Journal of Research and Development <p>The Journal of Research and Development (JRDN) is an annual publication of Research and Development Nepal (RDN), Dhankuta; Province-1, Nepal.</p> en-US (Prof. Dr. Gopal Bahadur Bhattarai) (Sioux Cumming) Mon, 12 Dec 2022 16:36:27 +0000 OJS 60 Knowledge on Hepatitis B among Secondary Level Students at Birtamode, Jhapa <p>Hepatitis B is a silent epidemic as it is a potentially life-threatening liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and a major global health problem. The aim of this study was to assess the level of knowledge on hepatitis B among secondary level students at Birtamode, Jhapa. Descriptive cross-sectional research design was used. Non-Probability purposive proportionate sampling technique was used. Total sample size was 166 respondents. Self-developed, self-administered and semi-structured questionnaire was used for collecting a data. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used for analyzing the study. The findings of the study showed that the mean age of respondents was 14.52 years in which 57.8% were male. Similarly, 55.4% students were from grade 9 and 44.6% were from grade 10. Almost all (93.4%) of respondents mentioned book as major source of information. Among the studied respondents, 12.6% had good knowledge, 47% had fair knowledge and 40.4% had poor knowledge on hepatitis B. The level of knowledge was associated with study grade of respondents (p=0.007). The study concludes that fair level of knowledge regarding hepatitis B among respondents and level of knowledge was significant with study grade and almost of respondents gained information from book.</p> Babita Khadka, Saraswati Basnet Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 12 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Mothers’ Awareness on Prevention of Home Accidents among Children in a Community <p>Children are at risk for injury because of their normal curiosity, impulsiveness, andesine to master new skills and imitate adult behavior from an early age. Injuries are the first leading but predictable, avoidable and preventable cause of morbidity and mortality among under-five-year-old children worldwide. The objective of the study was to find out the Mothers’ awareness on prevention of home accidents among children in a community. A descriptive cross sectional research design was applied. Study was conducted in community of ward number 8 at Mahalaxmi municipality in Lalitpur district. No probability, purposive sampling technique was used to select 92 mothers of under than five children. Semi structured interview schedule was used to collect the data. The data was entered in SPSS 16 version and was analyzed by both descriptive statistics like frequency, percentage, mean, median, standard deviation and inferential statistics i.e. Chi-Square test. The finding of the study revealed that more than half (58.7%) respondents had good awareness and nearly half (41.3 %) had average awareness on home accidents. This study also showed that the type of family of respondents was significantly associated with level of awareness of respondents (p =0.020). Most of the respondents (83.7%) knew about prevention of home accidents from radio. This study concluded that about half of the mothers had average awareness on prevention of home accidents among children. So, education programmes to mothers of under five children to enhance their knowledge and increase awareness on accident prevention measures through mass media is needful.</p> Bhagawaty Kalikotay, Rabina Rijal Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 12 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Article on Impact of Good Governance on School Performance of Nepal <p>This article deals with the impact of good governance on school performance in Nepal. Good governance and its impacts on school performance is a burning as well as searching issue in the field of the educational sector of Nepal. The purpose is to explore and to discuss the findings of the impact of good governance on school performance through critical analysis of the literature review. This article is based entirely on the secondary sources. The finding of the study is that the good governance practices play the significant role in school performance in Nepal. Further, other major findings of this review include low school performance, less participation of stakeholders, lack of transparency and accountability, and corruption in the education sector. The reason for the low performance of schools in Nepal is the lack of good governance. If we adopt good governance practice in education, we can easily ensure/achieve a better school; better performance is the implications of this literature review.</p> Bimal Nepal Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 12 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Antenatal and Postnatal Care among Women of the Danuwar Community at Panchkhal <p>Antenatal and postnatal care of mother is so important for the health of mother as well as the baby. Antenatal and postnatal care services are amongst the recommended interventions aimed at preventing maternal and newborn deaths worldwide. The objective of this research study was to assess the antenatal and postnatal care and practice of the Danuwar community at Panchkhal. This study was conducted in Panchkhal ward no 8, Pipaltar, Kavre. A descriptive study design was used for the study. There were total 198households in Pipaltar ward no eight. 50 percent households (99 households) were taken through simple random sampling procedure. The respondents were married Danuwar women aged from 15-49 either pregnant or having children. Only one respondent was taken from each sample household. Interview schedule were used to collect the data. The finding of the study revealed that majority of the respondents (66.67%) women had health checked up during pregnancy. Rest of them had not checked up health because of lack of knowledge, shyness and lack of time. Most of the pregnant women faced vomiting, abdominal pain, weakness, bleeding, backache, tiredness health complication during the period of pregnancy. Most of the pregnant women (68.69%) had taken T.T. injection and normal diet during pregnancy. Almost (92.93%) women were kept at unsafe places after delivery because of the custom and most of the Danuwar women (97.98%) had no practice of going to health center for health check-up after delivery. Almost all of the Danuwar women consumed ‘Juwano’ soup, meat, ghee in the period of postnatal (within 6 weeks after delivery).</p> Bishnumani Kafle Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 12 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Understanding the Nepali Classroom Practices: A Constructivist Perspective <p>This article concerns pedagogical practices of schools to meet objectives of the curriculum and provide learning experiences to the students. This article aims to explore teachers’ ways of carrying out classroom practices and to locate how the constructivist perspective could foster wider learning experiences of learners. We conducted an ethnographic field study - in one of the schools located in Ithaki Sub-metropolitan, Sunsari district – which involves a three-day visit to the school and continuous observation of a particular class to generate the data. Theoretically, this paper focuses on the constructivist perspective to understand the classroom practices of school teachers and locate them to conceptualize the school pedagogy. We highlight that the current school practice, the school teachers are adopting, is a traditionally dominant approach that strongly upholds “the jug to the mug concept” – the teacher as a jug that pours knowledge and information as a form of water to an empty mug as a student. We argue that teachers' traditionally based classroom practice is one of the responsible factors for not shifting Nepalese classroom practices into student-centered or reciprocal classroom practices that embrace the constructivist paradigm. This paper unveils teacher-student power-relations, which is fueling to promote the traditionally focused classroom practices that undermine the possibility of multiplicity in knowledge construction.</p> Devi Prasad Bhattarai, Hom Bahadur Basnet Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 12 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Interrelationship between the Use of New Agricultural Inputs and Socio-economic Factors <p>This paper deals with interrelationship between the use of new agricultural technology and socio-economic factors in Dhankuta municipality, eastern hills of Nepal. This area offers a lot of resources; here the researcher examines the role of socio-economic factors to diffuse new technology in this area too. Relevant data were obtained from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data were collected from the interview, key informant survey and field observation. For this, approximately 33 percent sample households (166hhs) were selected out of total 506 households from ward no. 3 of the municipality. Similarly, secondary data were gathered from various books, journals and official records. To identify the mutual relationship between these components, mathematical tools chi-square test and Karl Pearson's correlation were performed. The study reveals that there is a close relationship between the use of new agricultural inputs and socio-economic factors of the study area. The relationship seems highly significant between age, training, farm size, service of agriculture service center and membership of farmers in organization and adoption of new agricultural technologies however; the inter-connection with sex, ethnicity and education of the farmers reveals less significant among these factors. Nowadays, more than 78 percent (130hhs) farmers are using such inputs in the study area and the remarkable change in crop production can easily be seen due to the impact such innovations.</p> Shyam Prasad Wagle Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 12 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation on Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries <p>Solid waste is global problem relating to environment, society and economics. Waste management is challenging issue as the quantity has been increasing with increase of population, urbanization and economic status. Some dozens of printed and online published books, journals, dissertations, website of agencies etc. were reviewed and by making outline and following guideline this article was prepared. It is found that the waste production varies from 0.25Kg to 1.38 Kg per capita per day in developing countries. In south South American countries it was recorded 1.07 Kg/capita/day, in Asian countries 0.4 to 1.62Kg/capita/day and in African region it was found 0.49 Kg/capita/day of waste production. The waste contains mostly biodegradable (50% to 80%). The collection system was very poor and from rural area only 10% to 20% waste and in urban area 44% to 90% of total produced waste was carried to collecting and management system. The common waste management’s adopted in developing countries were open dumping, landfill site, composting, incineration and open burning etc. From 18% to 92% of waste were found to dumping. In east pacific region 46% and in American countries 68.5% of total waste was carried to landfill site. The use of incinerator is scarcely found. Only in few countries well managed composting plants could be observed. Some landfill sites and incinerating plant shave generated electricity, biogas, brickets etc. Some pointed research gaps in this field are waste management and biodiversity, medicinal and hazardous waste management, vermicomposting etc. It can be recommended that for the waste management public awareness, participation of locals, application of reduction, reuse and recycling concept, waste management inside house premise, modernization and scientific management of solid wastes. Further researches are needed in different aspects of waste and management for the complete solution.</p> Ram Chandra Adhikari Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 12 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000