Journal of Tourism & Adventure <p>Journal of Tourism &amp; Adventure (JoTA) is an annual peer-reviewed journal launched by the Tribhuvan University, Janapriya Multiple Campus, Pokhara, Nepal.</p> en-US <p>Authors retain the copyright of their articles.</p> (Prof. Dr. Ramesh Raj Kunwar) (Sioux Cumming) Sun, 07 Nov 2021 12:31:16 +0000 OJS 60 Tourism and Community Perception: Quest of Sustainability from Happiness Paradigm <p>Change is normally phenotypic and influenced by external environment however transformation is genotypic and irreversible which mostly comes from within. Social change and transformation might also be triggered by external stimulus that may be intentional or accidental. Tourism has emerged globally as one of the powerful external but intentional agents of modern society for socio-economic transformation. Namche Bazar, the gateway to Mt. Everest, experienced tremendous socio-economic transformation (genotypic) due to tourism otherwise it would simply be a seasonal resting place for Sherpa shepherds and nomads. The dichotomy of discourses on tourism lies on perspectives: tourism as a symbol of modern society or postmodernity versus tourism as a vehicle of imperialism. The former view depicts tourism as an agent of economic prosperity whereas the later claims that tourism consumes and despoils destinations’ image and essence. The imperialistic discourse on tourism is entirely built on negative hypothesis. In tourism, phenotypic impact is rather superficial and can be restored if perceived negatively unlike genotypic. Amid these positive and negative propositions, a third paradigm emerged with sustainability variant that hooked up the two juxtaposed hypotheses as an alternative model of mass tourism. It portrayed tourism as a double-edged dagger that insists on efficient and effective manipulation of tourism for positive implications. The ‘sustainable tourism’ – a buzzword among tourism academia - stands in favor of planned, managed, controlled and responsible tourism. However, the crux of sustainable tourism lies in the quantification and measurement of sustainability. A sustainability premise of a stakeholder at the destination might be unsustainable for the other as like of economists and environmentalists for example. The incongruity perspectives have troubled the tourism academia to quantify, measure and analyze the indicators of sustainable tourism from unanimous parameters. This study is, therefore, an attempt to analyze the sustainability of a tourism destination via happiness (hedonic as well as eudaemonic) parameters of the community people, one of the main stakeholders in the destination and yet do not directly thrive on tourism business. The paper is directed by a thematic proposition ‘the more the happiness level of stakeholders, the better will be the sustainability situation of the destination’.</p> Ramji Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Ramji Sharma Sun, 07 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of COVID-19 on Pilgrimage Tourism: A Case Study of Lumbini, Nepal <p>The coronavirus outbreak is troubling the pilgrimage tourism industry in terms of economic, social, food, employment, and spiritual faith as pilgrimage activities are being stopped during the pandemic. The COVID-19 restriction and the nationwide lock-down has made it a very difficult time for pilgrims to stop the travel movement and this has made a big worry for government around the world. The pilgrimage tourism in Mecca, Vatican City, Israel, and India has been affected much by pandemic as gathering in the pilgrimage sites have been restricted since the year 2020. Lumbini one of the most important pilgrimage site, which is also a UNESCO-listed World Heritage site in Nepal, and has a significant contribution to the national economy. This research uses Lumbini, Nepal, the birthplace of Lord Buddha, to explore the impact of novel coronavirus on pilgrimage tourism and discusses the challenges experienced by Buddhist pilgrim, monks and nuns in different monasteries in 2020 and during the first quarter of the year 2021. The research is qualitative. The study is based on both primary and secondary data gathered through interviews with the related stakeholders and the review of several relevant secondary sources. The outcomes of the research illustrate that pilgrimage tourism has been extremely affected by coronavirus and lock-down causing multiple effects on social creation, economic and holy activities, and daily lives of the monks and nuns in Lumbini.</p> Bhim Bahadur Kunwar Copyright (c) 2021 Bhim Bahadur Kunwar Sun, 07 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Adventure Tourism in Nepal Himalayas: Environmental Effects <p>Nepal is known as an ideal destination for adventure tourism with its diverse natural attractions and cultural heritage. However, The Nepali Himalayas is highly vulnerable to human influenced change, occurring at local and national scales. The objective of this manuscript is to assess the overall situation of the adventure tourism activities in the Nepali Himalayas and various environmental effects related to it. The methodology will be literature review with an evaluation of the findings. The collected data from publications of the Nepal Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation is organized and analyzed in a descriptive way where some of the data were presented in tabular form using a simple statistical tool. At the end, the manuscript will suggest the establishment of educational programs focused on different target groups and essential policy measures for local stakeholders and governmental bodies to reduce adverse environmental impacts of adventure travels.</p> Ruhet Genç Copyright (c) 2021 Ruhet Genç Sun, 07 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Sharia Compliance Implementation Among Hoteliers in Klang Valley, Malaysia <p>Sharia compliance hotel has been created to cater to Muslim guests as demand and awareness for Islamic products and services increased. This innovative development can be found in countries where Muslim residents are the majority like Malaysia and Indonesia. However, there is a limited of study on the sharia compliance hotel acceptance among hoteliers particularly in Malaysia. Thus, the main purpose of the study is to examine the factors that contribute to the acceptance of sharia compliance hotel concept implementation among hoteliers. This study focuses on the middle management level employees in 3-5 star hotel situated in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Drawing from Theory of Planned Behaviour, the specific research objectives are three-fold: 1) to examine the relationship between attitude and sharia compliance hotel acceptance, 2) to investigate the relationship between subjective norm and sharia compliance hotel acceptance, and 3) to examine the relationship between perceived behavioural control and sharia compliance hotel acceptance. The study utilized quantitative research approach to achieve the stated research objectives. For data collection, a self-administered questionnaire was deployed which was developed based on previous studies. For the purpose of the study, the data collection was conducted in fifteen hotels in the Klang Valley that include hotels in Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Putrajaya and Cyberjaya. The results verified hotelier’s attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control are salient attributes of sharia compliance hotel acceptance in the hotel industry. The research model based on the theory of planned behavior managed to explain more than 60 per cent of the variance in sharia compliance hotel acceptance.</p> Adib Mohd, Azlizam Aziz, Siti Suriawati Isa Copyright (c) 2021 Adib Mohd, Azlizam Aziz, Siti Suriawati Isa Sun, 07 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Measuring Cultural Diversity Impact in Hospitality Industry Leadership: Managerial Communication Perspective from Five Star Hotels in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal <p>This study aims to measure the cultural diversity impacts in hospitality industry leadership from the perspective of managerial communication. Data were obtained from all the 10 five star hotels in Kathmandu valley. 167 respondents were sampled from the managers of five star hotels in Kathmandu valley, Nepal using structured questionnaire. Data analysis is made using descriptive analysis and Leadership Practices Index measured through dimension suggested by GLOBE Model. The study found out that maximum majority (48.48%) employees were the residents of Bagmati Province itself. For effective functioning of any organization workplace communication plays crucial role. Though numerous challenges are faced by employees working in hospitality industries in terms of communication 96% of respondents believed that managerial communication problem could be overcome if better tactics were used. Upon responding the importance of communication in workplace 54.76% employees stated that effective communication would help managers to set goals and targets for attaining objective of the hotel or their department followed by its importance at the time of serving guests and working in team while coordinating. Likewise, 41.07% feels that effective communication makes employees feel secure and helps to achieve targets. Also, 40.48% feel easy to work in team with the help of effective communication. 19.05% thinks through effective communication exchanging necessary ideas become easier. Communication leadership scale suggested by GLOBE model shows the maximum number of leaders are performance oriented i.e., 83.03% whereas assertiveness, Power Distance and in-group collectivism are the least but still above the 50%, which shows the leader still maintain power distance, least in-group collectivism. Hence, based on the findings of the study, the study concluded that managerial communication skills impact in hospitality business for its growth and maximization. This original study is crucial for hotels, government agencies and prospective employees of hospitality sector of Nepal and worldwide at large.</p> Udaya Raj Paudel, Sudip Puri, Seeprata Parajuli, Niranjan Devkota, Udbodh Bhandari Copyright (c) 2021 Udaya Raj Paudel, Sudip Puri, Seeprata Parajuli, Niranjan Devkota, Udbodh Bhandari Sun, 07 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Extreme Sport: Understanding the Concept, Recognizing the Value <p>Extreme sport is one of the fastest-growing areas in sporting activity in this century. Extreme sport appears to be used interchangeably with high-risk sport in much of the research literature. Both high-risk sport and extreme sport are defined as any sport where one has to accept a possibility of severe injury or death as an inherent part of the activity. Extreme sports are rapidly becoming the physical activity of choice. Extreme sports have diffused around the world at a phenomenal rate and far faster than established sports. Commercially, extreme is the password for corporations and advertisers to access young population. Extreme sports increasingly attract participants from different social classes and age groups, as well as females and minority groups. The extreme sport comprises tourist activities, therapeutic activities, recreational activities, and sporting activities. They have become a sporting spectacle. Extreme sports are even discussed in marketing (niche market), management, and policy literature as legitimate niches that require their peculiar understanding or inappropriate activities that need to be banned. Adventure and risk-taking sports such as mountaineering, whitewater rafting, surfing, skiing, skydiving, downhill mountain biking, rock climbing, and BASE (Building, Antenna (or Aerial), Span (i.e., bridge), Earth (cliffs or other rock formations)) have increased in popularity in recent years. This study is an overview of previous studies carried out by eminent scholars of psychology and different disciplines. The objective of this study is to understand extreme sport in better way on one side and how extreme (or adventurous) sport has been theoretically conceptualized and re-conceptualized on the other. The researcher made an effort to disseminate the knowledge of extreme sports to the students, researchers, entrepreneurs, media personnel, and other concerned authorities, related organizations, and institutions. It is also believed that this study will help to promote adventure education, adventure tourism (niche tourism) and deep ecology. The participants strongly believe that the natural world acts as a facilitator to a deeper, more positive understanding of self and its place in the environment. Fear, emotion, stress, risk, uncertainty, motivation, wellness, wellbeing, personality traits and determination are the key elements of extreme sports.</p> Ramesh Raj Kunwar Copyright (c) 2021 Ramesh Raj Kunwar Sun, 07 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000