positive way forward in the local governments by policymakers and arbiters</p> 2021-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal English Language Teachers' Association Gandaki Province Classroom Discourse of English Language Classes in the Terai of Sudurpaschim Province 2022-01-25T08:09:19+00:00 ManaBahadur Jora <p>This article focuses on the classroom discourse of English language class in the Terai region of Sudurpaschim Province. It analyses the classroom discourse of secondary level English language classes. Classroom discourse in the English language class in the Terai region of Sudurpaschim Province has not been studied yet. Similarly, it aims to explore how classroom discourse is practiced in the English language classes and find out ways using English language from the linguistic perspective. Classroom discourse reciprocates the cultural development. Simultaneously, this article tries to show that classroom discourse is means of motivation and the study contends to show that classroom discourse is a means of interaction. Students and teachers can reflect their conceptualization in the class. Additionally, classroom discourse maintains cognitive aspect of teachers and learners. In the English language classroom, classroom discourse works as source of interaction and motivation. Furthermore, it provides opportunities to students. Thus, classroom interaction is the use of language in the class that we term as classroom discourse.</p> 2021-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal English Language Teachers' Association Gandaki Province Digital Literacy and Communicative Competence in the New Normal Education 2022-01-25T08:15:18+00:00 NarayanPrasad Sapkota <p>The COVID -19 pandemic has pushed the education to alternative mode. The New Normal characterized by heavy reliance on technology has been experienced and widely advocated in education. This paper draws on an autoethnographic records which the author collected after the mass initiation of online education in June 2020 until May 2021 to reveal the importance of digital literacy and communicative competence in alternative mode of education in Nepal. The results of study indicate that digital literacy which involves the ability to locate and consume digital content, creating digital content, and communicating digital content needs to be developed further by the primary stakeholders of education. In addition, the study also reveals that the scope of communicative competence increases in alternative mode of education.</p> 2021-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal English Language Teachers' Association Gandaki Province Teacher Identity in English Medium Instruction Schools of Nepal 2022-01-25T08:21:25+00:00 Nanibabu Ghimire <p>A large number of community schools in Nepal are shifting their medium of instruction policy from Nepali to English. This shift to English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI) has the potential for disruption and changes in teachers’ perception of their own identities. The main purpose of the study was to investigate how teachers’ perception of their own identity is shaped and re-shaped along with the changing landscape of medium-of-instruction policy in Nepal’s community schools. Following narrative inquiry research design, I conducted semi-structured interviews with three primary teachers from three EMI community schools which were purposively selected. As the findings revealed, the EMI policy overhaul has created two opposing sets of new identities of teachers: on the one hand, there is admiration among the general public towards English as a linguistic capital in Nepal and it has become a part of the linguistic identity of teachers as they are being responsible, laborious, punctual, dedicated, and regular for effective teaching and learning, on the other hand, they cannot explore the content in English in comparison to Nepali since they are not trained as well as equipped with the facilities that are needed to EMI. </p> 2021-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal English Language Teachers' Association Gandaki Province The Paradigmatic Shift of Knowledge in the Mundaka Upanishad 2022-01-25T08:25:55+00:00 SabindraRaj Bhandari <p>This article explores the dynamics of the esoteric (para) and exoteric (apara) knowledge that the Mundaka Upanishad proclaims in its mantras. The domain of Vedic knowledge is exoteric, and the Vedic sacrificial rituals are always for earthly glories and satisfactions. Therefore, their main quests always remain for the external manifestations. Unlike this, the Vedanta refers to the philosophical part of Veda. It mainly concerns for cosmic speculations, and aims to realize the transcendental ultimate reality. In this way, the Upanishads which form one of the tripartite pillars of Vedanta postulates that the absolute reality pervades within us and outside in the real world. Their speculations are to realize the ultimate reality that rules the entire cosmic manifestations. Therefore, the Upanishadic knowledge is esoteric (para vidhya). This great dichotomy between the exoteric and esoteric makes a clear shift of knowledge from the Vedic outwardness to Vedantic inwardness. In this context, it is the Mundaka Upanishad that is the pioneer to make a canonical shift of knowledge from Vedic apara to the Vedanta’s para. This article makes an exploratory and descriptive analysis of the theories and ideas developed in the Mundaka Upanishad that reveal how it makes a clear canonical shift of knowledge from the Veda to Vedanta. It equally sheds light on the implications of the theories and ideas of para and apara knowledge in teaching and modern pedagogy.</p> 2021-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal English Language Teachers' Association Gandaki Province Activities Undertaken by the English Language Teachers for Professional Development 2022-01-25T08:35:13+00:00 BhimLal Bhandari <p>The success of language learning and teaching mainly depends upon the professional activities that the teachers employ to improve job performance and provide appropriate input for better learning output in their students. By attending various workshop seminars and trainings, teachers update professional skills regularly and make their teaching career better and efficient. This study aimed at exploring the most common activities undertaken by the English language teachers for developing their professional skills. The study was carried out within the theoretical framework of social constructivism adopting narrative inquiry method to bring lived experiences of the participants. By using unstructured interview, I gathered information from two teacher participants teaching at secondary level in community schools in Butwal Sub-Metropolitan city, Rupandehi. The study revealed that the English language teachers were found attending conferences, trainings and workshop seminars, engaging in action research and academic writing for their professional development. However, poor internet access, lack of regular professional trainings and collaborative culture among them were the major challenges in teachers’ professional development. The study can contribute to improve the classroom pedagogy of the English language teachers and provide some insights to their knowledge and professional skills in the practices of various professional activities to be much more competent and skillful.</p> 2021-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal English Language Teachers' Association Gandaki Province Students’ Perceptions of Pedagogical Change during the COVID-19 Crisis 2022-01-25T08:43:04+00:00 YamNath Adhikari <p>Pedagogical change during the spread of Novel Corona Virus (COVID-19) crisis in Nepalese academia is being the matter of discussion and many academic institutions claim that they are adopting new pedagogy in their curricular activities during COVID-19 crisis. This study aims to find out the secondary students’ experiences of pedagogical change in language teaching and learning procedure. This paper explores an analysis of how pedagogical change enabled secondary students’ experience of online pedagogy during the COVID-19 crisis to plan and manage their learning procedure. As a qualitative research, it employs internet-based semi-structured interview to investigate participants’ experience of pedagogical change and the ground reality of online pedagogy in Nepalese Academic institution during pandemic situation of COVID-19. This paper also shows that how the pandemic situation affects the learning procedure of the students especially in rural Nepal. Online pedagogy is observed as an alternative mode of education in urban areas where there is minimum ICT infrastructure and a means to widen digital divide in rural areas. The students struggle with limited access to digital technology to manage their online learning and the low level of organizational support cannot help them to continue their learning in the pandemic situation. To support the students in their online learning, formulation and operation of policy in wide-ranging systems need to be developed in practice level to provide skills and facilities of ICT for effective distribution of online pedagogy throughout the nation. </p> 2021-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal English Language Teachers' Association Gandaki Province English Teachers’ Perceptions on Inquiry Based Teaching 2022-01-25T08:48:26+00:00 PremRaj Pokhrel <p>This study explores the perceptions of secondary level English teachers on inquiry based teaching. I used phenomenological approach for this study and semi-structured interview was used for data collection which enabled me in capturing the perceptions of purposefully selected participants. The participants were four secondary level English teachers of Rupandehi district. Moreover, this study was based on socio-constructivism theory of Vygotsky. The data were analyzed using descriptive analysis approach. The findings of this study revealed that secondary level English teachers had good perceptions towards using inquiry-based teaching as it enhanced students’ classroom engagement and fostered an effective and meaningful learning experience. The study pointed out a number of opportunities in using inquiry based teaching such as active participation of students, developing discovery skills, the development of critical ability, creativity, problem solving ability, reasoning skills, learners’ autonomy, etc.The findings also indicated that problem in handling technology, lack of motivation and transformation, assessment issues were the challenges while implementing inquiry based instruction in the classroom. The study is expected to have a great significance in improving the 21st century language pedagogy using inquiry based tasks or problems.</p> 2021-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal English Language Teachers' Association Gandaki Province English Medium Instruction in Multilingual Classroom of Community Schools of Nepal 2022-01-25T09:00:33+00:00 Debraj Karki <p>Multilingualism and multilingual classroom are the reality of language education in Nepal. Teaching in multilingual classroom is both fascinating and challenging for teachers. The article aims at exploring how the monolingual ideology over English language teaching has created a gap between the linguistic capital of learners and the authoritative pedagogical practices of teachers. Taking case of a community school in Lalitpur district, I investigate the practices of teaching English to multilingual learners in a community school and explore pertinent issues of monolingual practices in a multilingual classroom. I draw data from informal telephonic talk to a subject teacher selecting purposively and observe the instructional practices in the linguistically diversified classroom. The article makes two major claims regarding the excessive use of monolingual teaching kills the inner potentialities of learners and suggests embodying multilingual pedagogy to foster learners’ epistemic growth in a natural and comfortable environment. The teachers should transform themselves to bring change and innovation in course of their pedagogical journey. Such kind of innovation is only feasible if teachers construct and reconstruct their pedagogical assumptions as of the need of learners. So that diversified learners are addressed properly in their knowledge gaining content. It further informs that immense investigation on language classrooms to bring a paradigm shift in English language education is essential in the days to go.</p> 2021-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal English Language Teachers' Association Gandaki Province Language in Education Policy in Local Governments: A Case of Rupandehi District 2022-01-25T09:05:00+00:00 Dinesh Panthee <p>This paper analyses the position of languages in local education policy. The objectives of this paper were to explore the language in education policies in the local government of Nepal and to find the policymakers’ perception toward language in education policy in the local governments of Nepal. I prepared this paper in two ways; by reviewing the secondary documents in which I have gone through the relevant documents of language in the education policy of Nepal historically. It was a case study research design. For primary resources, I selected two local governments of the Rupandehi district as cases and reviewed their policies. For this study, I selected two policymakers of selected local governments of Rupandehi purposively who have been working in the area of local policy-making activity. I performed a depth interview with unstructured interviews based on the education and language policies they had prepared before. The findings of this study revealed that there was a gap between the policy and practice in relation to language in the education policy of local governments. Policies were formulated according to the spirit of the constitution of Nepal respecting all languages but there were lapses in practices focusing on English and Nepali Language. It was also found that policymakers were proactive to promote the local languages but negligence by the user and the policymakers were aware of addressing the linguistic diversity of their municipalities in education policy.</p> 2021-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal English Language Teachers' Association Gandaki Province Challenges and Opportunities of Integrating ICTs in ELT and Literature Teaching 2022-01-25T09:09:48+00:00 Kamal Sharma <p>Due to COVID 19, the teaching was switched to online mode, and it is still in practice due to the second and third wave. As a new experience, both teachers and students felt uncomfortable to start online classes. What they lacked was the digital literacy of integrating ICTs in learning, and strong Internet facility. Integration of ICTs into Teaching and Learning during COVID 19 and its aftermath is both obligatory and essential. Education and digital tools are now complementary to each other. This paper aims at looking at the effectiveness of ICTs in teaching English literature, language and examines problems associated with it focusing especially on online classes during COVID. The paper has been conducted through a set of questionnaires designed for teachers and students. The research is conducted through interviews with teachers, and the result identified that problem was not only with the students alone, it was also with the systems including teachers and concerned authorities. The paper concludes that by developing digital literary and ICT skills in students and teachers, the teacher can engage, enrich, enable and empower the students so that the knowledge as envisioned in respective curriculum can be materialized. Within ICTs, MS Teams application used by teachers is the ICT tool that the paper basically focuses on. Recording the class, audio-video setting, cloud video setting, making lesson plans virtually are to be focused while giving training to teachers.</p> 2021-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal English Language Teachers' Association Gandaki Province