Journal of Lumbini Engineering College <p>The Journal of Lumbini Engineering College is published by the Lumbini Engineering College, Tilottama-7, Bhalwari (Rupandehi) Nepal. It is a research based multi-disciplinary Journal. The aim of this journal is to publish research based articles of different disciplines like Science and Technology, Management, Arts and Education, Medicine, Engineering, Agriculture and Forestry.</p> Lumbini Engineering College en-US Journal of Lumbini Engineering College 2565-5205 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This license allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format for non-commercial purposes only, and only so long as attribution is given to the creator. </span></p> Realization of 25-GHz spaced Ultra densed Spectrum-Sliced WDM PON with 3- spectrum sliced channels using 50-GHz AWGs <p>We used three spectrum sliced even and odd channels using a pair of 50-GHz Arrayed-waveguide gratings (AWGs) demonstrating the possibility of 25-GHz spaced ultra densed spectrum-sliced wavelength-division[1]multiplexed passive optical network. Those AWGs have an offset of 25 GHz with respect to each other. For the demultiplexing of the channels, we used a pair of 50-GHz AWGs. We intended to use these AWGs as it gives better bit-error rate performances and has two times larger channel bandwidth than conventional 25-GHz AWGs . Moreover, the increased spectral overlap between adjacent channels produces relatively small crosstalk since the channels are incoherent and the irintensity noise is absorbed by the reflective semiconductor amplifiers. The 25-GHz spaced spectrum-sliced spectrum-sliced WDM passive optical network can be realized more easily using 50-GHz AWGs since 50-GHz AWGs are more available in the market than 25- GHz AWGs.</p> Dipen Manandhar Surendra Shrestha Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 5 1 1 3 10.3126/lecj.v5i1.60114 Unlocking the Power of Flipped Learning: Revolutionizing Science Education <p>Flipped learning (FL) is an increasingly popular approach in SL that shows great promise for improving student learning outcomes and engagement. This review article explores the potential benefits and future research directions in FL in science learning (SL). Emerging trends in FL include the use of interactive video tools, mobile learning, and virtual and augmented reality technologies. Future research could investigate the effectiveness of these tools in enhancing SE and learning outcomes in SL, as well as their impact on student motivation and self-regulated learning (SRL). The article presents a comprehensive literature review that summarizes the previous research findings and highlights the effectiveness of FL in SL. However, implementing FL presents unique challenges, such as the need for access to technology and the time commitment required for both students and teachers. The article provides best practices for implementing FL in SL, which includes a focus on student-centered learning, interactive activities, and ongoing assessment. FL has the potential to revolutionize SL and improve student outcomes. It is a flexible and dynamic approach that can be adapted to different science disciplines and learning contexts. Therefore, the article emphasizes the need for further research in FL and the importance of its implementation in SL.</p> Indra Raj Upadhyaya Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 5 1 4 16 10.3126/lecj.v5i1.60115 Experimental and Theoretical Study on Electronic and Optical Properties of TiO2 (anatase) Bulk and Al Doped Thin Film Phases <p>Tuning the electronic and optical properties of TiO<sub>2</sub> is very important because of the variety of applications, including photocatalysts, electronics and data storage devices, and solar cells. Here, we performed the theoretical and experimental investigation of electronic, and optical properties of TiO<sub>2</sub> and Al doped TiO<sub>2</sub> in the form of bulk and thin film. A tight binding linear muffintin orbital (TB-LMTO) approach is used to optimized the TiO<sub>2</sub> (anatase) in bulk phase. The optimized lattice parameter of TiO<sub>2</sub> (anatase) is found to be 3.89Å.The band structure plot reveals that bulk TiO<sub>2</sub> (anatase) bears wide bandgap semiconducting behavior with bandgap (Eg) 3.23 eV whereas thin film of aluminium doped TiO<sub>2</sub> (anatase) behaves as a metal. The symmetric nature of up and down density of state (DOS) and projected density of states (PDOS) for both bulk and thin film of TiO<sub>2</sub> (anatase) ensures their non-magnetic behavior. Experimental observation shows that the surface reflectance of the film increases with increasing concentration of aluminium (Al) while transmittance observed as opposite trends. The direct and indirect bandgaps of TiO<sub>2</sub> film evaluated using transmittance curves are 3.53 eV and 3.27 eV respectively, which are well agreed with the available standard band-gap range of TiO<sub>2</sub> film (3.2 eV to 3.65 eV). The direct band gaps for Al-1% and Al-3% doped TiO<sub>2</sub> film are 3.60 eV and 3.62 eV respectively with thickness obtained from swanepoel method are 682.06 nm and 745.56 nm respectively.</p> G. C. Kaphle R. P. Kharel B. P. Kafle Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 5 1 17 27 10.3126/lecj.v5i1.60116 Policy and Practices of E-Waste Management in Nepal: An Emerging Challenge <p>E-waste management is an immediate matter of concern for every country of the world as it not only pollutes the environment but also very toxic and hazardous to the health of living beings. Major challenges to its management come from lack of understanding of the scope and depth of the management methods, legislation relating to e-waste and socio-economic issues of the country. These challenges can be resolved only if public-private partnership goes hand in hand with knowledge of the consequences of improper disposal practices. The reuse and recycle of e-waste is to be disseminated backed by the proper Regulatory Framework.</p> Rewoti Ram Pantha Yutthapong Pianroj Kuaanan Techato Saroj Gyawali Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 5 1 28 37 10.3126/lecj.v5i1.60117 Relevancy of Online Classes in Mathematics Education <p>This research study entitled Relevancy of Online Classes in Mathematics Education was carried out to identify the views of students on relevance of online classes in mathematics education. The main objective of this study was to analyze student's barriers to online learning in mathematics education in the context of Nepal and to analyze the opportunities that students entertain while taking online class in mathematics education. The sample was 100 Students for questionnaire and 10 students for interview they were studying at first and fourth semesters of master degree in mathematics education during academic year 2077 at Tribhuvan University. The questionnaires and interview were used for the collection of data containing close-ended and open ended questions. The Campus and the students were selected by using probability proportional sampling procedure. The collected data were analyzed by descriptively and statistically. In the conclusion the opportunities of online class outweigh the barriers that students face. Online class provides great opportunity for universities in developing countries to improve their teaching and learning processes. Moreover, the findings of this study states that master level students of mathematics education had positive opinion towards the online classes in mathematics education. From all the finding the researcher concludes that online class is relevant for the students of mathematics education in Tribhuvan University.</p> Bishnu Bahadur Badaila Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 5 1 38 48 10.3126/lecj.v5i1.60118 Inclusive Democracy and Local Governance of Rural Education and its Challenges <p>Diverse races, faiths, castes, creeds, and languages characterize Nepali society. The nation is divided into far-flung, isolated enclaves and compartments by the terrain of the hills, mountains, and plains with rivers and streams. Such diversity poses difficulties for economic progress, which has a direct impact on education, particularly for women. In this situation, both men and women can contribute to Nepal's development efforts. Even while women are more capable and essential to changing society in many ways, there is still a lack of security regarding work chances in society. Women's participation in Nepal is a difficult task not just in terms of education but also in terms of the labor market, public policy, and levels of decision-making. It seems that significant efforts should be taken to ensure women's participation in education in order to improve the growth of the nation.</p> Umesh Pd. Acharya Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 5 1 49 60 10.3126/lecj.v5i1.60119 Performance Assessment of Kawasoti Water Supply and Sanitation Project, Nawalparasi, Nepal <p>The Government of Nepal aimed to provide adequate basic supply of safe drinking water to all its citizens by 2023 (15thAdhar Patra, National Planning Commission). Although the national level of water supply and sanitation facility coverage is 88 and 98 percent respectively, only 25.4% of water supply projects are fully functional. The performance assessment of completed piped water supply scheme should to be assessed for the functionality and sustainability of the project. With an example of Kawasoti Small Town Water Supply Project (KSTWSP), performance of the service provider is assessed in terms of physical state, functionality, customer satisfaction, water resource management, financial management and human resource management. The major findings were that bacterial removal efficiency of slow sand filter is greater than 95 % and the turbidity from the outlet of slow sand filter was found to be less than 0.1 NTU. The study of financial data of Kawasoti WUSC shows that operating revenue is sufficient to cover the operating expenses of WUSC. The water demand for the year 2075 to 2086 were found to be (7.32, 7.58, 7.84, 8.12, 8.40, 8.69, 8.99, 9.31, 9.68, 10.07, 10.47, 10.89, 11.33 and 11.79) MLD respectively. The water production was taken as an average of 9.94 MLD. The analysis shows up to the year 2083, the system will be able to meet the water demand. So after 2083, the WUSC might need to make necessary arrangement for additional water sources to meet the water demand. Staff productivity index has been 3.70 from the year 2070 to 2075, which indicates efficient utilization of the staff. Thus the study concluded that the performance of Kawasoti WUSC is up to satisfactory level till this study year 2075.</p> Pradeep Regmi Shankar Mani Jnawali Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 5 1 61 66 10.3126/lecj.v5i1.60120 Influence of Egg Shell Powder, Bagasse Ash and Lime on Stability of Soil <p>Foundation is indispensable part of any civil construction. Construction of building structures and other civil engineering structures such as roadways, railways, waterways, airports, water retaining structures, involve huge human and financial resources and their construction on loose or weak soil is a threat to both humans and the project itself, and can also result into loss of both. Construction on weak soil has been significant challenge for geotechnical engineers since time immemorial, thus various types of soil stabilizers are used to stabilize weak soil whose selection depends upon the availability of the stabilizing material, soil properties, environmental condition, foundation type and the budget of the project. The present study intends to evaluate the influence of mixture of sugarcane bagasse ash (SABS), egg shell powder (ESP) and lime on weak soil so as to stabilize it. The physical properties of original soil sample and aforementioned additives mixed soil sample have been carefully determined by conducting sieve analysis, Atterberg’s limit test, direct shear strength, Modified Proctor test, California Bearing Ratio (CBR), specific gravity test and free swell index test. Comparative analysis was carried out among all the samples to determine the optimum percentage of sugarcane bagasse ash, egg shell powder and lime required for the stabilization of the weak soil under study. The use of bagasse ash, eggshell powder and lime showed favorable results when determining the geotechnical properties of various sample mix. Despite decrease in the cohesion and maximum dry density during addition of bagasse only in the sample mix, addition of other additives even in small amount brought positive impact in the results. The value of angle of internal friction increased from 23.24 degrees to 29.08 degrees and cohesion increased from 0.19 kg/cm<sup>2</sup> to 0.21 kg/cm<sup>2</sup>. Similarly maximum dry density also increased form 16.54 kN/m<sup>3</sup> to 17.42 kN/m<sup>3</sup> and optimum moisture content decreased from 16.26% to 15.76%.</p> Bibek Uprety Biswas Uprety Ananda Panta Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 5 1 67 74 10.3126/lecj.v5i1.60127 Study of Concrete-Filled Square and Circular Tubes Subjected to Axial Compression Load <p>This study investigated the behavior of concrete filled tube (CFT) under axial compression load, focusing on specimens with different steel-to-concrete ratios and tube thicknesses. The load-deflection behavior, failure mode, and ultimate strength of the CFT specimens were analyzed for different tube sections, including circular and square hollow sections. The results showed that the CFT specimens exhibited a ductile behavior with stable load carrying capacity up to failure. The ultimate strength of the CFT specimens was found to increase with increasing steel-to-concrete ratio and tube thickness. The study provides useful insights into the behavior of CFTs under axial compression load, which can be used in the design of CFT structures. The use of high[1]strength steel in CFSTs can further enhance their strength and durability. The study also highlighted the influence of factors such as the size and shape of the steel tube and the compressive strength of the concrete on the strength of short CFST columns. Overall, this research can be valuable to engineers and researchers working in the field of structural and construction engineering.</p> Prabesh Chapagain Santosh Pandey Gopinath Chapagain Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 5 1 75 82 10.3126/lecj.v5i1.60129 Complementary Feeding Practices among Mothers Having Under Two Years Children <p><strong>Background</strong>:-Complementary feeding refers to the introduction of solid, semi-solid and soft food with adequate amount and frequency in addition to breast milk at six months of age of child. Timely initiation of nutritionally adequate, safe, age-appropriate complementary feeding is recommended for the better health and development of under two years children. Therefore, the main aim of the study was to find out the complementary feeding practices among mothers having under two years children.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>:-A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used for the study. A total of 70 mothers having children of 6-24 months of age were selected from Pediatric OPD and immunization clinic, TUTH by using non-probability convenience sampling technique. Semi[1]structured interview schedule was used to identify complementary feeding practice among mothers. Data was collected from 7th to 19th August, 2022, entered in SPSS version 26 and analysis was done using descriptive and inferential statistics.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>-The study findings revealed that the practice of exclusive breastfeeding was 78.6% and 88.6% mothers are continuing breast feeding along with complementary feeding. 55.7% of mothers timely initiated complementary feeding. Minimum Meal Frequency, Minimum Dietary Diversity and Minimum Acceptable Diet was met by 64.3%, 97.1% and 64.3% of children respectively. The status of complementary feeding practice is significantly associated with age of mother and age of child.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>:-It is concluded that majority of children do not meet Minimum Dietary Diversity and Minimum Acceptable Diet. So, there is a need for interventions which encourage and aware mothers about importance of feeding adequate and minimum acceptable diet to enhance optimum growth and development of under two years children.</p> Yamuna Aryal Gayetri Darshandhari Kapali Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 5 1 83 91 10.3126/lecj.v5i1.60130 Role of hydrogen and hydrogen storage in lithium hydride <p>Tight binding linear muffin-tin orbitals atomic sphere approximation have been used to examine the structural stability, electronic properties, charge density and magnetization of lithium hydride (LiH). In our study, the direct band gap (4.25 eV) detected between the valence bands (especially dominated by hydrogen) and conduction bands implies that LiH is insulating in nature with strong ionic bonds and weak orbitals-hybridization. Furthermore, we noticed that the hydrogen contributed more to the total density of states than the lithium in the complete system, based on the spin polarised partial density of states of H and Li. Because our calculated band gap accords with experiment, the results found in LiH suggest that it is a better choice for optoelectronic devices. The strength of hybridization of orbitals and band gap properties improve energy storage as well.</p> Saran Lamichhane Mahesh Giri Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 5 1 92 96 10.3126/lecj.v5i1.60131