Journal of NELTA Gandaki <p>A peer-reviewed research journal published by the Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association Gandaki Province, Pokhara, Nepal. Full text articles available.</p> Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association Gandaki Province, Pokhara, Nepal en-US Journal of NELTA Gandaki 2676-1041 <p class="Default">© Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association Gandaki Province</p> <p>The articles, once published in this journal, must not be reused/ republished without taking written permission of the copyright holder.</p> Editorial Vol.2 <p>Not available.</p> Pitambar Paudel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-08 2019-12-08 2 10.3126/jong.v2i0.26598 Use of Peer Observation for Self-enhancement <p>&nbsp;The present article concerns the use of peer observation, particularly in the context of microteaching, for self-enhancement. The study followed a mixed methods design comprising survey and focused discussion. The data were collected from prospective external evaluators of teaching practice who participated in the training session entitled Find Good Practices of Teaching Demonstrated by their Peers and Adopt and Adapt According to their Needs so as to find out the participants' perspectives on observing their peers' classes and benefits they reaped from the observation. Analysis of the participants' written and oral accounts reveals that peer observation is a rewarding learning experience; and observation is likely to be fruitful when it is preceded by self-inquiry, that is, identification of what the observer himself/herself is lacking and followed by critical reflection on the observed lesson and the observer's own practice. Also, the peer's weaknesses can be employed as a critical incident to question one's own teaching behavior.</p> Bal Ram Adhikari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-08 2019-12-08 2 1 11 10.3126/jong.v2i0.26599 Linguistic Landscapes in Multilingual Nepal: Urban Context <p>&nbsp;Diversity in the linguistic landscape is a common phenomenon in multilingual country Nepal. We observe varied textual forms of language and signs in public spaces and spheres that surround us. Therefore, this study concerns to analyze the signs in linguistic landscapes in multilingual urban settings in Nepal. It reveals the status of different languages, deals with issues related to multilingualism, language policy, linguistic diversity, minority languages, hierarchies, and users. Besides, it observes intricacies of language contact and choice, power and status of language groups, and sociolinguistic situation. For this, observation and interpretative method of qualitative research were employed, 150 photographs were purposively snapped from five urban spaces in two month time. The signs were analyzed, compared and contrasted using a thematic approach with relevant theoretical backup. The finding revealed that the choice of language on signs bases on sign writer’s skill, presumed reader and symbolic value (Spolsky &amp; Cooper, 1991). The study explored that the majority of urban linguistic landscapes are occupied by English signs, and English imperialism is a greater challenge for Nepali and vernacular languages. It is inferred that diversity in linguistic landscapes is the concrete manifestation of multilingual society where languages battle for their existence; therefore, the multilingual policy is the stipulation of the day.</p> Basanta Kandel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-08 2019-12-08 2 12 28 10.3126/jong.v2i0.26600 Innovations in Multilingual Classroom: Exploring Teachers' Experiences <p>&nbsp;This article explores the English language teachers' innovative practices on multilingual education and their experiences on using multilingual strategies in the classroom. In order to find out the teachers' innovative practices in multilingual education and their strategies for multilingual instruction, a semi structured interview and small group discussion was taken. The results of the study concluded that English language teachers involved their students in the use of multiple languages that they know for developing content knowledge. The teachers believed that multilingual approach supports the students to be linguistically and culturally resourceful. As a part of the experiences of the use of multilingual strategies, the study identified that the teachers linked up vocabulary meaning in different language; used translation as a technique to clarify the concept; provided exposure in multiple languages, facilitated the learners to be bilingual through language transfer; encouraged students to contribute something in their own language; allowed questions in students' own languages; and used as many languages as possible as the resource pool to impart information to the students.</p> Guru Prasad Poudel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-08 2019-12-08 2 29 42 10.3126/jong.v2i0.26601 Teachers’ Attitudes Towards English as Medium of Instruction <p>&nbsp;English as medium of Instruction (EMI) has been a genuine issue of discussion in today’s pedagogical field among the concerned stakeholders including teachers. In this concern, a mixed method study entitled ‘Attitudes of teachers towards using English as Medium of Instruction (EMI) in Public Secondary Schools of Ilam was attempted to explore the teachers’ attitude towards using EMI in the public schools and challenges faced by them in course of adopting EMI. For this, twenty secondary level English teachers were accessed purposively and data were collected using questionnaire consisting of both close ended and open-ended questions. The results of the study revealed that teachers of public schools were found aware of the basic concept of the notion of English as a medium of instruction. They were found positive in implementing EMI in conducting their daily teaching and learning activities. The study also showed that teachers of secondary level have been facing different challenges in adopting EMI in the classroom like students’ weak exposure to English, mother tongue interference, unresourceful schools and linguistic diversity in the class. The study recommended that there should be conducive and encouraging environment in the public schools for the teachers for adopting EMI in the class. The schools should be made resourceful and well equipped with modern technologies. Moreover, the teachers should be made sound with pedagogically and professionally.</p> Krishna Kumar Khatri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-08 2019-12-08 2 43 54 10.3126/jong.v2i0.26602 Second Language Acquisition as a Discipline: A Historical Perspective <p>Second language acquisition (SLA) generates and tests the theories concerning the acquisition of languages other than first language (L1) in different contexts. Even if SLA is a nascent discipline, its history is remarkable and helpful to seek the answers to the questions that researchers are raising in the field of second language or foreign language. Based on this context, this article aims to recount the history of the burgeoning discipline that heavily draws from numerous disciplines like linguistics, psychology, sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, and so on. To achieve the objective, document analysis method has been used. The analysis and interpretation of the available documents exhibit that the traces of SLA were observed in the studies that address the issue of language transfer. Specifically, the diachronic study proves that the development of the discipline has undergone three evolving phases like background, formative, and developmental. The background phase caters for behaviourism, contrastive analysis hypothesis, and the attacks on the fundamental premises of behaviourism. The formative phase deals with Chomsky’s revolutionary steps, error analysis, interlanguane theory, morpheme order studies, and the Krashen’s monitor model that opened up the avenues for further studies of SLA. The developmental phase recounts various studies that have consolidated SLA as a separate discipline.</p> Nabaraj Neupane ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-08 2019-12-08 2 55 64 10.3126/jong.v2i0.26603 Five Facets for Effective English Language Teaching <p>Effective English language teaching (ELT) is strongly related to dynamic teachers and creative learners as it enhances students’ long lasting learning process. Students learn the taught matters successfully if the classroom is handled effectively focusing on child centered pedagogy with the use of modern information communication technology (ICT). The objective of this paper is to look at the different facets for effective ELT and to give some pedagogical suggestions for English language teachers to increase the effectiveness in ELT. The articles/papers, researches and books written on effective ELT found in electronic sources are studied/overviewed the study. It shows that an effective ELT includes qualified, dynamic and devoted teachers with socio-affective skills, pedagogical and subject matter knowledge, active and creative students, use of sufficient and practical teaching learning materials, proper use of modern equipment and technology, and multiliteracy pedagogy focusing on the cultural diversity of the learners for better ELT.</p> Nani Babu Ghimire ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-08 2019-12-08 2 65 73 10.3126/jong.v2i0.26604 Writing Skill: An Instructional Overview <p>Writing skill is a product of ingenuity carved through knowledge, learning, creativity and intellectual uprightness. An individual with sound writing skills is regarded high in dignity and receives elevated opportunities everywhere in competitive examinations, job opportunities, promotions and social services. Regarding the discipline of teaching and learning a language, proficiency in writing skill deserves an irrelative significance. In spite of being an unsurmountably significant skill, numerous learners and pedagogues still seem to be bewildering for specifying the actual crux of theoretical knowledge and pedagogical procedures of writing in a compact document. In order to bridge up this goal, this study attempts to open some pertinent horizons in terms of its objectives, approaches, types, components and cannons for evaluation through document analysis method, a major component of qualitative research design. Fairly a large number of document based views, ideas, opinions, definitions, approaches and guidelines have been analyzed critically. Obviously, the resources covered in the review, results and discussion section would prove to be reliable sources for the prospective learners and researchers. The study concludes that the teachers and syllabus designers have to keep themselves up-to-date with process based current approaches, methods and techniques alongside their theoretical and practical foundations. The most noteworthy insight drawn is that there are not any specific methods and techniques comprehensive enough to capture all the facets of teaching writing skill. Therefore, the teacher has to select and implement the best ones from a wide range of methods and techniques eclectically by musing on the classroom stakeholders deeply.</p> Pitamber Gautam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-08 2019-12-08 2 74 90 10.3126/jong.v2i0.26605 Postmethod Pedagogy in Teaching English as a Foreign Language: Students' Perceptions <p>The study deals with the background context of postmethod pedagogy (PMP henceforth), a context-sensitive and critically practical pedagogy, differentiating it from the traditional concept of teaching by adhering strictly to a particular method of teaching a foreign language (the English language here) with reference to Nepal. It aims to explore the perception and inclination of M. Phil. pursuing students towards PMP in EFL teaching in Nepal. Google form of a questionnaire consisting of closed-ended items was used to collect data from 81 (of whom 65replied) M. Phil. pursuing (in English Education) scholars from Nepal Open University and Tribhuvan University. It revealed the gradual shift of ELT practitioners of Nepal from method-based instruction to PMP along with the intents of parameters of PMP, called pedagogy of particularity that advocates context-sensitivity in teaching and learning, pedagogy of practicality that insists for practicality and teacher-generated theories (theory of practice), and pedagogy of possibility that elicits the critical consciousness of the practitioners in terms of their socio-cultural context with adequate illustration. It was found that M. Phil. pursuing students had a positive attitude and supportive perception towards PMP leading to local and contextual superiority in pedagogy over the afforded methods although the local may be the hybrid of many foreign methods leading to an eclectic method.</p> Rajan Kumar Kandel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-08 2019-12-08 2 91 112 10.3126/jong.v2i0.26606