KMC Research Journal <p>A peer-reviewed journal on Art, Philosophy, Identity, Economy, Livelihood, and Foreign Policy published by the Research Department of Koteshwor Multiple Campus, Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> Koteshwor, Multiple Campus, Kathmandu, Nepal en-US KMC Research Journal 2565-4977 <p>© Koteshwor Multiple Campus</p> Influence of Merchandising on Customer Purchasing Behavior in Superstores of Kathmandu Valley <p>This research examines the influence and relationship of product merchandising elements with consumer buying behavior within superstores. The study investigates five key independent variables: design feature, ambiance, product assortment, brand image, and display, aiming to discern their impact on consumer purchasing decisions. The study employed a causal research design, convenience-based convenience sampling method, and data collected through a structured questionnaire and used rigorous analysis, including correlation and multiple regression models. The findings revealed that design features, ambiance, brand image, and display significantly and positively influence consumer buying behavior, aligning with previous research on the importance of these elements in retail settings. However, a nuanced relationship emerged with product assortment, suggesting that an excessive variety may hinder buying decisions. This study contributes valuable insights for retailers seeking to refine their marketing strategies and create appealing shopping environments in the competitive world of superstores.</p> Ajaya Kumar Khadka Bharat Rai Srijana Khadka Copyright (c) 2023 Koteshwor Multiple Campus 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 7 1 1 16 10.3126/kmcrj.v7i1.65066 Role of Primary Stakeholders in Needs Assessment for Local Development Planning <p>The involvement of primary stakeholders in needs assessment becomes not only necessary but strategically imperative. This paper aims to conceptualize the role of primary stakeholders in needs assessment regarding local development planning context. The roles of primary stakeholders in local development planning are subjective and can trace out by interpretative way considering the constructivist standpoint. Methodologically, this paper adopted a descriptive content analysis approach using secondary sources. Prior studies argued different views on the role of primary stakeholders in needs assessment. As a participatory tool, it is remarkable to note that primary stakeholders' involvement in needs assessment, prioritize needs, aid in decision-making, resource allocation, and implementation. Primary stakeholder's involvement in planning and decision-making is challenged by poor communication, ignorance of planning importance, political interference, weak accountability, and bureaucratic dominance. However, the result indicates that the degree of stakeholders' involvement in local development planning and more specifically defining the felt needs within the community is a yardstick and provide a new turning point for further planning and development effort. It helps to reduce the unnecessary cost of the plan and develop proper coordination, collaboration, and consultation in the needs identification process. Stakeholders create a clear road map for sustainable and inclusive planning. Community people are active change agents and can define real development priorities through the assessment process. However, this paper is limited in subjective analysis and only the primary stakeholder's role in needs using limited sources.</p> Bhaba Datta Sapkota Copyright (c) 2023 Koteshwor Multiple Campus 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 7 1 17 28 10.3126/kmcrj.v7i1.65069 The Use of Middle Voice in Narrativizing Trauma in Bimal’s “The Lankuri Will Blossom Again” <p>This article analyzes Rajendra Bimal’s “The Lankuri Tree Will Blossom Again”, a story written on the background of the ten-year-long Maoist insurgency in relation to trauma theory, especially Dominick LaCapra’s concept of middle voice which elucidates the neutrality in narrativization of any traumatic past. The article tries to find out how the narrator while presenting his or her traumatic testimony about a horrible event narrates it - objectively elucidating all the incidents neutrally as a neutral observer of the event not aligning with any fighting groups which would subsequently help both groups to accept the testimony as their own and realize their past agony and purgate their foes. If the testimony of historical events is narrated idealizing one and demonizing another group, it, later on, cannot be accepted as an authentic one and the condition of the victims of the events would be more aggravated as it cannot appease their tension. The testimony of the ten-year-long insurgency by any neutral observer can help many people narrativize their experience in the written form.</p> Badri Prasad Pokharel Copyright (c) 2023 Koteshwor Multiple Campus 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 7 1 29 35 10.3126/kmcrj.v7i1.65072 Towards Equity and Inclusion: Analyzing Gender Equality and Social Inclusion in Nepal’s Budgeting Process – A Comprehensive Review <p>Nepal, a diverse nation with a history of social disparities, is at the forefront of redefining its budgeting process to reflect a commitment to gender equality and social inclusion. In recent years, the country has recognized the imperative of addressing the entrenched inequalities that have marginalized women, ethnic minorities, and other marginalized groups.</p> <p>The core of this shift lies in the incorporation of gender-responsive budgeting (GRB) and a social inclusion lens into the national budgetary framework. This process ensures that budget allocations are not only gender-sensitive but also promote social cohesion and uplift historically disadvantaged communities. Women's empowerment, access to education and healthcare, and economic inclusion of marginalized groups are now central themes in budget formulation.</p> <p>This qualitative research involves an in-depth analysis of gender equality and social inclusion within Nepal's budgeting process. Through extensive literature review and content analysis of relevant documents, the study aims to provide a nuanced understanding of the challenges and opportunities in promoting equity in budget allocation and execution. This review article delves into the strategies, challenges, and successes of Nepal's journey towards gender equality and social inclusion in budgeting. It highlights the government's commitment to mainstreaming gender and social inclusion across ministries, the pivotal role of civil society in advocacy, and the need for data-driven decision-making to ensure targeted resource allocation.</p> Dipesh Ghimire Copyright (c) 2023 Koteshwor Multiple Campus 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 7 1 36 56 10.3126/kmcrj.v7i1.65076 Navigating Unsettling Intercultural Issues of Volunteer Tourism: A Synthetic Review <p>In light of the burgeoning research and operational facets of international volunteer tourism, a discernible surge in the engagement of global volunteers for cross-cultural interactions within Global South communities has become increasingly evident. However, global volunteers encounter formidable challenges during their transition into and engagement with the local host community, stemming from a conspicuous paucity of intercultural awareness. This predicament poses a substantial impediment to the aspirational objective of effectuating a beneficial and constructive impact on cross-cultural interaction with the host community. With an intercultural sensitivity lens, this synthetic review examines the major issues surrounding cross-cultural understanding and interactive learning as well as discusses potential mitigating strategies that nurture intercultural sensitivity, making transition and participation more effective for the well-being of the host community. The review suggests that cultural stereotyping, ethnocentric behaviors, self-fulfilling behaviors of volunteers, and the absence of meaningful local participation in co-production of knowledge in volunteer tourism appear to be key factors affecting meaningful cross-cultural interactions and ethical behaviors. The proposed strategies including pre-departure training and orientation as educational discipline, aimed at facilitating cross-cultural immersion, assimilation and interaction, seem to be neglected in practice of volunteering tourism. This oversight undermines the effectiveness of these crucial initiatives in achieving their intended outcomes.</p> Gopal Khadka Copyright (c) 2023 Koteshwor Multiple Campus 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 7 1 57 78 10.3126/kmcrj.v7i1.65078 Position and Trends of Resource Gap in Nepal <p>Nepal's budget shortfall stems from excessively high recurring expenses, constituting over 60% of the government's total spending. Conversely, capital expenses linger below 20%. This imbalance highlights an unfriendly stance towards growth in the budget deficit, necessitating reduction. This study has examined the position and trends of resource gap in Nepal for which the source of the data used in the analysis was secondary. The data has been collected for the period 1986-87 to 2021-22 from the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) under the National Planning Commission (series of GDP). Descriptive statistics and trend analysis is used for secondary data analysis. A Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software was used for data analysis for the study. The results revealed that Nepal is facing huge resource gap because of inability to raise revenue in comparison with the growing expenditure. To finance this huge resource gap the government is taking loans – both internal and external. Net outstanding public debt is increasing significantly. Government efforts should be placed on the mobilization of domestic resources for financing regular and development expenditure because foreign loan may be a great burden to the future.</p> Prakash Pokharel Copyright (c) 2023 Koteshwor Multiple Campus 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 7 1 79 100 10.3126/kmcrj.v7i1.65079 Development in Digital Capitalism: Challenges and Prospects of Nepal <p>This study delves into the challenges and possibilities surrounding the establishment of digital capitalism in Nepal. Utilizing a secondary data analysis methodology, it examines the current state of digital capitalism in the country and identifies the key obstacles and opportunities. The theoretical framework employed incorporates concepts like transnational informational capitalism, digital governance, and actor-network theory to comprehend the dynamic relationship between labor, technology, and capitalism in the digital era. The findings indicate that while Nepal has witnessed growth in internet penetration and mobile phone usage, there are still significant disparities in digital access and infrastructure between urban and rural areas. The challenges faced include inadequate digital infrastructure, limited consumer trust and awareness, and the need for more robust regulatory frameworks. Nevertheless, Nepal also holds promising prospects for digital capitalism. The increasing availability of smart-phones a techno-literate youth population, and government initiatives aimed at promoting digital literacy and entrepreneurship contribute to the country's potential in this area. The study underscores the significance of digital capitalism for Nepal's economic development and provides recommendations to policymakers, entrepreneurs, and researchers on how to foster an environment that facilitates the growth of digital capitalism. By addressing the challenges of digital infrastructure, building consumer trust, and strengthening regulatory frameworks, Nepal can harness the benefits of digital capitalism, leveraging it as a catalyst for economic progress in the country.</p> Suman Pokharel Copyright (c) 2023 Koteshwor Multiple Campus 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 7 1 101 111 10.3126/kmcrj.v7i1.65080 Factors Influencing Stock Prices in Commercial Banks of Nepal <p>This study explores the factors that influence stock prices in commercial banking business in Nepal. Descriptive and causal-comparative research design and purposive sampling technique used in this research examine how critical financial variables affect market prices per share (MPPS), including book value per share, earnings per share, dividend per share, and price-earnings ratio. There is a statistically significant but relatively small positive correlation between book value per share. The results show that MPPS and earnings per share, dividend per share, and price-earnings ratio are significantly positively correlated. The model demonstrates its robustness in capturing stock price changes by accounting for around 86.1% of the variation in MPPS. These observations offer insightful recommendations for experts and investors involved in Nepal's commercial banking sector.</p> Surendra Prasad Joshi Binod Ghimire Shinju Singh Copyright (c) 2023 Koteshwor Multiple Campus 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 7 1 112 126 10.3126/kmcrj.v7i1.65122