KMC Research Journal <p>A peer-reviewed journal on Art, Philosophy, Identity, Economy, Livelihood, and Foreign Policy published by the Research Department of Koteshwor Multiple Campus, Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> Koteshwor, Multiple Campus, Kathmandu, Nepal en-US KMC Research Journal 2565-4977 <p>© Koteshwor Multiple Campus</p> Memorialising and Commemorating Traumatic Past: Diary of a Guerrilla Girl <p>This article makes an attempt to analyze Tara Rai’s Chhapamar Yubatiko Dayari (The Diary of a Guerrilla Girl) with the help of trauma theory. It is a memoir which unfolds many hidden parts of a combatant as his/her testimony to signify the traumatic memory. Past events related to war and conflicts always bring a horrible consequence to the survivors who, if anything can, remember these historical events as an act of witnessing the painful traumatic events as a psychological need and a social duty to reminisce those who died in the battle. Testimony, expressed about those events would bring afore the facts which, otherwise, may not be known. In doing so, I have used the critical insights of Caruth and other trauma theorists to illustrate the historical role in understanding the psychological response to war trauma in the form of testimony.&nbsp; It is important to elucidate the social factors which play a pivotal role in psychological understanding and building together to develop the concept of the personal narrative.<strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> Badri Prasad Pokharel Copyright (c) 2019 @Koteshwor Multiple Campus 2019-06-13 2019-06-13 3 3 1 8 10.3126/kmcrj.v3i3.35684 Consumer Brand Preference in Buying Car in Nepal <p>The main objective this study is to identify the factors affecting the consumer brand preference in the choice of car in Kathmandu, Nepal. The study examines how the price perception, appearance perception and brand personality affect in the consumer brand preference in the buying of car in Nepalese market. The study focuses on how the consumer preferred to select the car and which factor has the more prominent role for brand preference and selection of car. Primary data has been used in the study. The structured questionnaire has been used for collection of primary data. Convenient sampling technique has been used to collect information from the respondents and 265 respondents have been taken from customers buying car in Kathmandu. Descriptive statistical analysis, correlation analysis and path analysis have been used to diagnose data collected to draw valid conclusions using SPSS AMOS 21. Price perception, appearance perception and brand personality are taken as independent variables to explore the degree of relationship with consumer behavior and to explore the impact of these variables on consumer behavior while making decision to purchase a car. Correlation showed that all independent variables have significant relationship with dependent variable. The path analysis showed that there is a significant impact of appearance perception and brand personality on consumer behavior in buying of car but price perception has no significant impact on consumer behavior in buying of car in Nepalese market.</p> Bharat Rai Copyright (c) 2019 Koteshwor Multiple Campus 2019-06-13 2019-06-13 3 3 9 22 10.3126/kmcrj.v3i3.35686 Information and Perception towards Emergency Contraception among Female Adolescent Students in Secondary School of Kathmandu District <p>Emergency Contraception is a method used to avoid pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse or a contraceptive accident to prevent an unwanted pregnancy. This method has potential to prevent up to 75% of unplanned pregnancies. The aim of this study is to assess the information and perception towards emergency contraception among female adolescent students in secondary school.&nbsp; Secondary classes (+2 Wing) run by Koteshwor Multiple Campus was selected as study area purposively. The study was conducted on November 2018 to December 2018. The study was based on descriptive cross-sectional research design. Self-administered structure and pre-tested questionnaire were used to obtain information and perception from 220 study participants were selected by simple random sampling technique. After data collection, the data was coded, entered, and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. The study shows that 84.5 percentages of the female adolescent students had heard about emergency contraceptive. 85 percentages of them identified the correct timing of use within 72 hours of unsafe sexual contact. 69 percentages respondents said they are ready to use emergency contraceptive if required. There is significant relation between educational level and information of emergency contraceptive. The level of information of emergency contraception among female adolescent students was high but perception towards that was negative while comparing to other studies.Thus,health education intervention regarding information and positive perception towards emergency contraception is needed to female adolescent students of secondary school. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Binod Kumar Karki Copyright (c) 2019 Koteshwor Multiple Campus 2019-06-13 2019-06-13 3 3 23 34 10.3126/kmcrj.v3i3.35708 Economic Prospect of Belt and Road Initiatives in Nepal <p>This paper attempts to explore global economic prospect of Belt and Road Initiative with special focus on Nepal. The paper begins with the overall account of BRI and examines how connectivity with China would help in prosperity for Nepal. Furthermore, the paper discusses about funding modality as Kerung-Kathmandu railway under BRI and various other dimensions of the construction. The paper concludes with some recommendations regarding immediate requirements for Nepal that should be addressed via BRI.</p> Biranchi Poudyal Copyright (c) 2019 Koteshwor Multiple Campus 2019-06-13 2019-06-13 3 3 35 44 10.3126/kmcrj.v3i3.35709 Service Learning: A Study of Relevancy in Nepal <p>Service learning is one of the lately introduced curriculum as well as method of teaching in the world. In practice, it is applicable in both school and higher level. The curriculum is partial one which is made based on students’ direct participation in community. The theory of service learning is basically learning through experience.&nbsp; Many education provider institutions around the world have developed it as mandatory curriculum with objective of making students active and community friendly. The relevancy of the curriculum corresponds with ultimate objective of education. The offered curriculum can have insight to strengthen reciprocal relation between students and society, and let them know about society, knowledge and social issues. As such direct involvement of students in community changes their perspectives toward society and nation.</p> Dataram Karki Copyright (c) 2019 Koteshwor Multiple Campus 2019-06-13 2019-06-13 3 3 45 52 10.3126/kmcrj.v3i3.35710 Salient Features of the Constitutions of Nepal and India: A Comparative Observation <p>While comparing the Constitution of Nepal 2015 and the Constitution of India 1950 the paper comparatively analyses the major issues such as citizenship, inclusiveness, fundamental rights and independence of judiciary. Both constitutions are committed to socialism based on democratic norms and values, including people’s competitive multiparty democratic system of governance, civil liberties, fundamental rights, federal republic, secularism, adult franchise, periodic elections, full freedom of the press, and independent, impartial, competent and free judiciary and concept of the rule of law. This qualitative research article observes the salient features of the constitution of Nepal and India in descriptive and analytical order with comparative methodology.</p> Dilli Raj Gautam Copyright (c) 2019 Koteshwor Multiple Campus 2019-06-13 2019-06-13 3 3 53 72 10.3126/kmcrj.v3i3.35712 Bringing Technology in the English Classrooms <p>Technology is one of the crucial and inevitable parts needed in twenty first century of the educational world. It is very important and challenging aspect in language education which is discussed below in this article. Human behavior is affected by technology is also highlighted in this article. How the language instructors bring effective and essential technological tools in English classrooms to enhance and promote learning of the students. Technologies provide a pedagogical basis for understanding how students learn and some of the approaches to teaching with technology use the best technological tools, and appropriate type of instruction to enhance learning under Bloom’s taxonomy are included. So, the technology offers for education and learning. Technology is now very essential in education, not only to the learners but to the instructor and school manager as well. Instructors must be on the edge of updating themselves in the integration of technology in teaching. Research must be conducted apart from what has been published. More articles are needed to publish to add more learning to the students and teachers to enhance in their learning through the incredible support of technology. Students should be provided ample opportunity through it to save their possible future that only can open the door of success in their learning.</p> Kamali Kanta Bhetuwal Copyright (c) 2019 Koteshwor Multiple Campus 2019-06-13 2019-06-13 3 3 73 82 10.3126/kmcrj.v3i3.35713 Nursing Practices in Dementia Management and Care in Nepal <p>Nurses fell barriers in management and care of dementia patients. A purposive random sampling approach identified 44 Registered Nurses (RN). The Knowledge of RNs’ with regard to the diagnosis, management and care of dementia was unsatisfactory on the aspects of&nbsp; practices and management barriers are presented with regard to the following issues: negative views of dementia, difficulty in diagnosing early stage dementia, acceptability of specialists and responsibility for extra issues, knowledge of dementias and ageing, less awareness of declining abilities and diminished resources to handle care,&nbsp; guidelines,&nbsp; awareness of epidemiology and advice giving, and communicating the diagnosis.The following paper outlines the problems and solutions that Nepalese nurses’ in the community need to adopt in order to deal effectively with its diagnosis, care and management.</p> Krishna Prasad Pathak Copyright (c) 2019 Koteshwor Multiple Campus 2019-06-13 2019-06-13 3 3 83 90 10.3126/kmcrj.v3i3.35714 Black Art: An Aesthetic Transformation for Freedom and Justice <p>This paper attempts to explore African Americans’ world view and its roots in Black Aesthetics. It also reveals that Black art is an aesthetic transformation of African Americans for freedom and an expectation of a higher level of life. Supporters of Black Aesthetics appealed to black artists to establish a new standard of judgment and beauty based on African myths, spirituality, belief systems and music in opposition to Western aesthetic. However, the Black Aesthetics had its origins in those first artistic resonances of black slaves in the form of spirituals, coded singing and signifying, and later in writings. Black aesthetic theory in the United States traces its origin to the literature of slavery and freedom. The slave narratives depict African-Americans’ artistic and academic labors to show their humanity and critical moments in the development of Black aesthetics. Writing about their own communities in order to establish a sense of self-worth and claiming their identities as African Americans are crucial elements in the works of many Black writers.</p> Lekha Nath Dhakal Copyright (c) 2019 Koteshwor Multiple Campus 2019-06-13 2019-06-13 3 3 91 99 10.3126/kmcrj.v3i3.35716 Nationalism: A Border–Making Ideal <p>In this research article, my purpose and goal will be to show nationalism as a border-constructing ideal. Various different types of nations and nationalities, divide humans in different nationality groups. Nationalism, as a term, refers to a doctrine or political movement that holds a nation, usually defined in terms of ethnicity or culture, has the right to constitute an independent or autonomous political community based on a shared history and common destiny. In the true sense, nationalism does not cover all humans but just a community in which people share common history, culture and so on. It is concerned mainly with the creation of a state and its maintenance and strengthening. It can be understood as a political program that sees creation and maintenance of a fully sovereign state owned by a given ethno-national group, people or nation, as a major duty of each member belonging to the group. This article incorporates the ideas and theoretical insights of various theorists/writers towards nationalism. I introduce nationalism, discuss, very briefly, the seven types of nationalism presented in contemporary literature, present an overview of ‘nation,’ ‘ state’ and ‘nation-state,’ and draw the conclusion that nationalism is a boundary making ideal. I use qualitative technique in preparing this article prove my claim that nationalism makes wall and divides people in different groups.</p> Pradip Kumar Giri Copyright (c) 2019 Koteshwor Multiple Campus 2019-06-13 2019-06-13 3 3 100 108 10.3126/kmcrj.v3i3.35717 Competitor Accounting (CA) of Joint Venture Banks <p>In order to facilitate the collection and analysis of accounting information related with the competitor in the context of strategic management accounting, the term competitor accounting has been developed. However, no empirical results are available as to the extent to which such information influences strategic decision behavior. Main purpose of this study is to explore the effect of competitor accounting on performance of the joint venture banks, and compare the effectiveness of competitor accounting between those banks. For this structured questionnaire survey with 133 staffs of the concerned banks as well as unstructured interview with 4 senior managers were conducted. Various published and unpublished reports like annual reports of the concerned banks were also used. From the study it is found out that levels of CA formalised application appear limited, especially when compared with a widely held managerial perception that significant benefits could derive from CA. The CA practices noted were conducted in an unstructured and ad hoc manner. CA does not have any effect on performance of Nepalese joint venture banks because of not applying any formalised CA application.</p> <p>The study had /some of the limitations generally associated with a qualitative as well as quantitative study. These limitations include the degree of subjectivity that is invoked when researchers interpret qualitative data, scarcity of various resources, and accuracy of secondary data.</p> <p>The study clarifies the notion of CA and provides an outline of CA management issues arising in the context of a joint venture banks. An outline is provided of those parts of a bank operation that are most likely to be more active in CA, together with empirically informed suggestions with respect to CA uses in a joint venture banks.</p> Prakash Pokharel Copyright (c) 2019 Koteshwor Multiple Campus 2019-06-13 2019-06-13 3 3 109 122 10.3126/kmcrj.v3i3.35718 Gender Discrimination and Its Impacts in Macro-Economic Development <p>Gender refers to the complex social construction of men’s and women’s identities. Sex and gender are different. The biological or physical construction is sex, which is created by nature. Gender is&nbsp; purely a social construct.</p> <p>Gender Equality is a concept that is yet to be materialized. Around the world different individuals and groups of people are marginalized and discriminated on the basis of various factors, but discrimination against women is universal. Due to this, women are not able to use their full potential or assert their rights to live healthy life, and it has a deep impact in economic development.</p> <p>Gender equality is not only matter of human right but also basic of economic development. Gender inequality is a severe obstacle to socio-economic development, human capital development and income generation. Gender inequality is harmful to long term development and growth. Unequal gender will never alone be sufficient for poverty reduction and economic development.</p> <p>Gender discrimination not only affects females but males as well. The discriminatory practices do not only affect individuals but national economy and world economy as a whole. Due to stereotypical division of work most men are over loaded with economic duties, while women are being limited to household works only. Fifty per cent of the world population is over-loaded with economic duties, while fifty per cent of the brain is underutilized. The economic value of the household work which is done by females is not calculated and reflected in a country’s economy. This devalues the effort and work done by females and also is loss for the national economy. Education and development goes together, for a better balance of gender, educational equality is must. Education is key factor to promote human capital, which ensures economic growth. Formal education, trainings, study programs improves the capacity of individuals to live a decent life, which is the basic of development. Gender will never alone be sufficient for development.</p> <p>Gender equality is not only matter of human right but also basis of economic development.</p> Savitri Shrestha Copyright (c) 2019 Koteshwor Multiple Campus 2019-06-13 2019-06-13 3 3 123 134 10.3126/kmcrj.v3i3.35719 Interface between Subalternity and Sexuality in Arundhati Roy’s The God of Small Things <p>There is an interface between subalternity and sexuality in Arundhati Roy’s ‘<em>The God of Small Things</em>’. This article attempts to describe that sexuality has been stood as a form of protest and resistance against all forms of discrimination and prejudices against subaltern groups. The central characters of the novel, Velutha, and Ammu’s copulation with each other is implicitly an attempt to break the artificial and arbitrary walls constructed between the so called elite class and the subaltern groups. Thus, the sexuality can be discussed as a means of liberation from the chain of subalternity. However, the attempt was averted when the protesters (Velutha and Ammu) confront the mechanical society. The act of copulation exposed the subalternity of Velutha and sexuality of Ammu. Both Ammu and Velutha cross the social boundary. So called marriage system and love laws both have been transgressed upon. It is due to the sexual act, the so called authentic laws and systems have been broken, all things dismissed, impossible become possible. Such instinct is uncontrollable. This article analyses that in the matter of sex, so called touchable and untouchable, master and servant, so called higher class and lower caste all become equal; there remains no boundary at all; as it has been presented in Arundhati Roy’s <em>The God of Small Things</em>.</p> Sedunath Dhakal Copyright (c) 2019 Koteshwor Multiple Campus 2019-06-13 2019-06-13 3 3 135 142 10.3126/kmcrj.v3i3.35720 Status of Employment Among Tamangs and Non-Tamangs Women in Sindhupalchowk District <p>This paper tries to highlight the women’s working status in previous time to some changing status these days in Sinhupalchowk District. In the previous time women have to do all manual work, women reserve the grain, tend to the livestock, grow the vegetable in the kitchen garden, transplant the saplings at the start of the cropping season and than again reap, thresh and clean the harvest. Such activities are not restricted to the village economy alone; women are also equally involved in other development work of their community these days.</p> <p>The family work could be defined as the total volume of physical and mental labour performed for the maintenance of a family. It incorporate all the endeavors applied for the person him/herself and for others. Indeed, the family work in total should be termed as the collective responsibility of all the members of family. However the burden of family work is usually greater for the women and for those people living in the marginalized economy of the household. The CNAS collected data suffices the ground to conclude that the women in Sindhupalchowk have miserable life .But now-days some women are changing their employment to government service and foreign employment.&nbsp;</p> Tulasa Devi Dulal Copyright (c) 2019 Koteshwor Multiple Campus 2019-06-13 2019-06-13 3 3 143 158 10.3126/kmcrj.v3i3.35722 Knowledge and Attitude towards Sexually Transmitted Disease and HIV/AIDS among Secondary Level School Students <p>Adolescent sexuality leads to adolescent pregnancy, unsafe abortion, reproductive tract infections, sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS.The study objective is to assess the knowledge and attitude towards sexually transmitted disease and HIV/AIDs among secondary level school students of Kathmandu metropolitan city. Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires. The study population was school adolescent students. They were selected by using random sampling method. After data collection, descriptive statistics were used to analyse the collected data. Knowledge and attitude towards sexual transmitted disease is significantly varied with student’s background characteristics. Around 95% of study population had heard about sexually transmitted disease and almost 99% heard about HIV/AIDS. Majority 85.6% of students reported that they “agreed” that HIV/AIDS is a major problem in Nepal however 14.4% students were not agreed on it. 73% respondents reported that teachers are the main source of knowledge regarding sexual transmitted disease and HIV/AIDS.It is clear that students need a specific package of education about sexual and reproductive health in school curriculum so that they could gain more information about sexually transmitted disease and HIV/AIDS.</p> Urmila Sunuwar Copyright (c) 2019 Koteshwor Multiple Campus 2019-06-13 2019-06-13 3 3 159 170 10.3126/kmcrj.v3i3.35723