Kaladarpan कलादर्पण https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/kaladarpan <p>Kaladarpan कलादर्पण is a multidisciplinary journal published by the Faculty of Humanities and Social Science, Butwal Multiple Campus, Butwal, Rupandehi, Nepal. It publishes articles in the humanities.</p> Faculty of Humanities and Social Science, Butwal Multiple Campus en-US Kaladarpan कलादर्पण 2738-9855 गङ्गानाथ कोइरालाका कवितामा आदर्श चेतना {Ideal Consciousness in The Poems of Ganga Nath Koirala} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/kaladarpan/article/view/62800 <p>गङ्गानाथ कोइराला नीति र आदर्शलाई जोड दिएर कविता लेख्ने स्रष्टा हुन् । समाजमा भइरहेका विकृति र प्रदूषणबाट मुक्त गरी मानिसमा परिष्कारको सञ्चार गराउनु उनका कविताको उद्देश्य रहेको देखिन्छ । सामाजिक मूल्यमान्यता र आदर्शबाट चुक्दै गएको मानिसलाई नैतिक पाठ पढाउने कुरामा उनका कविताहरू महत्त्वपूर्ण सामग्रीका रूपमा रहेका छन् । नेपाली कवितामा लामो साधना गरेका गङ्गानाथ कोइरालाले फुटकर रूपमा र कृतिका रूपमा कविता प्रकाशन गराएका छन् । यिनका कविताको मर्ममा आदर्शको चेतना ज्यादा रहेको पाइन्छ । राजनीतिक, सामाजिक जीवनका पृष्ठभूमिमा विषयलाई केन्द्रित गरी आदर्शको विचार सञ्चार गराउनमा यिनको लेखन सफल रहेको पाइन्छ । आम व्यक्तिभित्र मक्किएर रहेका कुरालाई प्रकाश पारी सुधारको सन्देश व्यक्त गर्नु यिनका लेखनको खास प्राप्ति हो । मानिस आफूले अधिकारको प्रयोग गर्दा कर्तव्यको पाटोलाई पनि भुल्न नहुने आग्रह कविको छ । आदर्शवादसँग सम्बद्ध विचारहरूलाई कवितामा खोजी गरी विश्लेषण गर्ने काम यस लेखमा गरिएको छ । आशाको किरण कवितासङ्ग्रहमा आदर्शवादी चेतना कसरी प्रयोग भएको छ ? भन्ने मुख्य समस्यामूलक प्रश्नमा केन्द्रित रही आदर्शवादको सैद्धान्तिक पर्याधारका सापेक्षमा विश्लेषण गरी निष्कर्ष निकाल्ने काम गरिएको छ । प्रस्तुत लेखमा आवश्यक सामग्री प्रथम र द्वितीयक स्रोतबाट लिइएको छ । प्राथमिक तथा द्वितीयक सामग्रीको उपयोग गरेर आदर्शवादी अवधारणालाई प्रकाश पारी आशाको किरण कवितासङ्ग्रहमा प्रस्तुत आदर्शवादलाई खोजी गर्ने काम यस लेखमा गरिएको छ ।</p> <p>{Ganga Nath Koirala is an author who writes poetry with emphasis on policy and ideals. The aim of his poetry is to free people from the distortions and pollution that are happening in the society and communicate sophistication to people. His poems are important in teaching moral lessons to people who are straying from social values and ideals. Ganga Nath Koirala, who has practiced for a long time in Nepali poetry, has published poetry in the form of individual and works. It is found that there is more awareness of ideals in the content of his poems. His writing is successful in communicating the idea of ideals by focusing on the subject in the background of political and social life. The special achievement of his writings is to bring to light the things that are deep inside the common man and express the message of reform. The poet urges that people should not forget their duties while exercising their rights. Ideas related to idealism are searched and analyzed in this article. It also deals with how idealistic consciousness has been used in Aashako Kiran (ray of hope) poetry collection. Focusing on the main problematic question, it has been analyzed and drawn a conclusion in relation to the theoretical framework of idealism. The material required in the present article has been taken from primary and secondary sources. This article investigates the idealism existed in Aashako Kiran (ray of hope) poetry collection by highlighting the idealistic concept by using primary and secondary materials.}</p> टंकप्रसाद Tankaprasad पन्थ Pantha Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 4 1 1 13 10.3126/kaladarpan.v4i1.62800 महापुरुषको सङ्गत निबन्धमा छेकानुप्रास अलङ्कार {Chhekanupras alankar in essays associated with Mahapurusha} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/kaladarpan/article/view/62803 <p>प्रस्तुत लेख भैरव अर्यालद्वारा लिखित “महापुरुषको सङ्गत” निबन्धको अध्ययनमा केन्द्रित छ । यसमा गृहीत निबन्धलाई छेकानुप्रास अलङ्कारका आधारमा विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यस निबन्धमा वृत्यनुप्रास, श्रुत्यनुप्रासजस्ता अनुप्रास अलङ्कारका प्रकारहरूको प्रयोग भएको पाइए पनि छेकानुप्रास अलङ्कारको आधिक्य रहेकाले यसलाई सोही आधारमा अध्ययन गरिएको छ । निबन्धमा छेकानुप्रास केकस्ता विषयसन्दर्भमा प्रयोग भएको छ र त्यसले निबन्धमा सौन्दर्य थप्न केकस्तो भूमिका खेलेको छ भन्ने मुख्य समस्यामा केन्द्रित यो अध्ययन गुणात्मक प्रकृतिको रहेको छ । यसमा प्राथमिक तथा द्वितीयक दुवै स्रोतका सामग्री उपयोग गरिएको छ र विश्लेषणात्मक विधि अवलम्बन गरी अध्ययन गरिएको छ । यसमा आवश्यकतानुसार निगमनात्मक एवं आगनात्मक विधि प्रयोग गरिएको छ । विश्लेषित “महापुरुषको सङ्गत” निबन्धमा समाजले महापुरुष ठानेका व्यक्ति बाहिर असलजस्ता देखिए पनि व्यवहारतः उनीहरू खराब छन् भन्ने देखाइएको छ । तिनै खराब चरित्रप्रति व्यङ्ग्य गरी लेखिएको यो निबन्ध छेकानुप्रास अलङ्कारका कारण निकै रोचक र मार्मिक बनेको निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> एकनारायण Eknarayan पौड्याल Poudyal Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 4 1 14 21 10.3126/kaladarpan.v4i1.62803 महाकाव्य सिद्धान्त र ‘आदर्श राघव’ महाकाव्य {Epic Theory and 'Adarsh Raghava' epic} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/kaladarpan/article/view/62805 <p>आदर्श राघव महाकवि सोमनाथ सिग्द्यालको विचित्रमार्गी महाकाव्य लेखनलाई पछ्याउँदै लेखिएको कृति हो । आचार्य विश्वनाथ प्रणीत महाकाव्य सिद्धान्तका आधारमा आदर्श राघव कृति केकस्तो रहेको छ भन्ने मूल समस्यामा केन्द्रित रही यो लेख तयार गरिएको छ । यस लेखमा सर्गविधान, पात्रविधान, रसविधान, कथावस्तु संयोजन, कथावस्तुको स्रोत, महाकाव्यमा प्रकृति चित्रण, महाकाव्यमा छन्द प्रयोग, महाकाव्यको शीर्षकीकरण, महाकाव्यमा मङ्लाचरणजस्ता पक्षलाई आधार बनाएर अध्ययन गरिएको छ । आदर्श राघव महाकाव्यमा १६ ओटा सर्ग रहेका छन् र यसको नायकका रूपमा मर्यादा पुरुषोत्तम श्रीराम आएका छन् । यस महाकाव्यमा शान्त रस अङ्गी बनेर प्रकट भएको छ भने अन्य रस अङ्ग बनेर आएका छन् । महाकाव्यमा आएको विषय पौराणिक स्रोतमा आधारित रहेको छ । महाकाव्यमा यथोचित रूपमा प्रकृति चित्रण गरिएको छ र छन्दगत विविधता पनि रहेको छ । नायकको गुणका आधारमा शीर्षकीकरण गरिएको यस महाकाव्यमा नमस्कारात्मक मङ्गलाचरण गरिएको छ भन्ने कुरालाई लेखका माध्यमबाट स्पष्ट पारिएको छ । यस लेखमा सोमनाथ सिग्द्यालले सिद्धान्त अनुपालन गर्दै महाकाव्य लेख्ने कार्यमा सिद्धि प्राप्त गरेका छन् भन्ने विषयलाई तथ्यका आधारमा पुष्टि गरिएको छ । प्रस्तुत लेखमा आदर्श राघव महाकाव्यले आचार्य विश्वनाथद्वारा प्रतिपादित महाकाव्य सिद्धान्तलाई पूर्णतः पालना गरेको छ भन्ने निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> <p>{Adarsh Raghava is work written by Somnath Sigdyal. This epic following the idiosyncratic epic theory. This article has been prepared focusing on the basic problem of what the Adrasha Raghava work based on Acharya Vishwanath's epic theory,. In this article, aspects such as sargavidhana, characterisation, rasavidhanam, story combination, source of story, depiction of nature in the epic, use of verse in the epic, titling of the epic, mangalacharan in the epic have been studied. Adarsh Raghava epic has 16 cantos and has Maryada Purushottam Sriram as its hero. In this epic, Shanta Rasa has appeared as main, while other Rasas have come as organs. The subject in the epic is based on mythological sources. In the epic, nature is depicted reasonably and there is also a variety of verses. It has been made clear through the article that Mangalacharan has been performed in this epic, which is titled based on the qualities of the hero. In this article, it has been confirmed on the basis of facts that Somnath Sigdyal has achieved success in writing an epic by following the principles. In the presented article, it is concluded that Adarsh Raghava epic has fully followed the epic theory propounded by Acharya Vishwanath.}</p> प्रेमप्रसाद Premprasad तिवारी Tiwari Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 4 1 22 29 10.3126/kaladarpan.v4i1.62805 ‘ऋतुविचार’ खण्डकाव्यमा सामाजिक सन्दर्भ {Social Context in Sub-Epic Rituvichar} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/kaladarpan/article/view/62806 <p>लेखनाथ पौड्यालको ऋतुविचार प्रकृतिकाव्य भए पनि प्रकृतिको चित्रणका क्रममा समाजका विविध पक्षको चित्रण गरिएको छ । समाज चित्रणका दृष्टिले यस काव्यमा युगीन सामाजिक चेतनाको अभिव्यक्ति भएको छ । प्रस्तुत लेखमा प्राथमिक स्रोत र द्वितीयक स्रोतका सामग्री पुस्तकालय कार्यबाट सङ्कलन गरी सामाजिकताका कोणबाट पाठको विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यस काव्यमा युगीन सामाजिक यथार्थको प्रस्तुति, युगीन सामाजिक विसङ्गतिहरूप्रति व्यङ्ग्य गरिएको छ । वसन्त ऋतु, ग्रीष्म ऋतु, वर्षा ऋतु, शरद् ऋतु, हेमन्त ऋतु र शिशिर ऋतुका ऋतुचक्रले प्रकृतिमा आउने परिवर्तन र त्यसका माध्यमबाट सामाजिक जीवनमा परेको प्रभावलाई काव्यमा वर्णन गरिएको छ । नेपाली समाजको चित्रणअन्तर्गत नेपाली समाज, धर्मसंस्कृति, राजनीति, पेसा–व्यवसाय, सामाजिक, आर्थिक पक्ष, नैतिक मूल्यमान्यता, तत्कालीन राणाशासनको प्रतिबिम्ब, नेपालीहरूको कठिन जीवनचर्या, सामाजिक विसङ्गत तथा मानवीय चरित्रको कमजोरीहरूमाथि सूक्ष्म व्यङ्ग्य गर्दै समुन्नत राष्ट्र, सुखी नेपाली, शान्ति, सुरक्षा र भयरहित सामाजिक वातावरण, आधारभूत मानवीय आवश्यकता र तिनको समाधानलगायत राणाशासनको अन्त्य एवम् नेपालीहरूको उज्ज्वल, समृद्ध भविष्यको चाहना व्यक्त गरिएको छ । प्रकृतिकाव्यका रूपमा रहेको ऋतुविचार खण्डकाव्यमा नेपाली समाजका विभिन्न सन्दर्भको व्याख्या प्रकृति कै सापेक्षतामा गरिएको छ र यहाँ काव्यमा वर्णित सामाजिक पक्षको अध्ययन गरिएको छ ।</p> शालिकराम Shalikram पौड्याल Poudyal Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 4 1 30 36 10.3126/kaladarpan.v4i1.62806 बैरागी काइँलाका कवितामा आयामेली चिन्तन {Aayameli Perspective in Baragi Kaila's Poems} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/kaladarpan/article/view/62824 <p>बैरागी काइँलाले आयामेली लेखनपूर्वका कवितामा परम्परित वर्णमात्रिक र मात्रिक छन्द तथा पछि आएर नवगद्य छन्दको प्रयोग गर्दै परम्परामुक्त कविता सिर्जना गरेका छन् । उनका कवितामा आयामेली चिन्तनलाई केकसरी प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ भन्ने मूल समस्यामा केन्द्रित रही यो लेख तयार गरिएको छ । प्रस्तुत लेखको मुख्य उद्देश्य बैरागी काइँलाका कवितात्मक प्रवृत्तिको चर्चा गर्दै उनका कवितामा व्यक्त आयामेली चिन्तनको निरूपण गर्नु रहेको छ । यस लेखमा पुस्तकालयीय कार्यमा आधारित रही आवश्यक सामग्री सङ्कलन गरी विश्लेषणात्मक विधि उपयोग गरिएको छ । यसमा निर्धारित कवितालाई प्राथमिक स्रोतका रूपमा लिइएको छ भने उक्त कविताहरूको विश्लेषणका लागि विभिन्न पत्रपत्रिका, अनुसन्धानात्मक लेख तथा पुस्तकलाई द्वितीय स्रोतका रूपमा लिइएको छ । कविता कृतिलाई साक्ष्यका रूपमा प्रस्तुत गरी विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । ‘पर्वत’ कवितामा मानिसले भोगेका पीडा, दर्द तथा उक्त पीडाको मुक्तिका निम्ति पर्वततर्फको यात्रा प्रारम्भ गर्नुपर्ने विषयवस्तु प्रस्तुत भएको छ । ‘मातेको मान्छेको भाषण ः मध्यरातपछिको सडकसित’ कवितामा क्रुर शासन व्यवस्थाका कारण कवि ‘म’ पात्रले सत्य कुरा बोल्नका निम्ति मातेको अभिनय गरेको छ । ‘सपनाको लास’ कवितामा मानिसले जीवनमा कहिल्यै पूर्णता प्राप्त गर्न नसक्ने, स्वतन्त्रता, इच्छा तथा आकाङ्क्षालाई तिलाञ्जली दिएर सामाजिक लोकाचार र बाध्यात्मकताका निम्ति भौँतारिएको अवस्थालाई प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । यस लेखमा बैरागी काइँलाले आयामेली चिन्तनलाई केकसरी प्रस्तुत गर्दै लेखनकार्यमा सिद्धि प्राप्त गरेका छन् भन्ने विषयलाई तथ्यका आधारमा पुष्टि गर्दै बैरागी काइँलाले कवितामा आयामेली चिन्तनलाई पूर्णतः पालना गरेका छन् भन्ने निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> <p>{Bairagi Kaila applied traditional Varnamatrik and Matrik Chhanda before the com[1]mencement of Aayameli movement in the Nepali literature. He began using Nawagdhya Chhanda to free the Nepali poetry from traditional way onwards this movement. This article presents the ways he used Aayameli perspective in composing the poetry. The main purpose of the study is to explore the poetic dimensions in Kaila's poems in terms of Aayameli movement. The data of sec[1]ondary source i.e. the materials available in the library has been. Inductive analysis is used to ex[1]cavate the insights of the study. The poems composed by Kaila are used as the primary source and the magazines, journals, research papers and newspapers are used as the secondary source. The poem, 'Parvat' depicts the difficulties and pains faced by the human beings and need of the jour[1]ney of the mountain for the emancipation of these sufferings. In the poem, 'Mateko Manchheko Vashan: Madhyaratko Sadaksita', the persona of the poem 'I' pretends to be hallucinated to ex- press the truth of the cruel ruling system of the contemporary time. In the poem, 'Sapanako Laas', reveals the situation how human beings become the victim of social responsibility and constraints to become perfect giving up their independence, desire and aspirations, and also presents the notion that human beings can never be perfect no matter what attempts they do for this. Over all, this study has attempted to show the ways Bairagi Kaila has adopted the dimensions of Aayameli Poetic Movement citing his above mentioned three poems and analyzing the themes of the poems.}</p> नारायणप्रसाद Narayanprasad पन्थ Pantha Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 4 1 37 53 10.3126/kaladarpan.v4i1.62824 नेपालका मगर जातिको परिचयात्मक अध्ययन {An Introductory Study of the Magar Caste of Nepal} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/kaladarpan/article/view/62825 <p>प्रस्तुत शोध पत्रमा नेपालका मगर जातिका सम्बन्धमा परिचयात्मक अध्ययन गरिएको छ । यस अध्ययनको उद्देश्य मगर जातिको परिचय दिनुका साथै उनीहरुका पहिचानका विषयमा व्याख्या÷विवेचना र विश्लेषण गर्नु रहेको छ । जस अन्र्तगत मगर जातिको परिचय दिइएको छ । मगर नामाकरण कसरी रहन गयो ? मगरका पूर्वज पुर्खाहरु को थिए ? मगर मगराँत बिचको सम्बन्धमा के कस्तो रहेको छ ? मगरका बसोबास क्षेत्रहरु कहाँ पर्दछन् ? यीनै विषयहरुमा केन्द्रीत रहेर अध्ययन विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यस अध्ययनबाट मगर जातिका सम्बन्धमा जानकारी लिन चाहने शोध अध्ययन कर्ताका लागि फाइदाजनक हुनेछ । यस अध्ययनमा प्रथम तथा द्वितीय सहायक स्रोत–सामग्रीहरुलाई आधार मानिएको छ । जसमा साहित्यिक स्रोतहरु : पुस्तक, पत्रपत्रिका, स्मारिका, शोधपत्र, कार्यपत्र, समाचार पत्र, लोक विश्वास, मिथक आदि स्रोतका आधारमा अध्ययन व्याख्या विश्लेषण गरिएका छन् । अध्ययनलाई वस्तुगत तथा विषयगत रुपमा भरपर्दो विश्वसनीय र तथ्यपरक बनाउँन खोजिएको छ । विषय वस्तुको व्याख्या विवेचना र विश्लेषण गर्नुका साथै निष्कर्ष पनि दिइएको छ । यसमा शब्द कुञ्जी दिइनुका साथै एम.एल.ए. आठौं संस्करण अनुसार उद्धरण, अधोटिप्पणीका साथै सन्दर्भ सामग्रीहरु दिइएका छन् ।</p> टेकबहादुर Tekbahadur पुन Pun Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 4 1 54 62 10.3126/kaladarpan.v4i1.62825 उसको कथा कथामा लैङ्गिकता {Gender in his fiction} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/kaladarpan/article/view/62831 <p>प्रस्तुत लेख लैङ्गिकताको सिद्धान्तका आधारमा उसको कथा कथाको विश्लेषणमा केन्द्रित छ । लैङ्गिकता महिला र पुरुषलाई समाजले निर्धारण गरेको भूमिकासँग सम्बन्धित अवधारणा हो । लैङ्गिकताको अध्ययन लैङ्गिक समालोचनाका पितृसत्ता, प्रभुत्व, शक्तिसम्बन्ध, नारीवाद, लैङ्गिक प्रतिनिधित्व, लैङ्गिक पहिचान,लैङ्गिक भेद, लैङ्गिक दमन, लैङ्गिक हिंसा, लैङ्गिक उत्पीडन, लैङ्गिक प्रतिरोधजस्ता प्रतिमानका आधारमा गर्न सकिन्छ तापनि यस लेखमा पितृसत्ता, नारीवाद, प्रतिनिधित्व र पहिचानको सैद्धान्तिक स्वरूपका आधारमा उसको कथा कथाको सोदाहरण विश्लेषण गरी निष्कर्षात्मक मूल्याङ्कनसमेत प्राप्त भएको छ्र । यो लेख उसको कथा कथामा ‘ऊ’ पात्र पितृसत्ता र त्यसका संस्थाद्वारा नारी हुनाकै कारण लैङ्गिक भेद, हिंसा, दमन, शोषण र उत्पीडनमा परी किनारीकृत भई अधिकारबाट वञ्चित भएको संवेदनशील अवस्थाको विश्लेषणमा केन्द्रित छ । यस लेखमा मूल समस्या र शोध्यप्रश्न समाधानको लागि पाठविश्लेषणमा आधारित गुणात्मक पद्धतिको उपयोग भएको छ । लेखले नारीलाई कागजी सम्मान होइन, व्यावहारिक सम्मानको खाँचो छ भन्नेतर्फ सङ्केत गरेको छ । कृतिकेन्द्रित विश्लेषणमा आधारित यस लेखमा पितृसत्तात्मक समाज व्यवस्थाका कारण कथाकी मुख्य नारी पात्र ‘ऊ’ शारीरिक र मानसिक उत्पीडनमा परेको पुष्टि गरी लेखकीय विचारधारा लैङ्गिक समता र समानतातर्फ अभिमुख रहेको निष्कर्ष रहेको छ ।</p> <p>{This article named "Usako katha kathama laingikata" focuses on the analysis of his story based on the theory of gender. Gender is a concept related to the roles assigned to men and women by society. The study of gender can be done based on the paradigms of patriarchy, dominance, power relations, hegemony, feminism, gender representation, gender identity, gender discrimination, gender oppression, gender violence, gender resistance, etc. This article emphasizes on the analysis of the sensitive situation in which the character 'she' in her story is marginalized, dominated and deprived of rights due to gender discrimination, violence, suppression, exploitation and oppression due to patriarchy and its institutions. In this article, a qualitative method based on sentential analysis has been used to solve the main problem and research question. The article circulates that women need practical respect, not paper respect. In this article based on the work-centered analysis, due to the patriarchal social system, the main female character of the story 'She' is being puppet of the male and patriarchy. It is concluded that the author's ideology is oriented towards gender equality and equity by confirming that the main female character of the story "She" is subjected to physical and mental oppression.}</p> माया Maya घिमिरे Ghimire Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 4 1 63 76 10.3126/kaladarpan.v4i1.62831 Abroad Migration of Labor and Flow of Remittance in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/kaladarpan/article/view/62836 <p>This paper defines and examines Nepal's labor migration situation and remittance flow. In a similar manner, this study seeks to identify the main labor migration-related issues and suggests solutions. People in Nepal do not have access to employment prospects because of the country's delayed industrialization. The socioeconomic standing of many migrant families has improved significantly as a result of labor migration. Although foreign employment improves the nation's economic situation, it has also brought forth a great deal of issues. These issues should be addressed by the relevant sector, as failure to do so could have serious negative effects on our economy.</p> Pramshu Nepal Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 4 1 77 84 10.3126/kaladarpan.v4i1.62836 Multi-collinearity in Research and Wayforward https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/kaladarpan/article/view/62837 <p>In multi-linear regression, there will be two or more independent variables also known as predictor variables. The main task in multi-linear regression is to find how the predictor variable impacts the dependent variable when there is a change in predictor variables by one unit. However, without testing multi-co linearity between these predictor variables, such a model will create difficulties in terms of defining the real impact of the predictor variable (independent) on the predicted variable (dependent). This situation makes us aware in terms of variable selection while conducting multi-linear regression to find the exact impact. To explain this issue, 14 students were selected and asked to fill up the form with their marks obtained in the recent examination, the number of study hours at home, the number of hours hanging out with friends, and the number of copies added during an exam. The research aimed to observe if there is a multi-co linearity issue between predictor variables (number of study hours, number of hours hanging out with friends, and number of copies added during an exam). SPSS-version 25 is used to find a correlation matrix between predictor variables, matrix scatter plot, the value of Tolerance, Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) value, condition index, and variation proportion. Multi-co linearity issue observed in two predictor variables thus further solution explained.</p> Sudeep Singh Nakarmi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 4 1 85 91 10.3126/kaladarpan.v4i1.62837 Socio-economic study of water ball vendors: A study in Butwal Sub-Metropolitan City, Rupandehi https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/kaladarpan/article/view/62838 <p>The present study aims to correlate the socioeconomic characteristics of street fulki vendors and their opportunities and challenges. The study followed a mixed method approach along with 38 vendors taken for rapid questionnaire survey and 5 in-depth interviews. The study was empirically based on Pani Puri vendors in Butwal sub-metropolitan city of Rupandehi district, Nepal. A total of 38 respondents were endorsed for a rapid questionnaire survey while there were five in-depth interviews to triangulate the findings. The study confirmed that the majority of vendors were male and from an economically active age. The business was established with a small investment however there were different motivations for initiating the business. The informal nature of economic transactions, lack of official registration, and professional training are found as the major challenges though the low investment, higher return, greater satisfaction and lower risk of loss are significant opportunities. The study recommends that food hygiene is an important concept to prevent food-borne illnesses and outbreaks which to be addressed while promoting the Pani Puri business in the long run. Moreover, government policies on quality food and hygiene can play an important role.</p> Chiranjivi Devkota Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 4 1 92 106 10.3126/kaladarpan.v4i1.62838 Realism at the Philosophical Level in Samuel Beckett's Selected Plays https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/kaladarpan/article/view/62839 <p>The paper embarks on a fascinating journey into the intricate web woven between language and the human mind within the enigmatic world of Samuel Beckett's plays, specifically, Krapp’s Last Tape and Waiting for Godot. Beckett, celebrated for his exploration of existential themes and innovative linguistic style, provides a canvas that invites us to explore how language serves as a mirror to our innermost thoughts and emotions. The paper, primarily, seeks to answer the question: how are linguistic structure and mental structure are interrelated. This research adopts a multidisciplinary approach, drawing insights from linguistics, psychology, and existentialism to dissect carefully chosen plays by Beckett. In doing so, the paper pays special attention to the tools of repetition, silence, and fragmented discourse that Beckett employs to craft his unique narrative. The findings of this research shed light on the remarkable parallels between linguistic and mental structures in Beckett's plays. Through this, I offer fresh insights into the characters' existential struggles and the profound implications of the interplay between language and human existence. Not only does this paper enrich one’s understanding of Beckett's literary genius but also makes meaningful contributions to the realms of literature, linguistics, and philosophy by revealing the profound human dimensions encapsulated within the linguistic labyrinth of existence as portrayed in Beckett's works.</p> Damodar Bhusal Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 4 1 107 119 10.3126/kaladarpan.v4i1.62839 Community Forest Program and Women Empowerment: A Study Gorkha District https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/kaladarpan/article/view/62840 <p>Globalization has had a powerful impact on individuals and societies. Some have argued that Nepal entered the age of globalization only in the 1980—after Nepal began to liberalize rules of international trade. Globalization however, also began to impact individuals and societies in Nepal because of the expanding presence of international development agencies there. One such expansion of international agencies was in the community forestry sector. This paper explores how the internationally driven community forestry program in the Gorkha District of Nepal and the associated Community Forest User Group (CFUG) there, is empowering local women. Although forest conservation programs started from 1960s, the initiation of the community forestry program in 1993 helped convert the nationalized forests into community forests that were handed over to local communities. The shift of the ownership and management responsibility of local forests to the local community (CFUG) also shifted the privilege and power to the locals. The initial intent of the program was to protect forest and wildlife and mitigate the hazards caused by deforestation. In time, however, the program was expanded to the holistic development of the community, including the empowerment of women within such community.</p> Dil Bahadur Gurung Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 4 1 120 126 10.3126/kaladarpan.v4i1.62840 Correlations of Loneliness among Nepalese Senior Citizens https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/kaladarpan/article/view/62868 <p>The Proportion of the elderly in Nepal is increasing rapidly. Senior citizens are prone to spirits of loneliness. It comprises both solitary life and life with the potential to participate in interaction with others. The purpose of the study was to analyze the loneliness situation among Nepalese young senior citizens. The subjects (n = 513) inhabitants of Butwal sub-metropolitan city having an age range of 60 to 74 (mean/SD = 65.86/4.20) years were female dominated (52.6 percent). Data were collected through frontal interviews using 20 statements of the loneliness scale developed by the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). The data were analyzed using correlation vicariate, multiple regression analysis, and independent sample t-test. The study observed that 29.63 percent reported experiencing low levels of loneliness, 21.25 percent experienced moderate levels, and 49.12 percent reported high levels of loneliness. These levels of loneliness were categorized based on the scoring range: scores below 30 indicated low loneliness, scores of 30 to 39 indicated moderate loneliness, and scores of 40 or higher indicated high levels of loneliness. A statistically significant correlation was found between feelings of loneliness, sex, family type, marital status, education, social participation, and property ownership. Results of multiple regression analysis displayed property ownership, marital status, type of family, and sex standing as significant factors of loneliness. The present results indicate remarkable Nepalese young senior citizens were experiencing loneliness. It is necessary to assess the levels of loneliness of young senior citizens and pursue an intervention to reduce these problems.</p> Durga Bhusal Hom Nath Chalise Keshab Prasad Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 4 1 127 141 10.3126/kaladarpan.v4i1.62868 Effect of Divorce in Family Life https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/kaladarpan/article/view/62869 <p>The present research is undertaken for investigating the effect of divorce in family life especially on child. For the fulfillment of the objective, the national and international articles, book and journals were reviewed. For this secondary literatures were used. Study show that divorce is always a complex matter in Nepal. Here, marriage is considered a sacred bond and divorce is considered an evil act, however, the divorce rate is increasing. The research has revealed that the circumstances of children after their parent's divorce gets troubled, disturbed and challenged, they are subjected to mental torture, have problems with their education and childcare. It may arise due to the absence of parents. So divorce can be a major factor of concern.</p> Jib Narayan Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 4 1 142 147 10.3126/kaladarpan.v4i1.62869 Consumers Preference towards Various Brands of Cold Drinks among Buddhist Tamang Community in Kavresthali, Kathmandu https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/kaladarpan/article/view/62872 <p>This topic of study aims at finding out whether the consumers’ expectations of matched their satisfaction level on the basis of quality products provided by cold drinks suppliers and manufactures companies (i.e. Coca-Cola, Pepsi, Sprite, Mountain Dew and Fanta) among Buddhist Tamang Community in Kavresthali, Kathmandu. So, the research is to study the preference of the consumers and their satisfaction level. With a view to remaining competitive leading position and for businesses to grow, product quality and customer preference are key ingredients. The purpose of this study was to describe how consumers perceive product quality whether they are satisfied with product/cold drinks offered by the stated companies. The thrust of this study was to compose an assessment of product quality and consumer satisfaction of the companies. The questionnaire was developed and distributed using a convenience sampling technique among 100 respondents (Individual consumers and Retailers) within and from Buddhist Tamang Community in the Tarakeshwor Municipality 2, Kavresthali, and Kathmandu. From the analysis, it was found that the overall product quality offered by the companies Coca-Cola and Mountain Dew were relatively higher than others. Further, the analysis proved that the dependency of customer satisfaction on the quality of product and value for money were a very high positive correlation. This is why; this has been appeared that the most of the cold drinks suppliers and manufactures companies need to be very much concerned with the satisfaction of consumers by offering quality products with reasonable prices. The researcher makes a few recommendations based on the findings of the study. First of all, the management of the companies should pay attention to improve the product quality and other factors which may lead to customer satisfaction thereby improving its performance and the overall brand image and profitability of the Companies.</p> Tulsi Tamang Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 4 1 148 160 10.3126/kaladarpan.v4i1.62872