Journal of Science and Engineering 2019-05-08T18:09:58+00:00 Prof. Dr. Jatadhar Jha Open Journal Systems <p>The Journal of Science and Engineering (JScE) is a refereed journal to serve the interests of Professionals, academics and research organizations working in the field of science and engineering. It is published by the Khwopa Engineering College and Khwopa College of Engineering, Bhaktapur, Nepal</p> A Balanced Geological Cross-Section along Kohalpur – Surkhet Area of Sub-Himalayan Range, Mid-Western Nepal 2019-05-08T18:09:58+00:00 Nirmal Kafle Lelin Raj Dhungel Kamala Kanta Acharya Megh Raj Dhital <p>The Sub-Himalayans Zone comprises a tectonic wedge of syn-orogenic sediments along the outer Himalayan Belt. Sediments are integrated into the accretionary prism from the foreland Indo-Gangetic plain, undergo a tectonic cycle within it, and eventually are eroded. The structural sketch map unveils westward-plunging arcuate structures on the leading location of the Outer Belt. A balanced cross-section has been constructed across the Sub-Himalayan Hills of the Kohalpur-Surkhet region of mid-western Nepal in order to determine the structural geometry of the region and to calculate tectonic shortening. The mid-western Nepal Sub-Himalaya has an emergent splay fan geometry with no major prevailing thrust contains the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT), the Bheri Thrust, the Babai Thrust and the Main frontal Thrust (MFT) which are all imbricate of the main decollment which ramp up-section through the 5 km thick tectonic sedimentary prism. North-south shortening across the mid-western Nepal, Kohalpur-Surkhet section has been approximately 29 km, or 55% shortening.</p> 2019-05-03T07:37:07+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of the Socio-Economic Status of Apartments in Kathmandu Valley 2019-05-03T11:43:14+00:00 Archana Bade Shrestha <p>Nepal is urbanising at a rapid pace. According to CBS 2011 the urban population accounts for 17% and Kathmandu valley shares the highest urban population. The growing population has put immense pressure on land and housing situation in Kathmandu Valley. Apartments came into picture to accommodate the growing population in the less horizontal space of land but all income groups of people could not afford and access to the facilities and space provided in the apartments.</p> <p>&nbsp;The current scenario in Kathmandu valley depicts that the developers make investments in construction of apartments as a commercial activity rather than to upgrade housing scenario. Despite, due to the high interest rate, formal collateral in the form of land and house and high income of people to repay loans preferred by commercial banks, the economically weaker section and lower income group of people are not eligible to proceed for the loan. The high cost of Apartment units is beyond affordability of EWS and LIG.</p> <p>The rapid increment of population concentration on primate cities like Kathmandu has led to scarcity of land to accommodate the increasing migrants and not only that, it has resulted in the unhygienic condition of living, suffocating and deteriorating urban environment. As a result, the high income group are moving in the urban fringe and it’s always the poor who are trapped in the vulnerable core cities of Kathmandu. The residential shift of rich people to urban fringe has led to the adhoc development with social disparity and inequity amongst the people living in the same areas.</p> 2019-05-03T07:49:19+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Earthquake Risk Management on a Community Level - A Case Study of Bhaktapur Durbar Square 2019-05-03T11:43:16+00:00 Libas Phaiju Rameswor Shrestha Suraj Shah <p>Earthquake is a natural hazard which when it happens turn out to be disaster that kill thousands of people and cause devastation of cities and villages within 30-60 seconds. Natural disaster may cause large economic impact and impeded socioeconomic development. Virtually the entire population of Nepal is at risk of natural hazards. Earthquake interrupts the proper functioning of the community causing socio-cultural and economic imbalances and losses which results very hard situation to sustain life with available resources. Due to its location on a tectonic active zone Nepal has a long history of earthquake activities of smaller and greater&nbsp;magnitude which are an inevitable part of Kathmandu valley as well. The Statement of problem in research (based on field survey 2067) was about different socio-economic and development activities induced by people or community which made their buildings and places defenceless during natural hazard like earthquake. The research focused on earthquake risk and its management at community level by identifying, analysing and mitigating the vulnerability of the people, place and buildings at Bhaktapur Durbar Square area through physical and social vulnerability studies and was limited to study of earthquake risk management through rapid visual assessment and analysis. The study area that lies in the world heritage site is vulnerable to earthquake risk not only due to different socio economic and development activities but also due to inaction from concerned authorities. So; the earthquake risk can be mitigated through community level earthquake risk management as it is the most effective and sustainable.</p> 2019-05-03T09:13:19+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Handling Pattern of Pesticides in Vegetables: A Case Study of Bhaktapur 2019-05-03T11:43:18+00:00 Naba Raj Budhathoki Pushpa Raj Acharya Dhruva Karki <p>This research work explores handling practices of pesticides used in vegetables on the part of farmers in Bhaktapur. Specifically, it attempts to investigate the contribution of pesticides applicators to overall mishandling of pesticides. Data for this work were collected in 2018 from four locations of Bhaktapur. Primary data were collected from 123 vegetable farmers and direct observation of 42 vegetable farms based in the selected zones using questionnaire. Discussions with experts and pilot study with farmers were conducted to improve the questionnaire and provide factual data. Frequency distributions, Means, Chi-square tests were utilised for data analysis. The results of the study show that vegetable farmers were applying pesticides, without caring much about the others, in vegetable production. They frequently depended upon local sellers and neighbours to choose the best pesticide to apply. On average, pesticide handling practices at any point seemed inappropriate. Factors that influence farmers' handling practices include education, training and practical consciousness. The study indicated that vegetable farm women have higher level of exposure of pesticide risking a long term health impacts. The results of the study underscore the need of educational interventions for promoting safety during each step of pesticide handling and the responsibility of the farmers towards the society.</p> 2019-05-03T09:30:38+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Land Readjustment for Regularization of Informal Settlements 2019-05-03T11:43:19+00:00 Robina Manandhar <p>Regularization of informal settlements involves the process of legalization of tenure and upgrading of public services and infrastructures through land development. However, some settlement manages to get the services from formal authorities but lags legal tenure security. Legalization of tenure security is important so as to reduce their threat of eviction from formal authorities and improvement of their living standard. Various land development tools involves upgrading of public services and development of infrastructures but legalization of&nbsp;tenure security is left behind. Land development and legalization of tenure security both are the important components for regularization of informal settlements and recognize as formal settlements. Land readjustment is the tool or technique commonly used for the land development in Nepal. Thus this paper aims to indentify the applicability of land readjustment in regularization of informal settlement. In Nepal, there are prominent numbers of informal settlements along the river banks and also in urban core areas. Chadani tole along the Bagmati River is taken as a case study and analysis of applicability of land readjustment under the social and legal condition for regularization is carried out.</p> <p>This research has adopted both desk research and case study methodology. Qualitative and quantitative data analysis is adopted in this study. The results of research reveal that public participation and long term occupancy are the social positive aspects for the application of LR in informal settlements. Lack of land registration, legal&nbsp;recognition and development regulations are the legal hurdles for the application of LR in informal settlements. Land registration of informal settlement has not been done in Nepal which is important aspect for application of LR. Thus land registration of Nepal should include the components of STDM for the pro poor land registration and recognition of social tenure to informal settlements. Applicability of LR is difficult due to the lack of sufficient area. So to address the issue and ascertain the rights of dwellers to live in the same area, high rise apartments can be adopted.</p> 2019-05-03T09:56:06+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mapping Health Opportunity: A Case Study of Dortmund, Germany 2019-05-03T11:43:21+00:00 Sushma Bajracharya <p>Health being one of the most important aspects of life, people are much concerned about their health. Because people value their health, today cities are planned considering the health and environment for providing good quality of life. Many studies have shown different effects in health due to interaction with environment. As socioeconomic, environmental and cultural conditions may vary from place to place, people living in different areas in the cities can have different health outcomes. Also, people's perception of such neighborhood conditions can vary which can influence their health. There can be different resources in and around the neighborhood that provide opportunity for its people to perform different health-benefitting activities. Such physical features can be termed as health-related resources or in other words health opportunities.</p> <p>This study was conducted in two different type of neighborhoods in Dortmund, Nordstadt being deprived and&nbsp;Kreuzviertel being affluent. To know which locations people, consider as good or bad for their health, participants who agreed to take part in questionnaire survey were directly asked to point out the places they use and avoid for health-related activities. This study found out different types of health opportunities identified by&nbsp;respondents in Nordstadt and Kreuzviertel. Respondents from Nordstadt mentioned health opportunities inside and outside their neighborhood whereas in Kreuzviertel health opportunities were pointed outside the neighborhood. The information about people's perception on local neighborhood can be taken as useful insights for planners and decision-makers to plan development programs. The research provides an opportunity to formulate policies that address main problems acting as barriers so that people can get maximum benefits from health opportunities. To find out detailed explanations for differences between actual and perceived environmental situation, more in-depth research is needed.</p> 2019-05-03T10:14:56+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Current Status of Physicochemical Parameters and Water Quality of Sundarijal Reservoir 2019-05-03T11:43:22+00:00 Ram Prasad Dhungana <p>Physico-chemical parameters and bacteriological characteristics of water were studied in sample collected from Sundarijal reservoir in January 2018. The present sanitary condition and human activities near the water bodies were also observed. It has been found that the physico-chemical characters were within the standard of World Health Organization (WHO) and National Drinking Water Quality Standards (NDWQS) for drinking water though the public awareness and proper management of watershed and reservoir premises were lacking. However, the coliform bacteria were high and water was not safe to consume without intense treatments with disinfectants.</p> 2019-05-03T10:27:08+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Towards Food Security through Artificial Neural Network 2019-05-03T11:43:23+00:00 Pratibha Phaiju <p>The detection of plant disease is a very important factor to prevent serious outbreak. The Outbreak of disease in paddy plant could cause severe losses in yield leading to insecurity of food security. To achieve automatic diagnosis of paddy disease this research aims to develop a system for detection of Blast disease in paddy leaf. The disease identification is achieved through Image Processing technique and Back Propagation Neural Network. Features of images are extracted through binning pixels into eight Attribute Bins. Training of Neural Network is achieved by feed forwarding these features to neural network. The error generated is back propagated in order to adjust the weights of neural network. Images of the diseased leaves are identified with accuracy. Thus fast and accurate diagnosis of paddy disease could timely control outbreak leading the path towards ensuring&nbsp;food security. This research could be enhanced through implementation of Deep Learning Neural Network, further contributing the Smart Agriculture.</p> 2019-05-03T10:41:18+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##