Journal of Research and Development <p>The Journal of Research and Development (JRDN) is an annual publication of Research and Development Nepal (RDN), Dhankuta; Province-1, Nepal.</p> Research and Development Nepal (RDN) Dhankuta en-US Journal of Research and Development 2616-0366 Professional Identity and Struggles of Basic Level English Teacher: A Critical Narrative Inquiry <p>Professional development is a continuous process of learning to empower professional competency and enable teachers to be strong and competent in their professional career. The study critically explores the struggles and professional activities of basic level English teachers in professional development. Critical narrative inquiry has been used in relation to long lived experiences of a participant with a semi – structured telephonic interview. The participant narrates three distinct phases of experiences in teaching profession. The result revealed that participant was innately interested in teaching profession before involvement. But the situated school system discouraged his ideology of teaching profession even he determined to continue his profession involving in different seminars, workshop and study. However, the study further suggests that there is lack of innovating teaching profession from critical perspectives focusing the interactive and transformative environment in classroom. Therefore, the basic level teachers need to re- examine and re – construct the professional activities to address the need, interest and level of learners. Similarly, the study contributes to apply language teaching activities in terms of transformative mood rather than structured model of teaching empowering teachers as an agency.</p> Debraj Karki Copyright (c) 2021 Research and Development Nepal 2021-09-23 2021-09-23 4 3 1 11 10.3126/jrdn.v4i3.39945 Key Areas to Economic Takeoff from Demographic Dividend: A Case of Nepal <p>Rapid demographic change in the context of age structure and basic demographic indicators have created opportunity to accelerate economic growth and development in Nepal. At the time of favorable demographic context, it is required to qualify and mobilize currently existing large volume of active years population to fulfill the mission of sustained economic development. For this, it is necessary to invest on health, education, infrastructure along with creating employment opportunities but such opportunity period is missing out due low attention on social, economic, political and cultural sectors, which may misfortune for Nepal. Focusing on the key areas of economic take off in the declined fertility context, this paper reviews literature related to reaping demographic dividend. Based on secondary data from journal articles, census and Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) results, descriptive and content analysis method is applied. National Census data from Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) and Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) is taken as reference and some estimation from United Nations (UN) are also taken as requirement. To identify vital areas and situation to support economic take off and support to formulate and implement proper future population policy in Nepal are the main objectives of this article. Coping with socio-economic challenges need to focus on primary area of social development like education, productivity of labor, proper use of remittance to economic take off. Need to open gate for secondary demographic dividend with appropriate policy formulation in the recent context.</p> Kewal Ram Parajuli Copyright (c) 2021 Research and Development Nepal 2021-09-23 2021-09-23 4 3 12 21 10.3126/jrdn.v4i3.39947 Knowledge on Childhood Dental Caries Among Parents of Under Five Children in A Community at Biratnagar, Nepal <p>Dental caries is a major public health problem globally and is one of the most chronic diseases in children. Children are susceptible to caries as soon as the first teeth appear. Parents are the primary decision-makers in matters of children's healthcare. If the parents are knowledgeable about the child's oral health care then childhood dental caries can be prevented. The objective of this study was to identify the knowledge on childhood dental caries among parents of under five children. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out among parents of under five children in a community of Biratnagar 12. Sample was selected using non probability purposive sampling method and data was collected by face-to-face interview using a self-developed, semi-structured interview guideline. Descriptive statistics i.e. frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation was used to assess the level of knowledge and inferential statistics i.e chi square was used to find the association between dependent and independent variables. About three fourths (71%) of the parents were of age group 20-30 years and 88% of them were mothers. Most of the parents (90%) were aware that dental caries can occur in under five children and excessive sugar intake was the most common cause as reported by all of them. Only 40% knew that dental caries is transmissible and among them 97.6% responded by sharing of toothbrush. Regarding good brushing habit, most of the parents were aware. Almost all (95%) knew that proper tooth brushing helps to prevent dental caries whereas only 19% were aware about use of fluoridated tooth paste as preventive measures. Meanwhile, only 12% of the parents were aware that first dental visit should be done when first tooth erupts or within 1 year of age More than half (79%) had good knowledge on childhood dental caries but there was no association of knowledge with socio-demographic variables. The study concluded that more than half of the respondents had good knowledge on childhood dental caries and none of the socio-demographic variables were associated with the level of knowledge of parents on dental caries. Despite good knowledge, prevalence of childhood dental caries is high in our society thus reflecting the need to assess the practice of dental care.</p> Sarmila Pradhan Deepika Khadgi Namita Yengden Karishma Khadgi Copyright (c) 2021 Research and Development Nepal 2021-09-23 2021-09-23 4 3 22 31 10.3126/jrdn.v4i3.39954 Antecedent of Consumer Impulsive Buying Behavior: A perspective of Developing Nation <p>Impulsive buying concerns the unplanned decision made by consumers before buying any items. Recognizing the factors that influence consumer’s impulsive buying behavior aids retail stores to understand consumer’s decision-making process and accordingly help them design and develop courses of action. However, few studies have only been conducted in this area in context of developing nation. The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that influence impulsive buying behavior and the vital factor amongst them. After collecting 141 valid responses, the study validated the proposed conceptual model using structural equation model. AMOS 26 was used to analyze the data. Data were analyzed in two-fold: Measurement model and structural model. Three items were covaried to reach the optimal model fit revealing hedonic value and shopping enjoyment significant influence on impulsive buying. This research contributes to the knowledge about the relationship among hedonic value, marketing stimuli, shopping enjoyment and social interaction with impulsive buying behavior.</p> Ugdam Mishra Copyright (c) 2021 Research and Development Nepal 2021-09-23 2021-09-23 4 3 32 42 10.3126/jrdn.v4i3.39955 The Perception of the Teachers Towards Virtual Class and Obstacles During Covid-19 Lockdown Phase <p>Virtual class uses computer software and internet to deliver instruction to the students. This eliminates needs for teachers and students to share the physical classroom. Virtual learning is an emerging educational paradigm which is transforming the way students learn. However, this virgin field of research has not been studied rigorously in the context of Nepal. Considering this, the research was carried out to identify the perception of the teacher of Bhojpur Multiple Campus towards virtual class during COVID-19 lockdown phase. The research adopted quantitative design which is based on the teachers who were involved in virtual teaching during COVID-19 lockdown phase. The study applied non-random purposive sampling process to select the sample for gathering data. The researcher found out that the teachers had the positive perception towards virtual class as 68% teachers agreed with the statement that virtual class is suitable solution during COVID-19 lockdown phase because it saves time and effort. The study may contribute to the educators and the teachers who are thinking to formulate policy for applying virtual class during luck down phase when pandemic is overwhelmed across the country like COVID-19.</p> Uttam Sing Rai Hom Bahadur Basnet Copyright (c) 2021 Research and Development Nepal 2021-09-23 2021-09-23 4 3 43 58 10.3126/jrdn.v4i3.39956