Kalika Journal of Multidisciplinary Research https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/kjmr <p>Kalika Journal of Multidisciplinary Research is published by the Butwal Kalika Campus. It aims at identifying the various challenges and issues pervasive in academia and in the external world, emphasising the key issues of finance, management, language teaching and pedagogy. The published articles are from the genre of Finance, Economics, Foreign Language Teaching, and Pedagogy.</p> en-US rmc@btlkalikacampus.edu.np (Dr. Surya Bahadur Rana) sioux.cumming@ubiquitypress.com (Sioux Cumming) Thu, 04 Jan 2024 13:57:52 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 An Overview of Financial Inclusion in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/kjmr/article/view/61485 <p>This article provides an overview of financial inclusion in Nepal, which refers to the availability of financial services and products to individuals and businesses, particularly those in disadvantaged and low-income regions. The research methodology employed in this study is descriptive research. The documents which were published by the government were analyzed. Nepal Rastra Bank (NRB) and the Ministry of Finance were primary sources of information. These reports contained valuable insights into financial inclusion, economic growth indicators, and program outcomes. Microfinance institutions have been instrumental in advancing financial inclusion in Nepal, offering financial services to low-income people and small enterprises that would not otherwise have access to the official banking system. There is a positive association between financial inclusion and economic growth in Nepal, as access to credit and the use of formal financial services have contributed to short- and long-term economic growth. Similarly, financial inclusion has a positive impact on the economy by increasing the savings rate, broadening credit availability, lowering income inequality, supporting financial stability, and encouraging the expansion of the digital economy. The government of Nepal has implemented various initiatives to encourage financial inclusion, including expanding credit availability, promoting financial stability, and encouraging the growth of the digital economy. Overall, financial inclusion is seen as a crucial component of economic progress and is expected to become even more important as Nepal continues to develop.</p> Pramshu Nepal Copyright (c) 2023 Butwal Kalika Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/kjmr/article/view/61485 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Teachers' Experience of ICT Training for Professional Development https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/kjmr/article/view/61494 <p>This article discusses on teachers' experience of Information and Communication Technology training for their professional development and in teaching and learning in the context of Nepal. It also discusses the policy documents which are brought to train the teachers focusing on the use of ICT in teaching and learning highlighting the problems that appear to implement the IT policies and teachers' professional development. It also examines the teachers' knowledge of ICT and their perception of using it in teaching. This study was based on a qualitative interpretive design that follows the semi-structured interviews with the participants and observation of schools to find out the teachers' experiences of using technology for their professional development and the availability of IT resources, and tools at schools. The findings indicate that most of the teachers are not trained in ICT for their professional development and some of the teachers have taken TPD training in which there is not any association of information and communication technology. Teachers are so curious to learn Technology for their professional development but the lack of teacher training is the main problem. This study was carried out to find out the existing practices of using new technology for professional development which resulted in teaching and learning. Although this is a small study, this provides insights to fill the gap between training policy and the problems that exist at the practice level which will be helpful to improve education in Nepal.</p> Krishna Gautam Copyright (c) 2023 Butwal Kalika Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/kjmr/article/view/61494 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Problems Encountered by Bachelor's Level Students in Reading English Texts https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/kjmr/article/view/61496 <p>Reading textbooks is challenging as our school-level courses do not teach students how to improve their reading comprehension abilities. They simply memorize the word meaning and question-answers. Also, they have no idea in improving their reading skills. Reading comprehension is still crucial for their academic and personal success but it is being ignored which motivated me to research this issue. This study aimed to explore reading problems encountered by bachelor-level students in English texts. I selected four students studying compulsory English at the bachelor level as the participants purposively from two constituent campuses of TU in Rupandehi. I adopted the phenomenological research method and in-depth interviews as major research tools for collecting information using the thematic analysis technique. None of the previous research is expressive and specific on this issue so, I intend to explore it. This paper reveals students' limited and unfamiliar vocabulary, lengthy texts, unfamiliar and uninteresting text, lack of inference skills, problems with reading fluency, lack of background knowledge about the text, inadequate intensive reading practices, lack of exposure to printed materials, complex sentence structure, and lack of reading habit as problems in understanding of English texts. Hence, it may contribute to enhancing the problems that bachelor-level students face in reading English texts.</p> Bhimlal Bhandari Copyright (c) 2023 Butwal Kalika Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/kjmr/article/view/61496 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Study on the Perception of Visually Impaired Student in Inclusive Education: The Case of Sahil https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/kjmr/article/view/61497 <p>Obstacles still exist in Nepali public and private higher education system, despite ample efforts undertaken to guarantee the successful implementation of inclusive education. The existing study highlights a single participant, Sahil, a visually impaired university student, encountering opportunities and obstacles in college life. The investigation was performed using a case study approach, and to fully understand Sahil's perspectives, the researcher interacted extensively with the subject's academic and university experiences. Participant’s remaining time on campus and in class was closely and continuously scrutinized for five years (2017-2022). The field notes taken during observation and the interview transcripts were afterwards submitted for content analysis. The results show that while there are some opportunities for supportive comprehensive instruction, these do not guarantee that visually impaired graduates will obtain complete and satisfying instruction. The main obstacles to implementing inclusive education have been identified as inadequate funding, a lack of resource provisions, a shortage of trained specialists and fewer opportunities for professional progress. To ensure the successful implementation, it was recommended that educators, administrators, stakeholders, non-governmental organizations and responsible entities collaborate, provide profession-specific training and adequate financial assistance.</p> Khadga Niraula Copyright (c) 2023 Butwal Kalika Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/kjmr/article/view/61497 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Positionality of Critical Thinking in English Language Classroom: A Postmethod Analysis https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/kjmr/article/view/61499 <p>This paper aims at identifying the state of possibility in English language classroom because English language classroom only emphasizes the four skills of language, but critical skills of students has not been prioritized. This study purposively selected six participants from three schools in Rupandehi district and collected the required data from the semi-structured interview. Thematic qualitative data analysis was used to explore the existing situation of possibility from the perspective of postmethod and critical pedagogy. Many research revealed about the state of other four language skills; however no research has still depicted the scenario of critical thinking prevailing in English language classroom. It revealed that the possibility has not been conceptualized because of insufficient content and conventional practices of teaching. Similarly, participants engaged in the study reflected that critical and sociocultural awareness are indispensable in the language classroom because language is a medium of negotiation of their views on several aspects of society. These perspectives from both the teachers and students pave the way for the integration of sociocultural issues in their pedagogical practices and the revitalization of teaching-learning modules in the classroom. Finally, it concluded that the development of sociocultural awareness alongside the enhancement of critical thinking among learners is indispensable in English language classroom.</p> Krishna Pokharel Copyright (c) 2023 Butwal Kalika Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/kjmr/article/view/61499 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Walking the Talk: Opportunities for Nepali Businesses to be Ethical and Socially Responsible https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/kjmr/article/view/61500 <p>High performing businesses around the world have realized that business ethics, and more specifically ethical business culture is central to competing and performing effectively in the market. Being ethical and responsible necessitates firms to fulfill all their responsibilities towards stakeholders. Unfortunately, Nepali businesses have fallen short of their obligations. In line with this, the purpose of the study is to examine the status quo on ethics and social responsibility for Nepali businesses. Methodology utilized includes empirical scrutiny of both qualitative and quantitative data. Data from multiple sources also point to the fact that Nepali institutions generally lag far behind their peers in promoting a culture of ethics. Based on scrutiny of the largest Nepali banks, this article makes the sober finding that Nepali businesses have talked the talk on ethics and responsibility, but have failed to translate much of that talk into action. More specifically, top management teams (TMTs) say endearing things on corporate social responsibility that is not followed through with CSR actions downstream. Although the implication of this study is primarily towards Nepal’s banks, it can easily extend to other Nepali businesses with similar business culture. Therefore, it is high time that Nepali businesses ingrain ethics and responsibility into their culture so that they too can minimize missed opportunities and become serious contenders in this competitive world.</p> Ashok Bhandary Copyright (c) 2023 Butwal Kalika Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/kjmr/article/view/61500 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Bound Test Approach of the Money Demand Determinants in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/kjmr/article/view/61502 <p>The theory of money demand is an empirically tested theory of Nepal. It aimed at estimating the money demand function in Nepal. The causal research designs were used for the study. An annual time series from 1980/81 to 2021/22 was used as the data. The research used the Bound test and Auto-regressive Distributive lag model (ARDL). Moreover, a unit root test, bound test, stability diagnostic test, and normality test were used. The empirical result indicates the existence of both short-run and long-run relationships between money demand and real gross domestic production. Furthermore, money demand has a good short-run association with inflation and the consumer price index, whereas it has a long-run relationship. The disequilibrium is corrected in the one log period with a speed of adjustment of 0.75 percent. The study concludes an association between broad money supply and real gross domestic production in Nepal exists.</p> Bhoj Raj Nyaupane Copyright (c) 2023 Butwal Kalika Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/kjmr/article/view/61502 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000