Journal of Tourism and Himalayan Adventures <p>The Journal of Tourism and Himalayan Adventures is an international research journal of the Nepal Mountain Academy, Thapa Gaun, Bijulibazar, Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> en-US (Prof. Ramesh K. Bajracharya) (Sioux Cumming) Tue, 19 Jul 2022 10:26:36 +0000 OJS 60 Chasing Performance of Protected Area Management in Nepal <p>Nepal represents a unique biodiversity which is associated with higher topographic variation and regional climate. The landscape 60 m above sea level reaching its maximum elevation up to 8.8 kilometers, strong monsoon system entering from south east of Nepal and westerly entering from the west contribute to considerable variety of life forms in the relatively smaller land area. The rich biodiversity not only forms the part of many ecological systems in the region but also provides varieties of ecosystem service in the region. Realizing the efficacy of conservation of biological and natural resources, the early conservation efforts were initiated in Nepal in the early 1970s when the concept of Protected Area (PAs) was in its rudimentary stage. Since then PA management achieved its greater heights in Nepal marching to include 30% land area of Nepal under PAs, which is perfectly following AICHI Target of 2030. In this communication, we have accessed the achievements and lapses in PAs management in Nepal. It is claimed the considerable increase in land areas and types of protected areas, and visible lapses in PAs management. Basically, it is very critical to pinpoint biodiversity hotspots and species endemism before setting aside protected areas for conservation. It emphasizes that it has been a high time to initiate the conservation of several small protected areas in order to complement the existing single large protected area system. Further, I recommend the equal conservation consciousness for areas outside conservation areas in Nepal with more focus on educating people for caring Mother Nature.</p> Achyut Tiwari Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Mountain Academy Tue, 19 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Possibility and Development of Ski and Winter Adventure Tourism in Nepal Himalaya: Insights from Mera Peak <p>Adventure tourism is one of the main attractions in Nepal, however, ski and winter tourism are not famous yet. Therefore, this study carried out research on the possibility and development of ski adventure tourism in the favor of winter tourism. The Mera peak area has been selected as the study area, which is located in the Hinku Valley, Solukhumbu, at 6470-meter above sea level. This study used Remote Sensing approaches, a walk survey and photography, and conducted 27 Key Informant Interview (KII) to screen the possibility and development of the ski and winter tourism. Global Positioning System (GPS), Geographic Information System (GIS), and Satellite Images via Google Earth have been applied for route and ski sites mapping. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data (12.5 m resolution) has been used for DEM, slope, hillshade, and contour analysis. Mann-Kendall trend test and Sen’s slope was applied to determine the climatic trend of the region. The study explored detailed route and ski sites of the Mera peak area and identified it as one of the potential areas for skiing in Nepal. There were not noticiable risk factors for skiing except climate change and minor crevasses. There are several destinations for ski activities in Nepal, which would promote winter tourism in the country. The study uncovered that there have been increasing rates of temperature and decreasing rates of precipitation in the mountain region of Nepal. These climatic factors added some level of risk for a ski industry in the region because increasing trends of temperature result in high rates of snow ablation. The findings of this research will greatly help to promote ski and winter tourism in Nepal, and it will be one of the base documents for developing ski- related policy by the government of Nepal and will be useful for further academic and scientific research in Nepal.</p> Basanta Paudel, Tshiring Jangbu Sherpa, Bijaya Thapa, Sewika Thapa Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Mountain Academy Tue, 19 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Lake Bathymetry, Morphometry and Hydrochemistry of Gosaikunda and Associated Lake <p>Gosaikunda and Bhairabkunda are two largest lakes among dozens of lakes in the upper Ghattekhola watershed of Trisuli River in Nepal. Although being important high-altitude Ramsar site from Nepal, a detailed inventory that includes essential information on their hydrological, physical, chemical, and biological characteristics and human interactions are missing. We conducted an inventory of the lakes in the watershed in the previous study and in this study; we present the Lake Bathymetry, morphometric characteristics and hydrochemistry following recent methodologies. The Gosaikunda and Bhairbakunda have the maximum depth of 26.5 m and 59.1 m with area of 13.3 and 16 ha, respectively. The study supports to establish a reference site for exploring scientific evidence on the impacts of anthropogenic and climate change on lake hydrological systems in the future.</p> Basudev Neupane, Sudeep Thakuri, Nabin Gurung, Aavash Aryal, Bidhan Bhandari, Kribina Pathak Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Mountain Academy Tue, 19 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Moving Yak Herds towards Tourism: A Linkage between Yak and Eco- Tourism in the High Mountains of East on Nepal <p>This paper is study about the intersection between yak herding and tourism. The main focus is on how the concepts of yak festival and <em>gothstay </em>are transforming the conventional notion of animal husbandry, in particular yak herding, in the eastern high mountain region of Nepal. It is based on ethnographic study among the yak and <em>urang </em>herders in the region. Triangulation methods i.e., observation, interview, household survey and GIS were used. The yak festival and the concept of <em>gothstay </em>are giving new meaning, value and symbol – something different from the customary usage – to yak and yak herding. The concept of yak-tourism is not only a connection of yak and yak herding with tourism, but also gendering of the yak through language, image and form in public spaces. Thus, the rational, instrumental and conventional way of describing of yak is not sufficient in the context of livestock tourism. Moreover, the concept of <em>gothstay </em>is transforming the traditional notion of <em>goth</em>; i.e., from herders’ place to touristic site for learning about Himalayan pastoral culture and lifestyle. It would be a potential alternative of livelihood source for the Himalayan herders who have very limited options for making a living.</p> Jiban Mani Poudel, Sanjeev Paudyal, Shova Shiwakoti, Sandhya Gurung Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Mountain Academy Tue, 19 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Strengthening Prosperity and Peace through Code of Ethics Embedded Responsible Tourism: How Far It Works for Trekking Porters (deprived workforce) in Nepal? <p>In addition to pledging economic prosperity, the existing body of knowledge reveals that tourism can bring and accelerate peace. The trek/tour operators can play an important role in this process through the application Code of Ethics (CoE) embedded responsible tourism. However, trekking porters' case in Nepal is not only under researched but also against the above set assumption. In this context, the key focuses of this article is to assess the existing CoE embedded responsible tourism policies and practices and examine the key items related with porters' portering profession.</p> <p>Methodologically, this research has utilized mixed information (qualitative and quantitative). Within the constructivist research paradigm, forty trek operators which employee trekking porters, were surveyed. Additionally, seven trekking porters (as the center actor of this research) and few leaders of tourism workers' unions were also interviewed. The findings reveal that CoEs emerge as valuable basis for assuring prosperity and peace. It finds improvements on key measuring items like porters' minimum wages, carrying loads, safety gears and clothes, and emergency evacuation in the management of trek operators but with sporadic lapses too. The existing tourism policies and strategies are found highlighting the need of CoEs but silent on the nitty-gritty of such ethics. This paper recommends for recruitments of all porters' through policy led establishment of a national Porter Referral Center (PRC) and all jobs assignments through mandatory job contracts. Finally, it necessitates for both ethics and regulation to go hand in hand for making tourism a true peace builder.</p> Pranil Kumar Upadhayaya, Sudhir Maharjan, Babin Shrestha Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Mountain Academy Tue, 19 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Sensitivity of High-altitude Sickness and Death with Meteorological Variables: A Case Study of Khumbu Everest Region in Nepal <p>Many people travel to high altitudes for different purposes, mainly for trekking and expeditions. They may experience high altitude sickness and harsh weather conditions. Therefore, information on weather conditions before any travel is crucial for safety. Altitude sickness normally starts from the elevation above 3500 m. This study explores inter relationships between meteorological parameters and altitude sickness in the Khumbu Everest region and provides information about meteorological conditions during the high deaths. Percentiles and index basis criteria were used to evaluate sensitivity of death cases to meteorological variables. Atmospheric pressure, wind speed and minimum temperature recorded at the nighttime were more sensitive to deaths by high altitude sickness compared to precipitation, maximum temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, and sunshine duration.</p> Tirtha Raj Adhikari, Dhiraj Pradhananga Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Mountain Academy Tue, 19 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Transitioning into Tourism: Becoming a Trekking Guide <p>Primary focus of this study centres around trekking guides’ perceptions and awareness on their chosen field of work. Attention is paid on highlighting their plight as well. Twenty-five Nepali trekking guides from Gorkha were interviewed at their place of work in Kathmandu to ascertain why they decided to enter into the trekking industry as a trekking guide. Reasons for becoming a trekking guide were explored using in depth interviewing techniques and a Grounded Theory approach to collect the data. The trekking guides transitioned into their career through travelling to Kathmandu in order to continue their education. They needed to support themselves by seeking out other employment opportunities. The livelihood of trekking guide provided this prospect for them. Qualifications in topography, antiquity, society, wildlife, trekking routes, high altitude sickness and emergency treatment, structural design, archaeology and religious belief in Nepal were all cited by the participants as being part of a qualification set required to work as a trekking guide. Many of the participants also spoke about risk in their employment. Risk to themselves and to the trekkers they guide were important themes to emerge from the research. Social welfare and financial aid policy and legislation for the families left behind to continue alone after trekking guide death would be one way forward for this revered and necessary group of Nepali workers to be recognized for the important work they do for their nation.</p> Wendy Hillman Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Mountain Academy Tue, 19 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Editorial Vol.4 <p>The scholars were NMA’s first batch (2021) research grant recipients who had carried out their 2500 m. and above field-based studies on the topics like mountain sciences, mountaineering and trekking tourism, adventure tourism, and the Himalayan cultural heritages</p> Ramesh Kumar Bajracharya Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Mountain Academy Tue, 19 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000