Journal of Sustainability and Environmental Management <p>The Journal of Sustainability and Environmental Management is published by Jiwanta Nepal, New Baneshwor 32, Kathmandu, Nepal. The journal can also be found on its own website at <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> en-US (Mr. Ashish Khanal) (Sioux Cumming) Fri, 29 Dec 2023 10:27:02 +0000 OJS 60 Impacts of Climate Change on Temperature and Precipitation in Nepal: Projections and Bias Correction <p>Climate change is likely to have a significant impact on Nepal, affecting its infrastructure, agriculture, and water resources. This study created day-to-day bias-corrected data of precipitation (ppt), maximum temperature (t<sub>max</sub>) and minimum temperature (t<sub>min</sub>) at 0.25° spatial resolution for Nepal using 7 CMIP6-GCMs under two shared socioeconomic pathways, SSP245 and SSP585. The bias-corrected datasets were produced using an empirical robust quantile mapping method for ppt and quantile mapping with linear transformation function method for t<sub>max</sub> and t<sub>min</sub>. The bias-corrected dataset was evaluated by comparing it against observed data for the mean values of ppt, t<sub>max</sub> and t<sub>min</sub>. Our bias-corrected projections reveal a warming of 4-6°C and an increase in ppt of 40-60% by the end of the 21st century. These changes will have a significant impact on Nepal's climate, environment, and people. The bias-corrected projections can be used to assess the impact of climate change in Nepal and to develop adaptation strategies.</p> Hari Prasad Dhital, Madhav Joshi, Nabin Budhathoki Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 29 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Pervious Concrete for Urban Stormwater Management in Kathmandu Valley <p>Urban drainage difficulties have sparked debates and conflicts because of population growth and land use. Expanding urban infrastructure has led to an increase in impermeable zones, which prevent water from seeping into the ground and percolating. Rapid urbanization, population growth, and climate change have put strain on water management in Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC). Urban flooding is becoming more frequent, which has a negative impact on daily life and causes major damage. This study assesses the possibilities for controlling runoff volume through stormwater management in Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC). To counteract floods brought on by urbanization, pervious concrete, a substance that allows water to seep through floors or seams, is essential. Dosing strategies must be used, concentrating on aggregate content and water/cement ratio (water/cement (w/c)), to obtain acceptable traces. The purpose of this study is to evaluate permeable concrete's effectiveness as a flood-prevention alternative. A review of books, journals, monographic works, and standards is included as part of a bibliographical research project. The strengths of the previous concrete ranged from 2.8 to 28 MPa, according to data gathered after 28 days, falling within the normal range of ACI 522R:06 (2006) and below the normal range of 10 MPa. The porous concrete successfully percolated precipitated water in just a short period, demonstrating its potential as a successful substitute for flood prevention.</p> Bibek Bhattarai, Bikram Singh Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 29 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Riverbank Erosion and Accretion and its Impact on the People of Chairman Ghat, Noakhali, Bangladesh <p>Nestled within the vastness of the Meghna deltaic plain, Noakhali, and in particular, Chairman Ghat, stand as poignant examples of Bangladesh's intricate relationship with environmental challenges. The significance of the Meghna deltaic plain cannot be overstated, as it shapes the very fabric of the nation's landscape. However, this geographic richness comes hand-in-hand with vulnerability, and nowhere is this more apparent than in the relentless grip of riverbank erosion. Chairman Ghat, in Noakhali, epitomizes the struggle against this natural force, making it a focal point for understanding and addressing the profound impact of riverbank erosion in the region. The primary objective of this research work is to assessing river bank erosion &amp; accretion and examine its the potential impact in the chairman Ghat area. In order to achieve this goal, this study employs remote sensing and GIS techniques to assess the erosion and accretion rates of Chairman Ghat on the Noakhali coast from 2000 to 2022 and conduct household survey to examine the socioeconomic impacts of river erosion on the local population. The findings revealed that Over the past 22 years, the Meghna estuary experienced a total of 667.0 km2 of erosion and 689.1 km2 of accretion. Chairman Ghat area alone witnessed a net erosion rate of 4.2 km2 per year during the specified period, resulting in a loss of 117.7 km2 of land, while only 25.3 km2 of new land was added.&nbsp; From household survey it is found that the adverse effects of riverbank erosion on the local community are evident, leading to the loss of vital agricultural lands, homesteads, and property damage that cannot be easily recovered. Consequently, a significant portion of the affected population is compelled to migrate, thereby exacerbating their socio-economic plight as they are forced to change professions. This research sheds light on the extent of riverbank erosion in Chairman Ghat, Noakhali, and elucidates its profound socioeconomic implications on the lives of the local inhabitants. The findings of the study will help to enhance our understanding of the specific impact of river erosion enabling the development of targeted strategies to protect vulnerable communities' lives, livelihoods, and environments. It will also promote cohesive coastal zone management, implementing robust measures that counteract the destructive consequences of riverbank erosion, thereby ensuring the sustainable development and resilience of these crucial ecosystems.</p> Momotaj Ara Mou, Md. Kamruzzaman Tusar, Md. Riyadul Haque, Shemoul Chakraborty, Sajib Ahmed Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 29 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Organic Treatments for Enhanced Bioremediation of Crude Oil Impacted Soil in Bayelsa State, Nigeria <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate organic treatments for enhanced bioremediation of crude oil impacted soil in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Koroama community in Gbarain clan, Yenagoa local government area, Bayelsa State, Nigeria was randomly selected for the study. The experimental research design was adopted for this study, which was carried out for 28 days. The required soil samples were collected at a depth of 0 – 15cm from a 3 x 3m experimental plot developed in a farmland in Koroama community. Five sampled points, in the form of flat beds A, B, C, D and E respectively were randomly selected. Sampled beds A to D were simulated (contaminated) with 2.25kg of crude oil. The objective is to simulate conditions of a major crude oil spill. The crude oil contaminated soil samples were then allowed to condition for 6 days before treatment with 2kg organic treatments like goat manure (GM), poultry droppings (PD) and the combination of goat manure and poultry droppings (GM &amp; PD). Bed E was unpolluted and untreated (control A) while Bed D was crude oil impacted and untreated soil (control B). The study showed that the impact of crude oil on the soil affects both the physical properties of the soil. The study also showed that the sampled organic treatments were all effective in restoring the physical properties of the crude oil impacted soil. At the end of the study, GM showed the highest TPH degradation rate (62.1%) followed by PD (57.1%) and the least, the combination of GM &amp; PD (52.0%). Hence, the application of GM, PD and the combination of GM &amp; PD are highly recommended for bioremediation of crude of impacted soil with special preference to GM.</p> Ebiye Asuka, Oku Hyginus Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 29 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impacts of Climate Change and Land Use Change on Streamflow: A Case of Seti Gandaki Watershed, Nepal <p>Recent research and IPCC reports extensively document the varied effects of climate change on basins worldwide. This study evaluates the impact of climate change and land use change on the Seti-Gandaki watershed's hydrological regime of Nepal. Using a calibrated hydrological SWAT model, forced with climate scenarios (SSP245 and SSP585), the study projects increased precipitation (2-129% and 3-139%) and a warming trend in temperature. Streamflow at the watershed’s outlet is expected to rise (up to 49% in monsoon, 96% in winter in SSP245; up to 61% in monsoon, 89% in winter in SSP585), with increased flow extremes, potentially leading to floods and landslides. The combined impacts project a 52-125% increase in streamflow in SSP245 and a 100-136% increase in SSP585, attributed to the shift from rural to urban settlements. These findings provide crucial insights for water resource planners and managers to develop location-specific strategies for sustainable water resource use in the Seti-Gandaki Watershed.</p> Kushal Baral, Vishnu Prasad Pandey, Ananta Man Singh Pradhan, Avishek Khanal Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 29 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring Recent Research on Definitions of the Myanmar Southwest Monsoon: A Comprehensive Bibliographic Overview <p>Accurately pinpointing the onset and withdrawal dates of the monsoon bears significant implications for diverse sectors. However, this task is fraught with challenges due to the intricate interannual and spatial variabilities. The Myanmar Southwest Monsoon (MSwM) index emerges as a widely adopted tool for delineating the initiation and cessation of the southwest monsoon across its respective domains. The confluence of advancements in satellite remote sensing, climate modeling, and data assimilation techniques presents opportunities for refining monsoon intensity indices. Additionally, a nuanced comprehension of the intricate interactions between the monsoon and climate teleconnections stands to enhance the assessment of monsoon intensity. Distinguished as a distinct entity from the major South Asian monsoon system, the MSwM follows a seasonal cycle intricately linked to mainland Indochina. The thermal influence of the Tibetan Plateau amplifies both meridional and zonal land-sea thermal contrasts, underscoring the importance of monitoring and anticipating monsoons. The MSwM, a product of complex interactions involving the earth, ocean, atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and cryosphere, exerts a profound impact on regional facets such as agriculture, ecology, chemistry, economics, and society. As technological strides continue, especially in satellite observations and climate models, avenues open up for refining our understanding of monsoon dynamics. The limitations inherent in the current coupled model of the land-sea-atmosphere system underscore the anticipation for advancements in modeling studies. Research in this domain not only contributes to the regulation of human activities but also fosters a harmonious coexistence between humanity and nature, safeguarding the human habitat.</p> Kyaw Than Oo Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 29 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Inspirational Influence of Nature in Architectural Design – A Review on the Scope of Application in Nigeria Housing Policy <p>The growing need for housing and infrastructural development is depleting and transforming green spaces to built environment. This transformation is altering the functioning of the natural processes that sustain life. However, conservation strategies through the science of biomimetic architecture show how nature offers the best ideas for regenerative infrastructural designs that humans can incorporate in planning. These natural forms of life provide insight on how designing housing and public infrastructures can promote efficiency in energy savings, waste management, nutrient provision, water management, adaptation to local condition, accommodating ecological hazards, sustaining the wellbeing of the occupants and reducing the frequency of visiting the natural capital. In Nigeria, housing policy programmes have primarily been focusing on ensuring affordable and available housing for all Nigerians. However, while the policy is being challenged in achieving its primary objective, it lacks biomimetic design in its elements, and ecological hazards (floods and erosion) are degrading/or destroying existing infrastructures in some Nigerian communities. Consequently, there is a need to integrate biomimetic designs in Nigeria housing policy and programme so as to capture the philosophy that a house is not only limited in providing shelter for humans, but also how the design of the house integrates into the natural functioning of the environment in resource provision, energy savings and environmental sustenance. The application of this approach can be achieved through the inclusion of biomimetic design incentives in building permit approval process to manage externalities associated with the infrastructure, while also taking into cognisance the housing needs of the poor, and the huge infrastructural investments of high income earners and the public. This approach will reshape consumption behaviour; develops a built environment that integrates and functions without resistance with its local condition in resource provision, waste management for its occupants, and enhance sustainability of resources base.</p> E B Tambe, A E A Essaghah, F I Ikegbunam, I E Mbuka-Nwosu, N M Okafor, I N Ekpe Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 29 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000