Journal of NELTA Gandaki <p>A peer-reviewed research journal published by the Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association Gandaki Province, Pokhara, Nepal. Full text articles available.</p> en-US <p class="Default">© Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association Gandaki Province</p> <p>The articles, once published in this journal, must not be reused/ republished without taking written permission of the copyright holder.</p> (Mr. Pitambar Paudel) (Sioux Cumming) Fri, 14 Jun 2019 13:50:18 +0000 OJS 60 Editorial Vol.1 <p>The global spread of English has brought a significant shift in English language teaching from methodology to post methodology era, structural to communicative approach and theory-based conception of teaching to evidence-based practice of teaching harmonizing with the context of learning. The advent of postmethod pedagogy in the twenty first century had widely acknowledged the contribution of individual teachers in English language teaching and learning field. Consequently, incorporation of dialogues and the field of English language teaching have turned to be complex creating numerous kaleidoscopic thoughts and research in the arena of English language teaching. In this diverse and convoluted contexts, we are pleased to bring the first volume of <em>Journal of NELTA Gandaki </em>(JoNG) with the aim of accommodating such diversities and providing support and resources to all the language practitioners for boosting up their professionalism by promoting the arenas of English language teaching in the local context.</p> <p>This issue consists of eleven articles from various fields of applied linguistics, English language teaching, testing, researching and so forth. The first one sheds light on the pedagogical dimension of literature in ESL/EFL classroom and concludes with proposing the pedagogical approaches and procedures of exploring literary texts to maximize learning opportunities for students. The second examines the role of role play techniques in teaching speaking skill to the students of class 10. This article reports positive role of role play in fostering speaking skill of the students. Similarly, the third article has concluded that the reflection of critical events gave them some kind of relief in teaching practice and the events taught them a number of strategies. Likewise, the following article concludes that the book follows the gradual shift from foreign language literature to learners' local culture with communicative skills of interaction and provides learners an opportunity of learning foreign culture and their own cultures.</p> <p>The fifth article deals with the finding that shows unsupportive behavior of the supervisors and difficulties of selecting the appropriate area of study. They were the major challenges that students ever facing in writing thesis. Similarly, the next article reveals that both the teachers and the students were affirmative towards learner autonomy but most of them did not adopt it in English language teaching and learning. The seventh article shows a number of challenges in implementing self directed learning even if both the teachers and students had positive attitudes towards it.</p> <p>The eighth article justifies that mixed methods research design, which has been a recent practice in academia, should be adopted in the research of universities and the research centres. Similarly, the ninth article examines the strategies employed in learning English by Bachelor level students in Nepalese context. The following article reveals that integrated approach of language teaching is sure to pursue its harmony in teaching language. The final article concludes that majority of English teachers at secondary level followed product approach in teaching writing which led them to face a number of challenges in teaching writing.</p> <p>We have made this a peer reviewed journal, in which a number of hands directly and/or indirectly, seen or unseen have bestowed to maintain quality and standard to bring it into this form. We would like to extend our sincere gratitude to the contributors and reviewers from home and abroad without whose rigorous support, the journal would not have come to this form. We would also like to express our gratitude to NELTA Gandaki Province for full-blown support and guidance when, where and what the editorial team expected.</p> <p>The articles published in the journal are the properties of NELTA Gandaki Province, however, the authenticity and liability of the views and ideas expressed in them go to the authors themselves.</p> <p>Constructive suggestions from the valued readers and well-wishers are always welcome to uplift the standard and quality of the journal in the forthcoming issue.</p> Pitambar Paudel, Binod Neupane, Krishna Prasad Parajuli ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 14 Jun 2019 11:22:09 +0000 Literature in the Language Classroom: Roles and Pedagogy <p>The present article is theoretical in nature with its prime focus on the pedagogical dimension of literature in the language classroom in general and the ESL/EFL classroom in particular. It draws on some of the key publications in the field and my experience in English language education as a teacher and material developer. Moreover, I have drawn some evidence from B. Ed. and M. Ed. English courses offered to prospective teachers, and their class observation. Divided into three sections, the article begins with a checkered history of literature in mainstream language teaching methods while the second section underscores roles of literary texts in students' balanced language development. The final section proposes the pedagogical approach to and procedures of exploiting literary texts to maximize learning opportunities for students.</p> Bal Ram Adhikari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 14 Jun 2019 12:27:09 +0000 Effectiveness of Role Play in Improving Speaking Skill <p>This study was carried out to find out the effectiveness of role play technique in improving speaking skill in English. The population of the study was the grade X students of a public school from Lamjung district. The experimental group was taught through role play while the control class was taught through the traditional grammar based techniques. The total population of this study was 40 students who were enrolled in the academic year 2018/2019. The study was experimental approach. The tools applied in this research were observation sheet and speaking test. After 20 lessons of the teaching, the post-test of speaking was conducted in which the students in both groups were asked to answer. The results showed that there is a significant improvement in speaking skill of experimental group. It can be concluded that role play have significant effect on students’ speaking skill.</p> Binod Neupane ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 14 Jun 2019 12:37:13 +0000 Recalling Critical Incidents for Professional Learning <p>Teachers have to identify their own potentials and problems in order to look their way forward. In their ongoing process of teaching and learning, teachers might have encountered many critical incidents. Recalling critical incidents has worth in restructuring the pedagogical approaches and reshaping the classroom activities because teachers develop themselves if there is challenge and responsibility. Having such a claim in mind set, this article aims to unpack the Nepalese ESL lectures stories of critical incidents and to examine the role of recalling critical incidents for their professional learning. It has been developed on the basis of the narrative of three EFL lecturers. After the thematic analysis of the data obtained through in-depth interview, it has been found that EFL lectures had a story of unplanned and unexpected event of the classroom and they recalled such stories as a part of professional learning. Similarly, the reflection of critical events gave them some kind of relief in teaching practices and the events taught them a number of strategies like persuasive or threatening, co-operating, caring and sometimes being indifferent to the students.</p> Guru Poudel ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 14 Jun 2019 12:42:51 +0000 English Textbook for Class Five: An Analysis <p>This article explores the use of the global trends of English language teaching (ELT) found in the book 'School of English- Five'. As this article is an instance of document analysis, it reviews and assesses how much the global trends of ELT have been maintained in the contents of this primary level grade five's English reading material. While reviewing the recent trends along with the changes in perspectives, it is found that the author of the book has included the contents with wide coverage and sufficient amount of examples from various cultures with the intent of promoting multi-cultural awareness and intercultural communicative competence with a slight sense of world Englishes especially Nenglish to the early age of learners with sufficient examples of child friendliness and reflective practices. And it concludes that the application of this book helps to achieve the general objectives of teaching primary level English courses on the part of learners and suggests for including further recent and global trends that are gapped in the book.</p> Harishchandra Bhandari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 14 Jun 2019 12:49:35 +0000 Writing Thesis in English Education: Challenges Faced by Students <p>A thesis is the most important write up in a researcher's life. Writing the research document in the form of a thesis is considered as the most challenging among the students. Keeping this view in mind, the present study was conducted to investigate the major challenges facing by the students of Masters of Education (M. Ed.) in English under Tribhuvan University (T.U.) while writing thesis. Fifteen students who have submitted the final draft of thesis in the Department of English Education of their respective campuses in partial fulfillment of M.Ed. in English and waiting for viva-voce were selected employing non-random purposive sampling procedure. The researcher used interview as a tool to collect the data which included open ended questions only. Interviews were audio recorded and they were transcribed, thematized and presented in narrative form. The findings were presented employing descriptive technique of qualitative data analysis. The findings of the study revealed that unsupportive behavior of the supervisors and difficulties of selecting the appropriate field or area of the study are major challenges while writing the thesis in English Education. &nbsp;</p> Hari Prasad Tiwari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 14 Jun 2019 12:57:48 +0000 Learner Autonomy Practices in English Language Teaching in EFL Context <p class="Default"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Einstein says “I never teach my students. I simply provide the situations in which they can learn<strong>”. </strong>In line with this saying the learner autonomy (LA) approach provides learners with situations where they can learn independently in their own pace. This learner centered approach to teaching, emerged during the 1980s, aims at empowering learners by transforming responsibilities to them. This study aimed at exploring the practice level scenario of LA in English language teaching and learning. To this end, I employed the qualitative research design i.e. I observed teachers’ classes and conducted Focus Group Discussion (FGD) with the students. The information elicited from participants was transcribed, codified, categorized and finally themes were generated. The study revealed that, though the teachers and the students were affirmative towards LA, in a real sense, the majority of them did not adopt in English language teaching and learning. The classroom ritual is still teacher oriented. On the one hand, the teachers are still in the cockpit of pedagogy without providing any agency for the students. On the other hand, students' readiness for bearing responsibility of their learning was found weak. They preferred attachment to teachers without taking charge of learning.</span></p> Jagadish Paudel ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 14 Jun 2019 13:10:42 +0000 Self-Directed Learning for Learner Autonomy: Teachers' and Students' Perceptions <p class="Default"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">The research entitled Self-directed Learning for Learner Autonomy: Perceptions of Teachers and Students was carried out to explore the perceptions about Self Directed Learning (SDL) for Learner Autonomy (LA) and analyze the roles of teachers to engage students in SDL. Considering the objectives, the primary data was collected from five master level English Language Teaching (ELT) teachers and three groups of master level students from Pokhara, Kaski. The purposive non-random sampling procedure was used to select the participants. The study was conducted using in-depth interview and Focused Group Discussion (FGD) tools to collect data. The obtained data from the respondents were analyzed and interpreted using analytical and interpretative procedure. It is a new approach in language teaching and learning in Nepalese context though it has been practicing since earlier. The finding shows that all the respondents have positive perceptions and its great contribution for developing LA. SDL helps learners to achieve better achievement and effective learning. It helps teachers to find the necessary changes and increases motivation to the learners to learn. But because of student’s unawareness, time constraint, no inspirations of institutions, student’s false assumptions, lack of insight knowledge about SDL, etc are creating the challenges in its proper application. In the study, the teachers’ roles are facilitator, helper, and resource provider by creating different situation, encouraging, orientating, inspiring, using Information Communication Technology (ICT) and using multimodality in the classroom.</span></p> Luk Gharti ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 14 Jun 2019 13:16:30 +0000 Paradigm Shift in Research: Emergence of Mixed Methods Research Design <p>Between the lines of quantitative and qualitative inquiries, mixed methods research, which has taken a considerable space in academia, has emerged as a promising design as a mark of paradigm shift from pure method to the hybrid one. In this context, this article aims to explore the phenomenon of the mixed methods research design in terms of reasons for use, historical developments, types, and assessments. To achieve this goal, document analysis method has been used. Only the secondary sources like books, journals and archives have been used for documenting information and making meaning from them. The conclusion is that mixed methods research design has been a current practice for many reasons in academia. This implies that the new paradigm should profusely be used in the field of research at universities and research centers.</p> Nabaraj Neupane ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 14 Jun 2019 13:22:30 +0000 Learning Strategies Employed in English Language: Perceptions and Practices <p>Learning strategies are the key tools to determine the approach for achieving the learning goal. They are included in different phases of teaching learning process. They are usually tied to the needs and interests of students to enhance their learning efficiency. This article aims at exploring perspectives and practices of learning strategies in learning English language. For this, phenomenological descriptive qualitative research was conducted with a class of 48 students of Bachelor in Education at a constituent campus, under Tribhuvan University, Nepal. Both the class of the students and campus were selected purposively to meet the requirement of phenomenological study. Thirty classes were observed as a participant as well as teacher and from the same group of the students only ten students were interviewed. Then, the data from both the sources were triangulated, interpreted and analyzed descriptively. From this study, it was interpreted that students employed various strategies to learn different language skills and aspects. The study revealed that students felt difficulty in selecting proper learning strategy for learning grammatical rules due to many exceptional cases and listening skill due to their less time devotion on it while the felt ease to select and employ proper strategies in learning vocabulary.</p> Pitambar Paudel ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 14 Jun 2019 13:28:41 +0000 Integrated and Segregated Teaching of Language Skills: An Exploration <p class="Default"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">This article attempts to explore some existing dimensions of integrated and segregated approaches to teaching language skills along with their psychological and methodological foundations. The body of language is built out of various components of skills and aspects fitted together in a natural harmony. They are substantial elements for teaching and learning endeavour. But, nowadays there are serious arguments about whether to choose segregated or integrated approach for teaching language skills in an ESL/EFL classroom. Although the behavioural psychology and structural linguistics pleaded for segregated approach of teaching through Grammar Translation Method and Audio-lingual Method, the communicative movement supported by cognitive psychology and functional linguistics has a strong adherence to integrated approach in teaching language skills with a sole aim of attaining communicative competence. This article is entirely based on document analysis method, a major component of qualitative research design. The study arrived to conclude that the current communicative movement in foreign language teaching significantly stresses on integrated teaching of language skills. This approach of teaching was proposed in different language teaching methods and models. Among them, Content Based Instruction and Task Based Instruction are the two major methods introduced for integrated language teaching. Now, it has been inferred that integrated approach of language teaching is sure to pursue its hegemony at least for some decades unless a new powerful approach appears to challenge it.</span></p> Pitamber Gautam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 14 Jun 2019 13:34:42 +0000 Writing Instruction in Secondary Schools: Unraveling Practices and Challenges <p>In a discourse related to teaching writing in second or foreign language classrooms, there is a focus on process writing which seems still new practice in many Nepali classrooms. In this context, this study was conducted to explore secondary level English teachers' practices and challenges of teaching writing. The study adopted qualitative research design. For this, twenty secondary level English teachers from both public and private schools of Sunsari District, Nepal were selected as informants. The data were collected through classroom observation, semi- structured interview and Focused Group Discussion (FGD). First, classroom observation of eight teachers was carried out followed by semi-structured interview. Then, the other twelve teachers were invited for FGD. Analysis of qualitative data uncovered that majority of the teachers adopted product approach to teaching writing with abundant stress on support to students for securing good marks in the final examination. The major challenges revealed behind this situation were large class size, low proficient learners, pressure on course completion, lack of practical training for teachers, and insufficient resources including ICT facility in the classroom contexts.</p> Tirtha Karki ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 14 Jun 2019 13:41:51 +0000