Med Phoenix 2021-07-19T16:25:51+00:00 Dr Vikash Paudel Open Journal Systems <p>An official, open access, peer-reviewed biomedical scientific journal of National Medical College, Birgunj, Nepal.&nbsp;</p> Bilateral Post-typhoid Retinitis: A Case Report 2021-07-19T16:06:04+00:00 Kumudini Subedi Smita Shrestha Anu Manandhar <p>Retinitis following typhoid fever is an immune-mediated reaction that is rarely reported in literature. We present a case of a 20-year-old pregnant female who presented with progressive loss of vision in both eyes for three weeks. She had completed treatment for enteric fever 4 weeks before. Presenting vision was 6/36 in right eye and 3/60 in left eye. Fundus examination showed retinitis with retinal haemorrhages and macular stars in both eyes. After approval from gynaecologist, oral steroid was given. Vision improved significantly to 6/6 in right eye and 6/12 in left eye after 1.5 months of treatment. There was resolution of haemorrhages, exudates and stellate maculopathy. Hence, post-typhoid immune-mediated retinitis is rare sequelae of typhoid fever which can be treated with good visual outcome using oral steroids.</p> 2021-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Med Phoenix Posterior Reversible Encepalopathy Syndrome in A Child With Post Streptococcal Glomerulonephritis- A Rare Case Report 2021-07-19T16:06:06+00:00 Sunita Ghimire Shree Krishna Shrestha Ram Chandra Bastola Anita Dahal Pragya Shakya <p>Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a condition occurring&nbsp; in majority of case of&nbsp; hypertensive encephalopathy mainly due to vasogenic&nbsp; edema in parieto occipital region in neuroimaging. It is reversible if timely treatment is done .Here we are reporting a 11 year old female child with acute post streptococal glomerulonephrtitis leading to typical clinical and radiological features of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome</p> 2021-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Med Phoenix A Rare complication of Cholelithiasis: Cholecystocolic Fistula – Case Report 2021-07-19T16:06:07+00:00 Anup Shrestha Abhishek Bhattarai Kesh Maya Gurung Manoj Chand <p>Although the pre-operative diagnosis of the cholecystocolic fistula has been reported, yet it is by no means a common finding<sup>.</sup> Cholecystocolic fistula is the second most type of biliary enteric fistula after cholecystoduodenal fistula. Cholecystogastric fistula is least commonly reported. We report our experience with cholecystocolic fistula discovered on imaging which was subsequently confirmed through surgery. The standard treatment for CCF is open cholecystectomy and closure of the fistula. Failure to identify preoperatively or intra-operatively can lead to various complications.&nbsp; <sup>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</sup></p> 2021-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Med Phoenix A Rare Case report on Rheumatic Origin of Severe Tricuspid stenosis 2021-07-19T16:06:09+00:00 Shankar Laudari Kaushal Kishore Tiwari Sanket Adhyaru Ashish Subedi <p>Tricuspid stenosis is a very rare valvular disease due to narrowing of the orifice of the tricuspid valve of the heart. It is usually of rheumatic origin which is accompanied by other valvular lesions. Other causes of tricuspid stenosis include carcinoid syndrome, endocarditis, endomyocardial fibrosis, lupus erythematosus, right atrial myxoma, drug induced and congenital tricuspid atresia. Here we report a patient who had undergone percutaneous transluminal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC) followed by mitral restenosis with Severe Tricuspid Stenosis with Severe Tricuspid Regurgitation.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Med Phoenix Coexistence of Stump Appendicitis and Ovarian Fibro-Thecoma in a Young Women with Recurrent Right Iliac Fossa Pain During Pregnancy; A Rare Case Report 2021-07-19T16:06:10+00:00 Sana Ansari <p>Ovarian Fibro-thecoma is a rare, benign, sex cord-stromal neoplasm, with a typically unilateral location in the ovary, characterized by mixed features of both fibroma and thecoma. Ovarian Fibro-thecoma is Uncommon tumor of gonadal stromal cell origin accounting for 3-4% of all ovarian tumors. We describe a rare case of Fibro-thecoma in a 27- year women with a history of recurrent right iliac fossa pain during pregnancy associated with fever and vomiting with previous history of laparotomy for appendicular abscess 10 years back. She presented to us during pregnancy with this complain for which she was managed conservatively. She did not maintain her follow up regularly at our hospital and visited again after delivery of her baby with a still birth outcome with a newly diagnosed complex bilateral ovarian cyst demonstrated on ultrasound and computed tomography showed inflammatory Right sided tubo-ovarian mass along with inflammatory thickening of ileum in right lower quadrant adjacent to right ovarian mass lesion. The patient underwent laparotomy for this with the removal of mass along with the removal of appendicular stump for appendicular stump appendicitis which was diagnosed intraoperatively. The finding from histopathological examination of the mass was consistent with the diagnosis of Fibro-thecoma.</p> 2021-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Med Phoenix A Weird Way to Sustain a Near Fatal Neck Injury, A Case Report 2021-07-19T16:06:12+00:00 Amit Jha Tilak Limbu Sovit Jung Baral Donjon Bahadur Lamichhane Bibek Regmi <p>Accidental injuries are common during festivals. With time, the traditional practices have been ill-defined and have turned out social misconduct and malpractice. Children and young adults barricade the road to extort money from the passerby in the name of tradition during festivals. Barricading roads occasionally results in loss of control over vehicles and falling down on the road sustaining trauma including neck injuries among the drivers. This is a report of a case of a young male biker who got trapped along the rope tied across the road and nearly strangulated to death.</p> 2021-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Med Phoenix Medical Education and Telemedicine in the COVID-19 Pandemic 2021-07-19T16:05:46+00:00 Vikash Paudel <p>N/A</p> 2021-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Med Phoenix Quality of Life Among Medical Students in Nepal: A Comparative Study 2021-07-19T16:05:47+00:00 Anoop Krishna Gupta Rakhi Sharma Geeta Bashyal <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Medical education increases mental stress and affects the quality of life in medical students. Tough competition, academic performances, psychological distress, and unhealthy lifestyle add extra burden to the student. The study aimed to compare the quality of life among students of first and final year students.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> This was a cross-sectional study among first and final-year students of Bachelor in Medicine and Bachelor in Surgery (MBBS) degree at National Medical College at Birgunj, Nepal. Pre-designed socio-demographic proforma along with the Kuppuswamy scale was administered to the student. Another scale used was the English version of (World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief version) WHOQoL-Bref scale.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> Eighty-one students participated in this study, where 54 students were from the first year and 27 students from an internship. 43.2% of them belonged to the upper socioeconomic class as per the Kuppuswamy scale. The quality of life of interns was higher and better in all domains but was statistically significant in general (0.002), psychological (0.006), environmental (0.002), and overall (0.008) domains.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The quality of life of medical students is lower than the general population.&nbsp; It is poorer for the first-year student than the final year interns.</p> 2021-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Med Phoenix Success Rate of Insertion and Postoperative Sore Throat: I-Gel Versus Laryngeal Mask Airway Classic 2021-07-19T16:05:49+00:00 Prakriti Pokhrel Prastab Parajuli <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Supraglottic devices are a useful advent in airway management filling a gap between the facemask and tracheal tube in terms of both anatomical position and degree of invasiveness. Laryngeal mask airway classic (LMA-C)&nbsp; being first of its kind and I-gel is second generation non-inflatable supraglottic device. The objective of our study was to compare the two supraglottic devices, Laryngeal mask airway classic (LMA-C) and I-gel for a success rate of insertion and postoperative sore throat.</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: A total of 80 patients scheduled for elective surgical procedures were studied in a prospective, randomly assigned, comparative and interventional manner. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups with forty patients in each group. I-gel and LMA-C were used in Groups 1 and 2 respectively. After achieving adequate depth of anesthesia the supraglottic device of appropriate size was inserted. The success rate of insertion of the device was represented by the number of insertion attempts. In the postoperative ward within 24 hours after surgery patient was asked whether a sore throat was present.</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>Results</strong>: There was a statistically significant difference between the two supraglottic devices in terms of successful attempts of insertion (p-value 0.02).In group 1(I-gel)34 out of 40 patients had first attempt insertion success,6 patients in the second attempt, and no patient had third insertion attempt. In group 2 (LMA-C) first-time insertion success was in 14 patients, 23 patients in the second attempt, and 3 patients in the third attempt. The incidence of postoperative sore throat was higher in the LMA-C group than the I-gel group(17.5% vs 5% respectively) with a p-value of 0.154.</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>Conclusion</strong>: Compared to the laryngeal mask airway classic, I-gel was inserted with less number of attempts and had a lower incidence of postoperative sore throat.</p> 2021-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Med Phoenix Efficacy of Tamsulosin and Alfuzosin in Management of Distal Ureteral Stones 2021-07-19T16:05:50+00:00 Bimochan Piya Abhishek Bhattarai <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Urinary tract calculi are the most frequent condition in urology clinics worldwide. The overall prevalence is about 5 % and lower urinary tract stones account for 70% among them. Medical expulsive therapy has been used to treat distal ureteric stone as it reduces symptoms and facilitates stone expulsion. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the efficacy of tamsulosin and alfuzosin as medical therapy in ureteric stones.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>A total of 87 patients with distal ureteral stones of size ≤10 mm were randomly divided into 3 groups. Group A patients (n-30) received 0.4 mg of tamsulosin daily, group B patients (n-29) received 10 mg of alfuzosin daily and group C patients (n-28) received 75 mg of diclofenac sodium. Patients in all groups received diclofenac sodium for one week and then as required. Follow-up was done on a weekly basis for 4 weeks. The stone expulsion rate, time for stone expulsion, and side-effects were recorded in each group.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean stone size (5.66, 5.79, 5.67) mm and age (29.1, 30.31, 29.4) were comparable in each group. The stone expulsion rate was 83.3%, 79.3%, and 50% in groups A, B, and C respectively.&nbsp; It showed that both the study groups (Group A and Group B) were effective than the control group (p-value 0.006 and 0.02 respectively) but there was no difference between tamsulosin and alfuzosin (p-value 0.69). The duration of stone expulsion was 11.5 days, 11.8 days, and 17.3 days for Group A, B, and C respectively. The drugs related side effects reported by patients were mild and transient.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: &nbsp;</strong>The use of tamsulosin and alfuzosin for the medical treatment of ureteric stones proved to be safe and effective and neither did have any significant benefits over the other.</p> 2021-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Med Phoenix Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Pharmacovigilance among Doctors at a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital Birgunj, Nepal 2021-07-19T16:05:52+00:00 Smita Singh Deependra Prasad Sarraf Prabin Singh Pragati Poudyel <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Pharmacovigilance helps in the detection and prevention of adverse effects of drugs. For the effectiveness of this program, health care professionals should report adverse drug reactions (ADRs) considering it as their moral and professional obligation. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of the doctors towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance in&nbsp; National Medical College Teaching Hospital (NMCTH), a tertiary care teaching hospital situated in the Narayani zone.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional study was carried out using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of four parts; first part included a demographic profile of participants, the second part consisted of ten questions for the assessment of&nbsp;the knowledge about pharmacovigilance, third part comprised of six questions on attitude and fourth part&nbsp;consisted of five questions on practice. The results were depicted in the form of percentages for each KAPs questionnaire.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The response rate of participants was 85.16%. Pharmacovigilance was correctly defined by 52%. Department of drug administration was responsible for monitoring ADRs in Nepal was correctly given by 80%. Only 8% had reported ADRs, although 62% had encountered an ADR in their clinical practice.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The doctors at NMCTH had a poor KAP towards pharmacovigilance and educational intervention is needed for the proper functioning of this program.</p> 2021-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Med Phoenix Carotid Plaques Among Different Ethinic Patients with Ischemic Stroke 2021-07-19T16:25:51+00:00 Bhakta Dev Shrestha Sunny Bajracharya Samrat Shrestha Manen Prasad Gorkahly <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Sonographic evaluation of the carotid artery is commonly used for risk assessment in stroke. In Nepal, there are few studies regarding morphological changes in the carotid artery including the percentage of stenosis, types of plaque, sites of plaque. These changes quite vary in relation to age, sex, and ethnicity, and other risk factors. The primary objective of the study was to find the prevalence of carotid plaques in different ethnic groups with ischemic stroke.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: The study was an observational, cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in the Neuromedicine department of the National Academy of Medical Sciences. The study included a consecutive sampling of the patients diagnosed with ischemic stroke admitted in the neuro/medicine ward or those visiting neuro/medicine OPD of Bir hospital.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Out of the 80 study patients,26.3% patients were Brahmans/Chhetri,11.3% were Madhesi,10 % were Dalits,25% were Newars and 27.5% were Janajati. In descending order, the presence of carotid plaque in Janajati (20%) was followed by Newars (18.8), Brahmans (17.5%), Madhesi group (8.8%), and Dalit (7.5%). The mean number of plaque was higher in Brahman/Chhetri group 3.33 with S.D 3.28 and lowest in Janajati group 2.20 with S.D 3.16. It was found that around 24% of the cases had unilateral carotid plaques and 49% had bilateral carotid plaques. Janajati group had a maximum proportion of bilateral plaques while Dalit had the least proportion (15% vs 2.5%). However, the difference among the ethnic groups was not significant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The prevalence of carotid plaques, the maximum number of plaques, and the number of bilateral plaques, all were highest in the Janajati group. However, the mean number of the carotid plaque was highest among the Dalit group. Further larger studies are required to study the association of the Nepalese ethnicity with carotid morphological changes.</p> 2021-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Med Phoenix Clinical Profile, Precipitating Factors and Outcome of Hepatic Encephalopathy in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis 2021-07-19T16:05:56+00:00 Subash Bhattarai Dipesh Karki <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is characterized by reversible neuropsychological features and is observed with advanced and decompensated cirrhosis of the liver. Patients outcomes and survival depends on clinical presentation, identification of the precipitating factor, early management, and treatment of complications. This study aims to find out the clinical profile of cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy, their precipitating factors, and clinical outcomes in patients admitted at a tertiary care Teaching Hospital in Gandaki province, Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> An observational, cross-sectional, hospital-based prospective study comprising of 140 cirrhotic patients with encephalopathy was conducted over a study period of 18 months. Their clinical profile, precipitating factors, and outcomes during hospitalization including mortality were studied. The data analysis was done using SPSS version 20 and a P-value of ≤0.05 was considered significant.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Majority (36.5%) of the patients presented with Grade II HE. Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis were the most common precipitating factors. Inpatient mortality was 22.9%. The increased mortality rate was observed in patients with Child class C and with higher grading (Grade III and IV) of hepatic encephalopathy and in presence of more than two precipitating factors</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Most of the patients presented with Grade II HE. Upper gastrointestinal bleed and infections were the most common precipitating factors. Patients with Hepatic encephalopathy of Grades III and IV, those with CTP Child class C, and in presence of more than two precipitating factors have high mortality.</p> 2021-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Med Phoenix A Comparison of Incidence of Post Dural Puncture Headache Using 25G Quincke and 25G Whitacre Needle in Obstetric Patients Undergoing Caesarean Section under Spinal Anesthesia 2021-07-19T16:05:57+00:00 Chetan Bohara Rajesh Maharjan Subi Regmi Gunjan Regmi Rajendra Kunwar Anup Shrestha <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Spinal anesthesia has offered a new armamentarium for the anesthesiologists and has been widely used in the Cesarean section in the field of obstetrics, an alternative to general anesthesia. However, Post Dural Puncture Headache remains an inevitable complication of spinal anesthesia and can be minimized its incidence by reducing the size of the needle and changing the design of the needle tip. &nbsp;The objective of the study was to find the incidence of post-dural puncture headache undergoing subarachnoid block for CS using 25G Quincke and 25G Whitacre needles.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>This study was conducted from August 2020 to January 2021 enrolling 72 parturients and were allocated in two groups of 36 each. Group A and B parturients received spinal anesthesia via. 25G Quincke and 25G Whitacre in sitting position respectively. All the patients were evaluated based on incidence, onset, duration, and severity of headache postoperatively for 72 hours after the subarachnoid block.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The incidence of post-dural puncture headache in the study was 7.2% in Group A and 3.15% in Group B which was statistically significant (P-value = 0.011), while there were no significant differences between these two groups in the onset, severity, and duration of post-dural puncture headache.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Despite no significant differences were found for the onset, severity, and duration of post-dural puncture headache, the use of 25G Whitacre is associated with a reduced incidence of post-dural puncture headache compare to 25G Quincke.</p> 2021-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Med Phoenix Investigation of Dry Eye Symptoms in Health Workers of National Medical College and Teaching Hospital following Corona Virus Pandemic 2021-07-19T16:23:55+00:00 Padam Raj Bista Bipin Bista Surendra Mishra Reena Yadav Sushma Chaudhary Sharad Gupta <p><strong>Background</strong>: With the outspread of global pandemic Corona virus disease 19. (COVID-19), use of face masks was taken as a vital deed against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. (SARS-CoV-2) The aim of this study was to assess symptoms of mask associated dry eye (MADE) among health workers.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: &nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>A total of 169 heath workers meeting the inclusion criteria were selected by simple random sampling from respective department. Data were obtained by providing with questionnaire established by the researcher and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) to the participants from November 1, 2020 to March 31, 2021 at National Medical College and Teaching Hospital. The data were evaluated using correlation test.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 169 heath workers were enrolled in the study. &nbsp;The mean age of the patient was 31.74±7.34 years (range 19-56).According to OSDI, 27(15.9%) of the participants had mild dry eye symptoms followed by 15 (8.87%) cases of moderate and 44(26.03%) of severe respectively. Duration of mask wearer and electronic devices usage were two variables that were statistically correlated with OSDI (p&lt;0.01). The OSDI was not statistically correlated with age, glass wear and sleep duration.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>With the emergence of COVID -19, measures to cope against this pandemic are must. With the increasing use of controlling measures, it is prime responsibility of ophthalmic faculty to start awareness regarding proper use of these anti-COVID measures and make sustainable environment in future.</p> 2021-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Med Phoenix Trends of Hospital Care Services During COVID-19 Pandemic in a Tertiary Care Hospital at Province 5 2021-07-19T16:06:01+00:00 Basant Lamichhane <p><strong>Introduction:&nbsp; </strong>Health systems all around the globe have greatly been affected by the increasing demand for care of people with COVID-19. A well-prepared health system should have the capacity to maintain equitable essential health services in any pandemic or emergency. In this current scenario, this study aims to study the trends of hospital care services in one of the remote tertiary hospitals of province 5. The aim of the study was to assess the trends of various important health services along with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional study was conducted in which data of the number of OPD cases, emergency cases, inpatients, deliveries, number of surgeries (major and minor), and the number of USG services were collected. Data of seven months prior to the onset of pandemic (August 15<sup>th</sup>, 2019 to March 15<sup>th</sup>, 2020) were compared with data of seven months following the onset of the pandemic (March 16<sup>th</sup> to October 16<sup>th</sup>, 2020) were recorded, compared, and plotted.</p> <p><strong>Results:&nbsp; </strong>In regard to inpatients, there was an increment of 47.57%, the number of emergency cases increment by 41.90%, and the number of delivery increments by 94.70% was detected compared to seven months’ data prior to the onset of the pandemic.&nbsp; On the other hand, a reduction in total OPD, total number of surgeries, and USG by 32.7 %, 13.04%, 5.26 % respectively were detected. Looking through the trend, there was a decline in the number of OPD visits, inpatient cases, and emergency cases initially for three months (March-May) following the onset of the pandemic but along with an upsurge of the COVID pandemic, there was a marked increase in these services.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The depiction of such trends of seeking and use of health services in resource-limited tertiary centers during this pandemic reflects the need of strengthening the overall health system. It also emphasizes the importance of the need of addressing non-COVID services during a pandemic, which was greatly affected by COVID-19.</p> 2021-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Med Phoenix Establishment and Management Of COVID-19 Testing Molecular Laboratory in Minimal Resource Setting, Challenges and Issues Reported From Birgunj, Nepal – An Experience of Pathologist 2021-07-19T16:06:13+00:00 Neera Pathak Madan Kumar Upadhyay Varsha Manandhar <p class="Default">The Coronavirus pandemic is recording numerous deaths worldwide. The temporal distribution and burden of the disease varies from setting to setting based on economic status, demography and geographic location. Nepal reported the first COVID-19 case on January 23, 2020. A rapid increase in the number of COVID-19 cases was being reported in Nepal as of June 2020. Limited molecular laboratory capacity in resource limited settings is a challenge in the diagnosis of the ever-increasing cases and the overall management of the disease. In this article, we share the experience, challenges and prospects in the rapid establishment of&nbsp; COVID-19 testing laboratory in Birgunj from available resources. We provide empirical evidence from Parsa district, as this is one of the SARS-CoV-2 transmission hotspots in Nepal and it&nbsp; is likely generalizable to other similar settings in the country. The first step in establishing the COVID-19 molecular testing laboratory were i) identifying a suitable space ii) renovating it and iii) mobilizing materials including consumables, mainly from the hospital store and administration. A chain of experimental design was set up with distinct laboratories to standardize the extraction of samples, preparation of the master mix and detection. At the commencement of sample reception and testing, laboratory contamination was among the primary challenges faced. The source of the contamination was identified in the master mix room and resolved. In summary, the established COVID-19 testing lab (Narayani PCR Lab) has tested more than 40,000 samples (January 2021) and is now the preferred setting for CoVID-19 testing. The lessons learnt may benefit the further establishment of testing laboratories for COVID-19 and/or other epidemic/pandemic diseases in resource-limited settings.</p> 2021-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Med Phoenix Excess Screen Time - Impact on Childhood Development and Management: A Review 2021-07-19T16:06:03+00:00 Utkarsh Karki Lakshmi Sravanti <p>In recent years children are immersed in both traditional and new forms of digital media around the globe. Screen time is now embedded in the daily lives of young children beginning from infancy. Pre-schoolers exposed to screen and interactive media may benefit in many ways but excessive and inappropriate screen exposure could potentially lead to several health and developmental risks. &nbsp;Environmental factors such as parents, siblings, peers have a profound influence on a child’s development. Despite challenges of screen media parenting practices and those posed by lockdown (work from home, online schooling) during this pandemic, parents hold the key to navigate these challenges by serving as role models to ensure positive developmental outcomes in their children.</p> 2021-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Med Phoenix