Journal of Tourism & Adventure 2022-10-10T11:10:50+00:00 Prof. Dr. Ramesh Raj Kunwar Open Journal Systems <p>Journal of Tourism &amp; Adventure (JoTA) is an annual peer-reviewed journal launched by the Tribhuvan University, Janapriya Multiple Campus, Pokhara, Nepal.</p> Poles’ Perceptions of Extreme and Adventure Tourism 2022-10-03T16:25:18+00:00 Michał Roman Andrzej Wiśniewski Kumar Bhatta Sylwia Królak Magdalena Trzcinka Elbek Togaymurodov <p>The purpose of this article was to present awareness of extreme and adventure tourism among Polish people. A diagnostic survey was performed in order to determine the actual state of understanding of leisure activities and preferences of the people regarding adventure tourism using online social networking sites like Facebook in July 2021. A total of 1080 Polish respondents participated in the study, and the data were analysed descriptively. In this study, we found that leisure tourism is mostly practiced (41%) among the respondents, and the extreme and adventure tourism market share is 14%. Around 40% of respondents said they never practiced adventure tourism, and 26% said they hardly practice once a year. This demands additional efforts to increase the market share for extreme and adventure tourism. Thus, tourism entrepreneurs and policymakers can promote extreme and adventure tourism in the country, focusing on young people. Similarly, 31% said adventure and extreme tourism are dangerous. This means people must first overcome their psychological fear of participating in such activities. Thus, to encourage people in adventure and extreme tourism, the tourists’ fears should be removed and psychologically motivated. Then, ensuring safety measures, short training, and awareness campaigns focusing on the young increases their participation in adventure and extreme tourism. The safety measures and positive psychology in younger people increase the adventure and extreme tourism market.</p> 2022-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Michał Roman, Andrzej Wiśniewski, Kumar Bhatta, Sylwia Królak, Magdalena Trzcinka, Elbek Togaymurodov A Study on Determinants of Managerial Communication in Hospitality Industry in Kathmandu Valley: A Structural Equation Modelling Analysis 2022-10-03T16:53:05+00:00 Sudip Puri Niranjan Devkota Surendra Mahato Udaya Raj Paudel <p>The past half-century has seen a remarkable worldwide movement toward gender equality on many key economic and social indicators but trends have not been uniform. Increased rates of global Cultural differences both within and across countries. Multicultural issues in the workplace are more pervasive, complex, and subtle, where people from different cultural backgrounds bring different meanings, values, assumptions, and discourse styles into the workplace conversation; such differences often lead to misunderstandings and breakdowns in communication, and can threaten a common orientation to organizational goals. The major objective of this study is to analyzed factor determining managerial communication in hospitality industry. The study has accepted explanatory research design and opted five-star hotel as population sample which lies in Kathmandu valley where convenience sampling was used to select respondent. Additionally, data was collected by using structured questionnaire which was set in KOBO Toolbox and obtained data was analyzed by using descriptive and inferential analyses through MS-Excel, KOBO toolbox, SPSS and AMOS respectively. The result indicates that uncertainty avoidance, institutional collectivism, future orientation, performance orientation, participative, charismatic/ value-based and autonomous have significant relationship with each other which also indicates that all variables have significant influence on cultural diversity in managerial communication.</p> 2022-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sudip Puri, Niranjan Devkota, Surendra Mahato, Udaya Raj Paudel Approaches to Local Community Participation in Tourism Development 2022-10-03T17:15:59+00:00 Lokraj Bhandari <p>Tourism has gradually developed in the wave of human civilization. However, it has not reached the level of Sustainable Tourism Development (STD). This paper is trying to explore its underneath causes by applying the desk study research method. This study has underscored two major reasons for no confirmation of STD to date. The first one is the misuse of Local Community Participation (LCP) instead of assuring the sovereign role of locals for their participation from tourism planning to its execution. The second one is ‘no successful attempts of the researchers to make holistic planning from different approaches given by the researchers in the ‘tourism and travel’. Furthermore, in the developing economy where good governance is hard to realize, even the sectoral planning of each economic sector is to be made and implemented as a backup plan.</p> 2022-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Lokraj Bhandari Buddhism and Tourism: A General Review 2022-10-03T17:21:27+00:00 Sushma Acharya <p>Everyone in the world is Buddhist because every heart has love, peace, and compassion. This is a study to find out the gap in knowledge between Buddhism and tourism. Buddhism pursues happiness by using knowledge and practice to achieve mental equanimity. In Buddhism, equanimity, or peace of mind, is achieved by detaching oneself from the cycle of craving that produces suffering and travelling broadens horizons and provides patience. It relieves stress and unwinds the mind to develop tolerance and empathy. Travelling helps to discover self. It helps to be open-minded, offers break from routine life, and provides patience. It relieves stress and unwinds the mind. It discovers human strengths and weaknesses. This article examines the social connectivity between Buddhism and tourism in Nepal. Methodologically, it is desk based qualitative study. It is a general review of Buddhism and tourism. The study finds a Buddhist worldview, plays a significant role in shaping attitudes toward Buddhist tourism.</p> 2022-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sushma Acharya Women in Tourism and Hospitality - A Case Study of Bhaktapur 2022-10-03T17:26:09+00:00 Archana Shivakoti <p>Globally more women are employed in tourism and hospitality industry which is also a very lucrative means to achieve gender equality, women empowerment and socio-economic upliftment of women. Empowerment of women and tourism are interrelated, and both terms should be developed side by side for better future. However, the gender-based roles in tourism and hospitality are defined by the nature of work along with the requirements of tourist. As far as Bhaktapur is concerned, tourism is one of the main sectors in the state that contributes in income and employment to people. This study explores the contribution of women in tourism and hospitality industry in Bhaktapur. Various aspects have been explored such as women employed in various hospitality and tourism sectors, the total number of women employed, category and duration of jobs, socio-economical upliftment. The main information is based on numerous sources of social learning like field visits while doing researches, visit of different sites, focus on group discussions, General Questionnaire Survey, and a number of interviews and interactions with the professionals of tourism sector in Bhaktapur.</p> 2022-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Archana Shivakoti A Study of Pilgrimage Tourism in Halesi, Khotang, Nepal 2022-10-03T17:30:43+00:00 Ramesh Raj Kunwar Akash Adhikari <p>Halesi is one of the most important pilgrimage tourism destinations of eastern Nepal. The purpose of this study is to highlight the culture, religion, belief, ritual, pilgrims’ behavior, ‘metempsychosis’ (story, legend and myth) and heritage of the Hindu, Tibetan Buddhist and Kirati (Rai) communities through the traditions (great and little tradition or textual, oral and transcendental cultural tradition) that play an important role for shaping the universe of power, place and people. Apart from these aspects of culture in Halesi, this research investigates how pilgrimage site has been commoditized into tourism destination which is what pilgrimage tourism talks about. This is a preliminary study of pilgrimage tourism in Halesi, Khotang, Nepal and provides room for further exploration. This study uses qualitative grounded theory to analyse pilgrimage tourism in Halesi, Khotang, which is a polyethnic pilgrimage place for three diverse groups with the respective religious beliefs executing holy rituals in accordance with their own customs. In order to carry out the research, a fieldwork was done for 38 days in Halesi. Data were gathered from different respondents including key informants, locals, hoteliers, priests, lamas, pilgrims, and visitors. The major data sources were open-ended inquiries and informal conversations. Halesi is found gradually transforming on several infrastructural development both in religion and tourism and is becoming a destination for pilgrims as well as non-pilgrims (secular tourists). As a result, the holy site attracted more numbers of pilgrims, thereby improving the economic situation of the local communities who were involved in the tourism industry which began to attract the attention of different stakeholders when they were able to know the significance of Halesi as a polyethnic pilgrimage tourism destination. It is noteworthy to quote “a tourist is half a pilgrim, if a pilgrim is half a tourist”.</p> 2022-10-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ramesh Raj Kunwar, Akash Adhikari