KMC Journal <p><em><strong>KMC</strong></em><em><strong> Journal</strong></em> (KMC-J) is published by the Research Management Cell (RMC) of Kailali Multiple Campus, Dhangadhi, Nepal. This journal provides a platform for the researchers, educators, academicians, teachers, trainers, practitioners and professionals across the world to share knowledge in the form of high quality empirical research papers from different disciplines including Education, Social Sciences, Humanities, Management, Agriculture, Forestry, Law, Science and ICT. </p> en-US <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">CC BY-NC: This license allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format for noncommercial purposes only, and only so long as attribution is given to the creator. </span></p> (Assoc. Prof. Mohan Singh Saud) (Sioux Cumming) Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Mapping the Landscape of Data Collection: A Reflection on the Dynamics of Fieldwork in Qualitative Research <p>This study explores the complexities of qualitative fieldwork and unpacks the fieldwork dynamics drawing on critical reflections based on the experiences of interviewing primary level teachers in exploring their identities. I argue that qualitative fieldwork is not a one-shot, linear activity but a negotiated and relational task requiring a flexible and context-specific plan. This study identifies challenges associated with the fieldwork relating to establishing and sustaining a good relationship and reciprocity between the researcher and the participants, unequal power dynamics between the researcher and the participants, participants’ familiarity with and habitual response to the survey questionnaires, narrow understanding of confidentiality and anonymity as ethical considerations, unmatched gender between the researcher and the participants, and through and detailed capture of micro field jottings and writing the fieldnotes. I suggest initiating fieldwork with sufficient informal conversation and establishing a rapport to gain the participants’ trust, positioning oneself as an insider to acquire valuable and meaningful data.Fieldwork</p> Khim Raj Subedi Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Associated with Psychosocial Stimulation Development of Preschool Children in Rupandehi District of Nepal <p>Creating fun learning games, telling stories, and sharing warmth in social interactions are important for helping kids grow well; it is like planting seeds for a bright future workforce for the nation. This study aimed to assess factors associated with psychosocial stimulation development in 401 preschool children (3-5 years) in the Rupandehi district of Nepal. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a multistage random sampling technique. Socioeconomic and demographic data, as well as psychosocial stimulation levels, were collected through validated instruments, interviews, and direct observation. IBM SPSS version 26 was used for data analysis, with a significance level of p&lt;0.05. Among the participants, 50.4% were economically marginalized, and only 1.2% caregivers offered high levels of psychosocial stimulation to their preschoolers. Positive associations were found between the number of children, family type, caste/ethnicity, parental education, and wealth status in the unadjusted analysis. In multivariate analysis, the psychosocial stimulation received by preschool children was positively associated with wealth status, caste, mother’s education, family structure and father’s education. Wealth status, caste, family structure, and parental education emerged as key factors influencing the psychosocial stimulation development of preschool children. Implementing strategies to promote psychosocial stimulation within families from economically marginalized backgrounds, disadvantaged castes (including Dalit, non-Dalit Tarai caste, and Janajati groups), with illiterate parents, and those living in nuclear family structures could potentially make a substantial contribution towards enhancing psychosocial stimulation among preschool children.</p> Prakash Sharma, Chitra Bahadur Budhathoki, Pramila Thapa Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring Teaching and Learning Physics in Engineering Institutions of Kathmandu District <p>Being a physics educator for the last two decades, the first author of this paper observed some disturbing scenarios in the educational landscape of diploma in engineering in physics theory portion. Students' academic achievements in the physics final examination conducted by Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT) indicated that many failed to fulfill the minimum requirements to pass the final exam or gain good grades. In addition, most students could not apply the physics principles in real-world contexts. The purpose of this study was to explore teaching and learning practices in physics theory classrooms of Kathmandu district-based diploma in engineering schools affiliated to CTEVT. The study employed a qualitative research design and was underpinned by the social constructivist learning theory. Ethnography as a research method was employed in which participant observation and unstructured interviews were used as the research tools. A purposeful sampling was carried out to conduct the research in which nine students from two engineering institutions were taken as the research participants. Data analysis was carried out by coding the raw data primarily employing N-vivo coding thus creating several categories and finally developing three major themes. The findings indicated that the classroom dialogue didn’t support the social constructivist epistemology. Thus, the findings lead to the conclusion that traditional teacher-centric practices were prevalent at those engineering institutions that might be responsible for the poor academic achievements of students. &nbsp;</p> Pankaj Sharma Ghimire, Bal Chandra Luitel Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Uncovering the Indigenous Khas Legacy of Resilience and Transformation in Western Nepal <p>This study explores the history and cultural resilience of the <em>Khas Arya</em> community in western Nepal. The purpose of the study is to investigate the changing patterns of the ancient indigenous <em>Khas</em> ritual culture, distinct from the <em>Hindu Aryans</em> of the south, due to their legacy of resilience and transformation. The research question centres on how the <em>Khas Aryas</em> have preserved their unique identity and rituals over time despite external influences. This study employed the qualitative research method and the historical research design using published documents as the data tools. The study reveals that the <em>Khas</em> community has been residing in western Nepal for thousands of years. They have maintained their distinct language, culture, and traditions, even as they embraced Hinduism and Buddhism. The <em>Khas Aryas</em> have preserved their original rituals, including nature worship and communal dining. The study highlights that they have retained their unique identity, distinct from the Hindu Aryans of the south, due to their historical resilience and cultural adaptation. The <em>Khas Arya </em>community's enduring legacy as an indigenous people of western Nepal reflects their ability to maintain their cultural identity in the face of external influences and changing times.</p> Dol Raj Kafle Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Contours of Sexuality in Roy’s The God of Small Things <p>This study aims at analyzing the contours of sexuality, obscenity and incest in Arundhati Roy’s debut novel, <em>The God of Small Things</em> to mark how the novelist deconstructs the naturalized and normalized social, ethical, and cultural values in the Indian society. The illicit relationship between the central character of the novel and a divorced woman, Ammu and the servant of her family, Velutha, the incest between Estha and Rahel, an incident where an old man forces Estha to masturbate, and the sensual affair of Baby Kochamma with Father Mulligan are some of the highly charged obscene details in the novel that invite a keen rationale for the research. The research utilizes the theoretical framework of psychoanalysis and radical feminism that deal with sexuality, feminine sexuality, and sibling incest to observe Roy’s motive for emphasizing on pornographic drives. Both Freudian psychoanalysts and radical feminists deal with the sex overtly taking it as the basic human instinct. The research finding is that Roy emphasizes the graphic description of sexual acts among members of family and different castes to cherish beauty found in ‘small things’, to mystify the mundane, to examine the issues of unethical sex in revolutionary South-Asian societies. It is expected that people interested in researching libidinal issues in Roy in particular, and South-Asian literature in general, can take the paper as a reference.</p> Bimal Kishore Shrivastwa Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Project Work in Free Writing: A True Experimental Research <p>Project work is a pedagogical technique which engages students in collaborative and authentic tasks. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence on how project work learning influences students' ability to write spontaneously and fluently on any given topic. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of project work in teaching free writing skill for grade ten students. The study employed true experimental design. The researcher used convenience sampling to select one of the community schools of Banke district as the site of the study and typical case sampling to select the class. From the selected class, the researcher chose 60 students as the sample using simple random sampling. A randomization technique was used to divide the sample into two equal groups of 30 students each and the groups were labeled as Control Group (CG) and Experimental Group (EG). He used test as the technique to collect the data. Both groups were tested on ten free writing questions before and after 30-day intervention period. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics namely variance, standard deviation, and ‘t’ tests.&nbsp; The findings revealed that the EG improved significantly than the CG in their free writing skills. The average score of the EG increased by 31.40 %, while the CG increased by only 6.69 %. The results indicate that project work learning can enhance free writing skills of grade ten students and recommends its use as a pedagogical strategy for enhancing writing proficiency.</p> Hari Prasad Tiwari Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Teachers’ Perceived Value of Integrating ICT in Transposing English Language Teaching in Nepal <p>In the evolving landscape of English Language Teaching (ELT), the integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has emerged as a fundamental pedagogical approach. This research delves into the perceptions and value attributed by teachers in Nepal towards the incorporation of ICT tools and methodologies in their teaching practices. I have used content analysis method to gather the related field of studies and analysed the data. Findings indicate that significant challenges such as limited technology access, lack of trainings, administrative support, over-load of unnecessary paper-work cause major obstacles in transposing ICT in classroom. However, ICT also offers great opportunities to transfer the traditional teaching practices, develop ICT skills, access to vast source of information and more importantly, the potential era for a paradigm shifts in the recent practices. The study emphasizes the need for a strategic approach, including investment in technology infrastructure, teacher training and supportive policy environment, to enhance ICT integration in ELT classrooms. In addition, the study provides valuable insights for policy makers, educators, researchers, and other stakeholders in their efforts to integrate ICT in teaching and learning in Nepal. Most importantly, this research contributes to the escalating discourse on ICT integration in ELT by providing nuanced insights grounded in the Nepalese context. The findings advocate for a holistic approach encompassing infrastructural development, targeted professional development initiatives, and transformative pedagogical strategies to optimize the potential benefits of ICT in transposing English language teaching practices in Nepal.</p> Dipak Kumar Bohara Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Utopia Turns into Dystopia: Orwell’s Critic of Stalinist Marxist Innovativeness in Animal Farm <p>This paper aims to examine modernity in Marxism as an allegory of the animals' revolution in George Orwell's <em>Animal Farm</em>. The major concern of this paper is to explore the modernity and its impact of utopian Marxist conception of state considering essential characteristics of political movements and the possible relationship existed between them. One&nbsp; is&nbsp; immediately puzzled&nbsp; by&nbsp; the&nbsp; fact that&nbsp; modernist&nbsp; literature, art, and political theory seem to have little or&nbsp; nothing to do with Marxism, and are, in fact, reactionary to&nbsp; Marxism.&nbsp; Modernity in Marxism is change in the life of the people belonging to lower class or proletariats. The research tool used for research is Marxism and modernity, with reference to Robert Bocock, Abram L. Harris, and Henri Lefebvre. The research methodology used for analysis is textual analysis. The major finding is the concept of Utopia where there is everybody happy and prosperous; that is the main idea of this concept from Marxism. This notion of modernism comes into existence from different political movements in global context. The historically changing process is the base for the modernity in the society that shows the abuse of power practised by Stalin in Russia in the name of Marxism.</p> Rajendra Prasad Pant Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Navigating English Language Education Challenges in Resource-limited Contexts <p>Nepal's diverse linguistic landscape challenges the under-resourced education system, particularly in teaching English. Despite the demand for English from parents and communities due to globalization, rural schools still face difficulties in providing English language education, despite student, parent, and community expectations, and government policies. The purpose of this study was to explore the challenges faced by English language teachers in an under-resourced context and their coping strategies in Nepal. A qualitative research approach with the narrative inquiry was used and two public secondary schools from Dadeldhura district of Nepal were chosen for the study area. An in-depth interview was conducted to assess the participants’ information. The findings revealed that implementing student-centered learning, navigating the new English curriculum, overcoming limited teaching resources, and managing overcrowded classrooms emerge as significant challenges for English teachers. The results showed that to overcome the challenges, teachers emphasize vocabulary development, utilize alternative teaching methods and materials, engage interactive teaching methods, and motivate students to learn English. This study emphasizes the challenges in English language education in rural schools of Nepal, including weak language skills, limited resources, and overcrowded classrooms. Alternative methods and personal devices were used to overcome limitations. Vocabulary enhancement and motivation are prioritized.</p> Ramesh Bahadur Singh Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Receiving and Implementing In-Service Teacher Training Programmes: Identifying Challenges from Teachers’ Perspectives <p>Teachers require continuous professional development to effectively navigate shifts, enhance professional proficiency, and derive job satisfaction. To achieve this, they require sufficient in-service training. In-service teacher training is assumed significant as it equips teachers to confront evolving challenges within the educational landscape. It plays a pivotal role in augmenting their knowledge base, refining subject expertise, assimilating innovative teaching strategies, fostering competencies, and cultivating skills to harness modern technologies which are integral in the field of teaching and learning. However, the delivery and effective implementation of in-service teacher training programmes in the context of Nepal is challenging. This study aims to explore the perceptions of teachers on the significance of in-service teacher training programmes and challenges they face in receiving and implementing them in the classroom in the context of Nepal. Five high school teachers from five schools from Kailali district were selected purposively as the research participants. Data were collected through in-depth and semi-structured interviews. The findings highlight that even though teachers feel that in-service teacher training programmes are significant for effective teaching and learning, an insufficient of experts, inadequate resources, waning motivation, deficient policies, time management challenges, political influences, and financial constraints constitute major hurdles in executing teacher training initiatives. The study further reveals that due to these challenges, teachers struggle to effectively implement the acquired knowledge and methodologies from the training within the constraints of limited time and expansive classroom settings.</p> Krishna Kumari Mahara Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Perceptions on English as a Medium of Instruction in Community School in Nepal <p>English as a medium of instruction (EMI) is a model of teaching in which non-English subjects are taught through the medium of English. It has become popular more than a decade and it has increased its tendency rapidly within Nepal and in global context. This study aims at exploring the perceptions of policy maker, head teachers, teachers, students and parents on the use of English as the medium of instruction particularly focusing on its effectiveness in the community schools in Nepal. Having seen the broader picture, I have conducted the qualitative interpretative research adopting narrative inquiry design to explore the ground reality of EMI implementation and its effectiveness. For this, I have selected altogether eight participants from policy to practice level who have observed and experienced the EMI. The entire research study is connected to the theory of neo-liberalism. This interpretive data reveals that the EMI has created a lot of tension to both the teachers and the students. The research findings suggest that the EMI is adopted without any planning and analyzing the teachers' readiness. The intervention of EMI at community schools has been a great challenge not only from the perspectives of instructional difficulties but also found much more challenges in terms of language to all the students and teachers.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Khom Prasad Ghimire Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Student Evaluation of Teaching: A Tool for the Assessment of Teaching Learning Practices in Higher Education Institutions <p>Student Evaluation of Teaching (SET) is a way to evaluate the teaching effectiveness of teachers, and teaching-learning practices based on students' feedback. It is an evaluation of the teachers by students. SET is considered a tool to assess teaching effectiveness mostly in higher education institutions. Globally, universities use SET, especially in taking the decision of tenure and promotion of professors. This article attempts to gather students' responses regarding the teaching performance of their teachers from one of the campuses in Kailali district, Nepal. A survey research design was adopted to collect students’ responses. A random sampling method was employed to select undergraduate students from the selected campus. Students were asked to fill out a questionnaire consisting of the statements managed on a 5-point Likert scale. IBM SPSS Statistics 20 was used to manage and visualize the data, and the descriptive parameters were calculated for analysis. The results show that the teaching performance of the teachers was quite good in two categories, viz., management and motivation aspects, whereas the teaching performance in the instruction aspect was only satisfactory. This study shows that teachers need to improve their instructional strategies for the betterment of teaching and learning. The study will motivate other scholars and institutions to initiate the practice of SET for the enhancement of teaching and learning in their respective institutions.</p> Prem Raj Joshi, Prakash Raj Pant, Rajendra Bir Chand Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Professional Development Programmes: Practices and Impacts <p>Professional programmes like trainings, workshops, symposiums, conclaves, conferences, and similar development opportunities play a significant role in enhancing faculty professional skills and ultimately nurturing quality ecology within an institution. This study attempted to analyze the practice of such programmes during the last five years at J S Campus Lahan, Siraha, how they have been practically prioritized by the faculty members and this institution, and what impacts are being observed so far. It applied the mixed research design and the sample of study included faculty members, RMC coordinator, and Heads of the institution. The data from them were collected through interview and questionnaire, and also from the RMC/administrative records about the programme practice and the graduate products. The analysis was developed discussing the nature of the programmes, their occurrences, participation of the faculty, and the impacts on the faculty performance and the institution as well. The results showed that such programme practice was good but its products revealed the worst, an action to be considered soon. Finally, some initiatives are recommended for healing such a bizarre research scenario with this leading institution of Madhesh Province.</p> Binod Kumar Yadav Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Diversity Management: Critical Pedagogy in Nepalese Education <p>This article delves into the realm of critical pedagogy, a dynamic educational approach designed to cultivate critical thinking skills among students. It explores the relevance of critical pedagogy emphasizing critical thinking and social justice, aligns seamlessly with managing diversity in classrooms, fostering inclusive environments and empowering students to engage with diverse perspectives. It critically underscores the vital role played by critical pedagogy in effectively managing diversity within educational settings. Drawing from extensive literature and the author's insights, it offers a valuable tool to address the complexities of contemporary classrooms. The article significantly contributes to the ongoing discourse on educational approaches by highlighting the transformative impact of critical pedagogy, advocating for its integration into school curricula, and emphasizing the collaborative roles of both teachers and students. Through this comprehensive exploration, the article positions critical pedagogy as an indispensable framework for fostering inclusive and equitable educational environments in the face of diverse challenges.</p> Khagendra Raj Pant Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Affecting the Academic Achievement of the Students in Community Campuses <p>Academic achievement holds significant importance in education as well as in the learning process representing the level at which both teachers and the students attain educational goals. This study aims to identify the factors influencing academic achievement among students on community campuses. The descriptive survey research design was employed. By using the purposive sampling method, four community campuses were selected out of ten community campuses from Tanahun district of Nepal. A total of 359 respondents were selected from 2479 students across the selected campuses, employing a survey with Five-Points Likert scaling technique conducted through Google form. Descriptive statistics was applied to analyze the gathered data. The finding indicated that home-related factors, campus facilities, the teaching-learning environment and resources, habits of students, teacher-student relations, and institutional factors significantly affect students' academic achievement at the university level. The study provides valuable insights for educators, policymakers, and institutions to improve the academic achievement of students.</p> Shiva Dutta Chapagai Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Searching for Performance Accountability in Higher Education: A Case Study <p>Accountability is vital in ensuring universities to provide top-notch education to their stakeholders in higher education. Therefore, it is imperative to examine how universities can achieve intended performance accountability. The study analyzes the performance accountability of higher education, considering core, essential, and supporting components to meet stakeholder expectations. Based on the case study design, the data were collected through semi-structured interviews with stakeholders and secondary sources. The study sample was selected through the purposive sampling method, i.e., the University Authority, the Campus chief, three chairpersons of the subject committee, the president of the Professor Union Unit, the Coordinator of the Self-Evaluation Committee, and four faculties. After analyzing the data, it has been concluded that in order to achieve performance accountability in higher education, it is essential to manage the learning process effectively, have a strategic implementation plan, prioritize leadership, and adhere to accountability processes. These crucial elements are key to creating a successful learning environment, improving the quality of education, and ensuring accountability in the higher education sector. I claimed that the seed capital model is developed to enhance quality education by increasing higher education performance accountability. The study findings can help University officials and faculties improve education quality and policy formulation. Additionally, this study contributes to the existing literature on the institutional process and achieving accountability in all components of higher education.</p> Nathuram Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Associated with Anxiety and Depression among Elderly Living in Old Age Homes <p>Anxiety and depression are the most common psychological problems in older people. The older people living in older person’s residential care facilities are more vulnerable. This study aims to explore anxiety and depression and associated factors of older people staying in care facilities in Nepal. This is a descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study. A total of 216 older people were recruited from Old Age Homes (OAH) of Kathmandu Valley. Anxiety was assessed using Beck Anxiety Scale and depression was assessed using the GDS-15 scale. Statistical software SPSS 23.0 was used for data entry and analysis. The mean of anxiety was 13.23±6.84. The prevalence of anxiety disorder in the study population was 8.8 % and depression disorder was 74.5%. &nbsp;Results show gender, marital status, religion, type of previous family, chronic illness, stress, and type of living facilities were significantly associated with anxiety. Similarly, that being male, having chronic diseases, comorbidities, and feelings of stress are related to depression. The difference was statistically significant (p&lt;0.05). Depression and anxiety were also significantly positively correlated (r=0.232, p&lt; 0.01). Elderly people living in care facilities had slightly low levels of anxiety and high depression. Government and residential care facilities should be aware to provide appropriate support, care, and early psychological care during the intervention for the elderly so that it will help to control anxiety depression and other health problems so that older people enjoy the quality of life.</p> Ratee Pakwan Suwal, Bijen Upadhyay, Hom Nath Chalise Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Performance of Different Organic Fertilizers on Wheat Yield at Tikapur, Kailali <p>A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of different organic materials alone and in combination on the yield of wheat variety Aditya during November 2021- April 2022 in the Agronomy Field of Far Western University, Tikapur, Kailali. The study was carried out with 7 treatments viz. Farmyard manure (FYM), Vermicompost (V), Trichoderma viridae (T), FYM + V (FV), FYM + T(FT), FYM + V + T(FVT) and Control (without any organic matter) and laid out in Randomized Complete Block design with three replications. Chemical fertilizers were not used in the study. The result showed significantly higher number of effective tillers, thousand grain weight and grain yield in the treatment FVT as compared to other organic fertilizers and their combinations. But plant height was found to be the highest in FT followed by FYM. An increase of 16% and 36.29% grain yield was recorded in FVT over FT and the control respectively. Wheat grain yield from FV (2.28 t/ha) and FT (2.08 t/ha) were statistically greater than FYM or Vermicompost when applied alone. Application of Vermicompost and VT had relatively lower influence on yield attributes and yield as compared to FYM and FT. However, all the treatments were superior over the control in terms of all the yield and yield attributing traits.</p> Raksha Sharma, Shreya Tiwari, Sima Lamichhane, Saurab Subedi Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Risk Perception and Protective Health Measure Regarding COVID-19 among Nepali Labour Migrants’ Returnee from India <p>Thousands of Nepali migrant workers returned home from India due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional study examines the association between risk perception and protective behaviour regarding COVID-19 in returnee migrant workers. The study used opportunistic sampling and 384 participants, based in a quarantine center on return from India, volunteered. Using the health belief model (HBM) as a theoretical framework, a structured interview questionnaire was designed and applied as the key data collection tool. Three health workers were interviewed face-to-face. The study showed that the perceived risk of COVID-19 among participants was medium to low. Participants perceived few barriers and had low self-efficacy levels compared to other constructs. This study further showed that participants were &nbsp;more likely to follow a range of protective health behaviours, but not found all. &nbsp;The study revealed a significant association between all risk perception constructs and protective behaviours (p=&lt; 0.05). This study accordingly highlighted a significant relationship between the respondents' risk perception level and protective health behaviours. The study envisaged that public awareness of risk to the people who returned from India is essential to increase risk perception during the outbreak.</p> Shanti Prasad Khanal, Edwin van Teijlingen, Mohan Sharma, Jib Acharya, Chhabita Sharma, Suman Kharel, Uttam Gaulee, Karuna Bhattarai, Rajan Binayak Pasa, Pradeep Bohora Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Socio-Cultural Dynamics of Cross-Border Labour Migration between Nepal and India <p>The enduring relationship between Nepal and India is the focus of this study, which delves into the social and cultural dynamics adopted by Nepali and Indian labour migrants in their respective destinations. The study extends to the examination of labour migrants' social backgrounds, encompassing aspects such as religion, caste, ethnicity, education, and family structure. Employing a mixed-methods approach, the study incorporates case studies supported by field observations in the destination countries. The gathered data undergoes analysis through descriptive statistics, allowing for a comparative assessment between the two migrant groups. While the socio-cultural status of both groups exhibits slight differences, disparities in caste and ethnicity indicators are noted between Nepal and India. Notably, a significant proportion of Nepali labour migrants hail from Dalit communities when compared to other caste and ethnic groups. In contrast, Indian labour migrants, predominantly from the Other Backward Class (OBC), exhibit a different trend. The volume of Nepali labour migrants heading to India surpasses that of Indian labour migrants to Nepal. The shorter migration distance for Indian labour migrants enables frequent visits to their place of origin, facilitating the celebration of local traditions and culture. In contrast, Nepali labour migrants encounter fewer opportunities to return to their destination regularly. A noteworthy observation is the comparatively higher educational status of Nepali labour migrants as opposed to their Indian counterparts heading to Nepal. The nuanced differences between the two migrant groups correlate with their religious affiliations and socio-economic backgrounds. Interestingly, both groups exhibit a limited number of enrolled children in destination schools, indicating a shared challenge in accessing education opportunities.</p> Deepak Chandra Bhatt Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Challenges and Prospects of Youth Entrepreneurship in Dhangadhi Sub-Metropolitan City, Nepal <p>Youth entrepreneurs are the driving forces of business innovation enhancing the economic development and transformation of the society. This study investigates the challenges and prospects of youth entrepreneurship in Dhangadhi Sub-metropolitan city, Nepal. Employing a descriptive survey research design of quantitative method, the data were collected through structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistical tools. 56 respondents were selected using purposive sampling method among young entrepreneurs.&nbsp; The study found that the main reason to start business is being self-dependent followed by upgrading income level. Regarding the challenges of young entrepreneurship, it is found that competition is the main challenge followed by access to finance. However, the major prospects are opportunity of micro enterprises, innovation and creativity, development of entrepreneurial skills, building enterprising culture and economic participation. The government should build up business environment to use their ideas, methods, skills and abilities for entrepreneurship development through flexible rules and regulations and financial supports. This study could be a milestone for future researchers, policy makers, academician, owners and youth entrepreneurs.</p> Ghanshyam Bhatta, Sanjay Baijal Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction in the Nexus between Career Development and Unprofessional Engagement among Civil Servants in Nepal <p>This study aims to investigate the relationships between career development (CrD), job satisfaction (JbS), and unprofessional behaviour (UpE) in public institutions. Employing a causal-comparative research design, it also examines how job satisfaction mediates the CrD-UpE connection among civil servants in Nepal. Utilizing a quantitative approach and convenience sampling, the study includes 385 civil servants from various government organizations. Data validity and reliability were assessed, and analysis was conducted using SPSS 20 and AMOS 22, including structural equation modeling (SEM). The findings confirm positive links between CrD and JbS and CrD and UpE. Additionally, they underscore the role of JbS in mitigating UpE, highlighting the value of investing in career development to enhance job satisfaction and reduce unprofessional behaviour, particularly among Nepalese civil servants. The study emphasizes the robustness of these relationships and offers practical insights for enhancing career development programmes and fostering employee job satisfaction to minimize unprofessional conduct in public organizations.</p> Bhupal Bikram Kathayat Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Social Media in Promoting Organic Products in Karnali Province, Nepal <p>This study examines the Karnali Province of Nepal's use of social media to promote organic products. This research examines the unique influence on the growth and awareness of organic products of the global revolution in communication and marketing tactics sparked by the rapid expansion and widespread adoption of social media platforms. The study digs into the tactics adopted in advertising organic products within the unique context of Karnali Province. Data for the study was collected through a survey questionnaire distributed to 300 respondents. The sampling method utilized a convenience sampling to gather diverse information about social media engagement, the choice of social media platforms, marketing strategies employed on these platforms, awareness levels of organic products, consumer behavior, and the effectiveness of organic product promotion. The survey targeted a representative sample of the population in Karnali province. Using the Smart PLS-4 programme, the study analyzed the data it had obtained, concentrating on testing hypotheses and looking at the correlations between the variables. The outcomes contribute to a wider understanding of using social media to promote organic products in addition to providing knowledge particular to a given location. This study adds to our knowledge of how social media, particularly in remote and rural areas like Nepal's Karnali Province, may be a potent and successful instrument for promoting organic products. The results offer useful recommendations for digital marketing tactics customized for certain regional contexts and sustainable agriculture to marketers and policymakers.</p> Ammar Bahadur Rokaya, Akhilesh Chandra Pandey Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Consumer Readiness on Rejecting the Choice of Consumption of Plastic Packaged Goods: A Study of Karnali Province <p>Plastics for packaging have lead to massive environmental pollution and dreadful issues in human life. Thus consumers need to consider its deep-rooted impacts, and refuse the acceptance of plastic packaged goods. The present researchers have opted a critical constructivist perspective inclining at deductive approach to assess the consumer readiness on rejecting the choice of consumption of plastic packaged goods in the context of Karnali Province of Nepal. Causal-comparative research design was used to determine the cause or consequences of selected variables on dependent variables. In order to collect the primary data, an email survey was administered to 365 respondents of various demographic levels replied with the duly completed survey questionnaires. For the analyses, both descriptive and inferential analyses were used. The key findings of the structural equation model revealed that the plastic related concern with regard to health and environmental issues are the main factors influencing plastic rejection. Consumer readiness with regard to plastic rejection are also influenced by subjective knowledge and the weight placed on third party commitment to solving the plastic problem. The findings of the study also revealed significant contribution of the impact of employment status as the essential element determining consumer readiness on rejecting plastic packaged goods in the Karnali province. This indicates majorities of employed consumers have more readiness to reject the plastic packaged goods.</p> Rheet Rijal Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Determinants of Banking Habit of Urban People: A Study of Narayan Nagarpalika, Dailekh <p>The banking industry has grown tremendously in volume and complexity in the last few decades. &nbsp;The banking habit rate in a country is an important indicator of growth in the economy. The purpose of this study is to find out the determinants of the banking habits of urban people. The study was conducted in Narayan Municipality, Dailekh. The data have been collected through a well-structured questionnaire from customers of different banks in the private and government sector. I selected a sample of 177 respondents from the population for the collection of data and to check the response of different customers. Descriptive and regression are utilized to see the cause-and-effect behaviour. The findings of the study indicate that availability and security play a significant role in the banking habit of urban people. This may help to identify the bottlenecks in the effective banking practices deployment in the urban areas.</p> Ramesh Prasad Gautam Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Editorial Vol.6(1) <p>Not available</p> Mohan Singh Saud Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000