Med Phoenix https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix An official journal of National Medical College, Birgunj, Nepal. en-US <p>© Med Phoenix</p><p>Med Phoenix grants the permission to read, copy, print, download, distribute, search, or link to the full texts of these articles which is available online (www.nmcbir.edu.np) and NepJOL freely.</p> medphoenix@nmcbir.edu.np (Dr. Md. Parwez Ahmad) scumming@inasp.info (Sioux Cumming) Wed, 15 Aug 2018 09:20:36 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Prevalence of Chronic Gingivitis Among 16 Years Old Public High School Students in Khartoum https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20754 <p><strong>Background: </strong>This study was designed to measure the prevalence of chronic gingivitis among 16- year-old public high school students in Khartoum State.</p><p><strong>Methods: </strong>A total of 385 high school students of 16 years of age, from public schools in different geographical locations representing different socioeconomic classes in Khartoum were randomly selected and examined. The variables of the present study had been collected by one examiner using a direct interview questionnaire and all the present teeth were examined at four sites (Mesiobuccal, distobuccal, mesiolingual, distolingual) for the presence of plaque, using the Plaque Index (Loe and Sillness) and Gingival Index (Sillness and Loe).</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>Prevalence of gingivitis was 96.9%, of which 68.6% were of mild form (majority), 27.5% of moderate condition and only 0.8% was of severe grade. The most common form of gingivitis was the generalized form that accounted for 94.5%. The relationship between oral hygiene and degree of gingivitis was assessed after collecting data on study area, gender, socio-economic status, tooth brushing tool used, frequency of brushing per day, direction of tooth-brushing and regularity of dental visits. The adjusted relationship was still significant at the 99% confidence level (p-value 0.000), with a correlation coefficient of 0.704.</p><p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The study showed significantly higher prevalence of chronic gingivitis among 16-year-old public high school students in Khartoum State. The degree of gingivitis showed statistical significance when correlated with oral hygiene status, socioeconomic status, frequency and horizontal direction of tooth brushing, while it showed insignificance when correlated with gender.</p><p> <strong>Med Phoenix</strong>. Vol. 3, Issue. 1, 2018, Page : 1-5</p><p> </p> Abubakr Omar Mohamed Abdelsalam, Ibrahim Ahmed Ghandour ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20754 Wed, 15 Aug 2018 09:18:33 +0000 Determinants of Utilization of Institutional Delivery Services in East Nepal: A Community-Based Cross- Sectional Study https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20755 <p><strong>Background: </strong>In this study, we expected to evaluate the utilization rate of institutional delivery services in Eastern Nepal. We also analyzed the socio-economic factors associated with institutional delivery and assessed the reason for their utilization.</p><p><strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted in Sunsari district of Eastern Nepal. Three hundred and seventy two women, who delivered their baby within period of one year preceding this study, were interviewed through household visit. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were also done to gather qualitative data.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>We interviewed 368 women. The prevalence of institutional delivery was 55.1%. Logistic regression analyses revealed that women having good knowledge about importance of SBA utilized institutional delivery services more than nine times than women having poor knowledge (AOR=9.02, 95% CI: 2.61-31.09). Similarly, women exposed to media (AOR=6.56, 95% CI: 2.10-21.21), women from advantaged ethnicity (AOR=5.85, 95% CI: 1.78-19.74), women having higher level of autonomy (AOR= 5.93, 95%CI: 1.18- 29.53) and richer women (AOR=3.30, 95% CI: 1.24-8.72) were more likely to have institutional delivery than women unexposed to media, women from relatively disadvantaged ethnicity, women having low level of autonomy and poorer women respectively.</p><p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Good knowledge on importance of SBA, completion of 4 ANC service, media exposure with maternal health service related massages, relatively advantaged ethnicity, higher rank of women’s autonomy and higher wealth rank were found significantly associated with institutional delivery service utilization. Provisions of community ambulance system can also be helpful to address the transportation problem. Encouraging women to complete their schooling and teaching/encouraging women to have antenatal care frequently are also important to increase institutional delivery services.</p><p> <strong>Med Phoenix</strong>. Vol. 3, Issue. 1, 2018, Page: 6-15</p><p> </p> Bhaskar Ravi Kumar, Deo Krishna Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20755 Wed, 15 Aug 2018 09:18:42 +0000 Birth Preparedness And Complication Research Readiness Among Women https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20756 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Birth preparedness and complication readiness is a key component of globally accepted safe motherhood programs that can reduce the number of women dying from the obstetrical complication.</p><p><strong>Methods: </strong>A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out to assess the knowledge and practice regarding birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPACR) among antenatal mothers attending obstetric and gynecological Department of National Medical College and Teaching Hospital (NMCTH), Birgunj, Parsa, Nepal. Total 60 antenatal mothers were selected using non probability purposive sampling technique. The obtained data was analyzed by descriptive analysis- frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and inferential statistics by using Karl Pearson’s coefficient correlation and Chi-square.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>The findings of the study revealed that 63.33% of antenatal mothers were in the age group 20-24 years, 53.33% were hindu by religion, 85% from rural area, less than half 43.33% were illiterate, most of them 91.66% were housewife, majority of their husbands occupation was service 71.67%, about 36.67% of them had been one time pregnant and majority of antenatal mothers 66.67% had received information regarding BPACR from health personnel. The study identified only 50% of the antenatal mothers had moderate knowledge and 83.33% had poor practice of preparation for birth and its complication.</p><p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Thus the study concluded that antenatal mothers had inadequate knowledge and poor practices and these are not associated with any socio-demography components except knowledge is found associated with occupation.</p><p> <strong>Med Phoenix</strong>. Vol. 3, Issue. 1, 2018, Page: 16-20</p><p> </p> Sabita Rai, Abhilasha Saha ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20756 Wed, 15 Aug 2018 09:18:51 +0000 Hexane Extract of Rhizomes of Curcuma Longa, Zingiber Officinale and Curcumine Life Span Extension in Caenorhabditis Elegans By Reducing Fat in Intestine https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20757 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Curcumine is obtained from curcuma longa and we examined the effects of curcumin, hexane extracts of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale on the lifespan and aging in Caenorhabditis elegans and found that it responded to curcumin, hexane extracts of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale with an increased lifespan and reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species during aging.</p><p><strong>Methods: </strong>MutantStrains, culture, Curcumin and Hexane extract of Rhizomes of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale treatment of C. Elegan.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>Curcumin and hexane extracts of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale increased the life span and life cycle of the N2 wild type and Zdls-5 worms. On comparison, curcumin was found to be the most effective followed by the hexane extracts of Curcuma longa and hexane extracts of Zingiber officinale. Hexane extracts of Zingiber officinale were found to be least effective. Sudan black staining exhibited that stored contents of fat in C.elegans decreased as the concentration of the drug increased.</p><p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Our study has established that curcumin and hexane extract of rhizomes of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale provides longevity and decreases the fat content in C.elegans.</p><p><strong>Med Phoenix</strong>. Vol. 3, Issue. 1, 2018, Page: 21-28</p><p>                                            </p> Parveen Gazala, Basavan Duraiswamy, Firoz Ansari ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20757 Wed, 15 Aug 2018 09:18:58 +0000 Socio-Demographic Profiling of Blunt Trauma Cases Autopsied at B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20758 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Blunt trauma is a frequent emergency and is linked with significant morbidity and mortality. The World Health Organization estimates that, by 2020, trauma will be the first or second leading cause of years of productive life lost for the entire population of the world. This study focuses to evaluate 150 cases of death due to blunt trauma</p><p><strong>Methods: </strong>A descriptive cross sectional study of 150 blunt trauma cases autopsied at department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology of BP Koirala Institute of earth Sciences, Dharan during a period of April 2012 and April 2013 was done.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>Among the 150 victims of blunt trauma, 110 were of RTA, 20 were from fall from height, 15 were physically assaulted and 5 were victims from collapse of roof/wall. 80% of the victims were males and 20% were females, the Male: Female ratio being 4:1. The mean age was 35.76 years, standard deviation being 17.49.  .7% belonged to the age group of 21-40 years. 40% incident happened in summer with 12.7% in the month of March. 33.3% incident happened during evening hours of 3 pm-6pm. 42.7% victims survived for less than 3 hours after the incident. 36.36% of RTA victims sustained injury from heavy four wheelers like buses, trucks, tractors. 50% of the falls were from the height of 21-30 feet. 53.33% of the victims of physical assault were assaulted with hands and legs. 46.6% sustained injury to brain.</p><p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Research finding have shown that 80% of the victims were males and 20% were females, the male is to female ratio being 4:1. The mean age was 35.76 years, standard deviation being 17.49. 42.7% belonged to the age group 21-40 years. Age group was not a significant predictor of the gender involved in the cases.</p><p> <strong>Med Phoenix</strong>. Vol. 3, Issue. 1, 2018, Page: 21-35</p><p> </p> Abdul Sami Khan, Bikash Sah, Tej Prakash Chataut, Shyam Babu Prasad, Gopal Rana, Firoz Ansari ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20758 Wed, 15 Aug 2018 09:19:06 +0000 Diagnostic Value of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in the Assessment of Cervical Lymphadenopathy https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20760 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Cervical lymphadenopathy is one of the most frequent clinical manifestations of patients attending outpatient department. The etiology of cervical lymphadenopathy varies from inflammatory condition to malignant lesion. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a safe, easy and quick diagnostic technique. It has become the first line of investigation in the evaluation of lymphadenopathy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spectrum of lesions in cervical lymphadenopathy and role of FNAC in the diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy.</p><p><strong>Methods: </strong>This study was conducted over a period of two years (May 2015 to May 2017). 206 patients with cervical lymphadenopathy were included in the study.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>Most of the cases were non-neoplastic (91.74 %) whereas (8.26 %) cases were neoplastic. The most common cause of non-neoplastic lymphadenopathy was reactive lymphadenitis. Histocytological correlation was done in 32 cases. The diagnostic accuracy of FNAC for metastatic carcinoma and reactive lymphadenitis was 100% and 93.75% respectively.</p><p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>FNAC is a safe, cost effective and reliable procedure to diagnose the causes of cervical lymphadenopathy.</p><p><strong>Med Phoenix</strong>. Vol. 3, Issue. 1, 2018, Page: 36-40<em></em></p> Sushama Bhatta, Samir Singh, Sangita Regmi Chalise ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20760 Wed, 15 Aug 2018 09:19:15 +0000 Pattern of Suicide Attempts in Southern Nepal: A Multi-Centered Retrospective Study https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20761 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Suicide has become a major public health issue in low income underdeveloped countries like Nepal. In Nepal, suicide research based on General Hospital Psychiatry Unit (GHPU) settings can be informative to explore the trend in suicidal behaviors. In this study, we aimed to study the pattern of suicide attempts in Southern Nepal by including retrospective suicide attempt cases registered in the three GHPU centers.</p><p><strong>Methods: </strong>The study included 116 survivors of suicide attempts registered over a period of six months (Jan, 2017 to July, 2017) at three centers in Southern region of Nepal. The cases were referred from medical emergency or other medical departments for psychiatric evaluation. They underwent evaluation by at least one consultant psychiatrist and received appropriate interventions.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>Majority of the victims were female (68%), belonging to younger age group (90%) with one third in adolescent age group and homemakers (32%) or students (31%) by occupation. The most common method of attempt was self poisoning with pesticides (78.4%) followed by medication overdose (8.6%) and hanging (7.8%). Most of the attempts (82.7%) were impulsive in nature. Mental illness was diagnosed in 60 % of the cases, mainly depressive disorder, and adjustment disorder. Most of the attempts (87%) were triggered by psycho-social factors before the attempt, mainly interpersonal conflicts. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>The pattern shows predominance of female gender, younger age group, a role of mental illness, impulsivity and psychosocial factors in suicide attempts. Future research should focus on these aspects to develop effective prevention strategies.</p><p> <strong>Med Phoenix</strong>. Vol. 3, Issue. 1, 2018, Page: 41-47</p><p> </p> Suresh Thapaliya, Anoop Krishna Gupta, Suraj Tiwari, Mohan Belbase, Shreya Paudyal ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20761 Wed, 15 Aug 2018 09:19:22 +0000 Demographic Analysis of Adult Patients Presenting With Unilateral Ear Discharge at National Medical College https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20762 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Discharging ear is a common symptom among the patients presenting in ENT OPD for consultation. The commonest cause for discharging ear is chronic otitis media. Poverty, ignorance, crowded living conditions due to large families, poor sanitation, and lack of personal and environmental hygiene are some of the main factors behind the prevalence of chronic otitis media. National medical college and teaching hospital is a tertiary care center located in Birgunj metropolitan city in central Nepal. It caters to thousands of patients with discharging ear each year.</p><p><strong>Methods: </strong>This qualitative, descriptive study was carried out in department of ENT-HNS at National Medical College and Teaching Hospital located Birgunj-15, Parsa, Province no. 2 of Nepal for duration of one year from August 1, 2014 to July 30, 2015. Two hundred and five (205) adult patients with complains of unilateral          discharging ear were included in the study.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>Mostly female patients and those in the age group of 15-30 years from Bara and Parsa districts of Nepal including the areas around the Indo-Nepal border avail the services of department of ENT-HNS of National medical college and teaching hospital.</p><p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The delivery of ENT-HNS services to the concerned patients is insufficient and inefficient owning to various factors. The government of Nepal and India along with National medical college and teaching hospital can work together to improve the situation.</p><p> <strong>Med Phoenix</strong>. Vol. 3, Issue. 1, 2018, Page: 48-51</p><p> </p> Amit Jha ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20762 Wed, 15 Aug 2018 09:19:30 +0000 Pulmonary Function Tests in Transport Workers Within the Ring Road of Kathmandu Valley https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20763 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Transport workers (drivers and helpers) are exposed to dust and vehicle emissions continuously throughout their duty hours. Most common health hazards on exposure to air pollution is related to respiratory system. The main objective of the study was to measure lung function parameters of transport workers and compare results with those of the general public. This study also aimed to evaluate the effect of job duration on transport workers.</p><p><strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional comparative study was done in a total of 78 apparently healthy, non-smoking, male transport workers working for at least one year within the Ring Road in Kathmandu valley. The results obtained from these professionals were compared to 78 apparently healthy, non-smoker male general public, working as students in medical college and administrative staff in transport office.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>Statistically significant decrease in Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) and Forced Expiratory Flow between 25% and 75% (FEF25%-75%) among transport workers was noted as compared to the general public. Transport workers working for more than five years also have deteriorated above mentioned parameters as compared to their colleagues working five years or less in the same profession.</p><p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>This study concludes that there is an adverse effect of ambient air pollution on pulmonary functions of the transport workers. The findings of this study also demonstrate that the transport workers working in Kathmandu valley for more than five years have deteriorated pulmonary functions.</p><p><strong>Med Phoenix</strong>. Vol. 3, Issue. 1, 2018, Page: 52-59<em></em></p> Dayaram Ghimire, Saurav Manna, Esha Shrestha ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20763 Wed, 15 Aug 2018 09:19:38 +0000 Clinical and Epidemiological Profile of Herpes Zoster; A Cross-Sectional Study from Tertiary Hospital https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20764 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Herpes zoster is dermatomal neuropathic disease caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus, characterized by vesicobullous eruptions. Although, being a common cause of morbidity, there are few clinicepidemiological studies and the studies regarding the knowledge and practice among the patients are nominal.</p><p><strong>Methods: </strong>This was descriptive observational study which included 100 consecutive patients with herpes zoster who presented to Department of Dermatology and Venereology in a Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu during the period from July 2014 to June 2015.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>The annual incidence was 0.55%. Seventy two percent were males and 28 percent were females with the M: F=2.5:1. The average age of patients and mean duration of disease was 40.4 years and 5.5 days respectively. Ninety five percent were managed at OPD and 5 % of them needed hospitalization. Most common dermatome involved was thoracic (50%) followed by cervical (20%). Twelve percent had one or more provocative features including diabetes, steroid use, chemotherapy, surgical trauma etc. Twenty patients had definite history chicken pox. Twenty-five percent had local complication at the time of presentation. Fifty two percent had themselves identified the lesion as herpes zoster. However, only 10 had some knowledge about it. Twelve percent had visited traditional healers prior to hospital arrival.</p><p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The results show varied clinicoepidemiologic patterns of herpes zoster. Major patient have less knowledge about it. A larger study would be necessary for better clinical, epidemiological and social behavioral data. Because of ignorance and tradition, awareness program should be conducted to reduce potential complications.</p><p> <strong>Med Phoenix</strong>. Vol. 3, Issue. 1, 2018, Page: 60-65</p><p> </p><p>                                            </p> Vikash Paudel, Buddhi Raj Pandey, Richa Tripathee, Rishabh Dev Tripathee, Shreema Sitaula, Prabin Dhakal, Dwarika Prasad Shrestha ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20764 Wed, 15 Aug 2018 09:19:45 +0000 Effectiveness of Video Assisted Teaching Programme (VATP) on Prevention and Management of Child Abuse Among Mothers of Children in Selected Rural Area, Mangalore https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20765 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Every child has a right to a safe childhood and a life free from violence. The experience of child abuse and neglect infringe upon that right. 1 Health education will improve the knowledge level of the mothers so that proper awareness can be built towards the prevention  and management of child abuse. The overall aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of video assisted teaching programme on prevention and management of child abuse among mothers of children.</p><p><strong>Method: </strong>Pre-experimental approach with one group pre-test - post-test design was adopted to accomplish the objectives. Non probability Purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample of 100 mothers and semi-structured knowledge questionnaire was developed to assess the knowledge level.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>The findings of the study revealed that most (57%) of the mothers had moderate knowledge and majority (43%) of the mothers had inadequate knowledge regarding prevention and management of child abuse. After administration of video assisted teaching programme (VATP), the posttest knowledge score (25.28± 2.025) was higher than the pretest knowledge score (11.03± 2.213). The calculated ‘t’ value in knowledge (48.668; p&lt; 0.05) was greater than the table value (1.98) at 0.05 level of significance.</p><p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The present study revealed that the mothers have lack of knowledge on prevention and management of child abuse and the overall findings of the study proved that there was a highly significant increase in the knowledge of the mothers on prevention and management of child abuse following the administration of the VATP. Therefore it was concluded that the VATP was highly effective in improving the knowledge of the mothers on prevention and management of child abuse.</p><p> <strong>Med Phoenix</strong>. Vol. 3, Issue. 1, 2018, Page: 66-70</p><p> </p><p>                                                        </p> Chandani Malla, Dipa Khaling Rai, Pramila Poudel, Shridhar Hodlur ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20765 Wed, 15 Aug 2018 09:19:55 +0000 Skull Fracture and Haemorrhagic Pattern in Cases of Fatal Blunt Trauma Head Injury Autopsied at Tertiary Healthcare Centre in Eastern Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20766 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Head injury is regarded as a main health problem that is a common cause of morbidities and mortalities and makes great demand to control and prevent it. For this, policy makers need to see the pattern of head injury and this study is done to describe the pattern.</p><p><strong>Methods</strong>: Hospital based, descriptive cross sectional study done on one year autopsy cases of fatal blunt trauma head injury which was 76 in which proportion of different types of head injuries, their causes and their distribution as per age, sex, and duration of survival were studied.</p><p><strong>Results</strong>: Skull-vault fractures were present in 57 (75%) cases in which most common type of fracture was linear fracture constituting 29(49.12%). 50% of the cases were with skullbase fracture in which the most common was of anterior cranial fossa fracture(60.5%). 56.34% of the victims were with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) followed by subdural haemorrhage (SDH) and extradural haemorrhage (EDH). 6.6% victims were without any intracranial haemorrhage. Road traffic accident alone accounted for 71% of total blunt trauma causations of this fatal head injury. 70% cases were in age group from 11 to 50 years and 78.9% were male. 51.3% died at the spot.</p><p><strong> </strong><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The research findings have shown that among the fatal blunt trauma head injury cases, skull vault fracture was present in 75% and skull base fracture was present in 50%. The most common intracranial haemorrhage was subarachnoid haemorrhage (56.34%) followed by subdural and extradural haemorrhage.</p><p> </p><p><strong> </strong><strong>Med Phoenix</strong>. Vol. 3, Issue. 1, 2018, Page: 71-74</p><p> </p><p>                                                        </p> Bikash Sah, Bishwanath Yadav, Shivendra Jha, Abdul Sami Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20766 Wed, 15 Aug 2018 09:20:04 +0000 Protective Role of Antioxidants in Alcoholic Liver Disease https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20767 <p><strong> </strong>Excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages is a serious cause of liver disease worldwide. Any abnormality or dysfunction of the liver leads major impairment of the organ function, which in turn, influences the health of the individual. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) includes fatty liver, hepatic inflammation, liver cirrhosis, fibrosis, alcoholic hepatitis and finally hepatocellular carcinoma. The metabolism of ethanol generates reactive oxygen species, which play a significant role in the deterioration of alcoholic liver disease. Oxidative stress has been considered as a conjoint pathological mechanism, and it contributes to initiation and progression of liver injury. Antioxidants, phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, regulate the expression of ALDassociated proteins and peptides, namely, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. Application of antioxidants signifies a rational curative strategy to prevent and cure liver diseases involving oxidative stress. Although conclusions drawn from clinical studies remain uncertain, animal studies have revealed the promising <em>in-vivo </em>therapeutic effect of antioxidants on liver diseases. Natural antioxidants contained in edible or medicinal plants often possess strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities as well as anti-inflammatory action, which are also supposed to be the basis of other bioactivities and health benefits.</p><p><strong> </strong><strong>Med Phoenix</strong>. Vol. 3, Issue. 1, 2018, Page: 75-88</p><p> </p><p>                                                        </p> Manoranjan Adak ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20767 Wed, 15 Aug 2018 09:20:12 +0000 Unilateral Incomplete Double Ureter at NMCTH https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20768 <p><strong></strong>The anomalies associated to the duplications of ureter and kidneys result from an early division of ureteric diverticulum. Duplex collecting system is presence of two pylocaliceal system which is associated with single or double ureter. Bifid ureter is one of the variations related to congenital anomalies of urinary system which are often an incidental finding. Surgeons performing surgeries in pelvic region should be aware of such anomalies remain asymptomatic, incidentally found, sometimes present with pyelonephritis / calculi.</p><p><strong>Med Phoenix</strong>. Vol. 3, Issue. 1, 2018, Page: 89-90</p><p> </p><p>                                                        </p> P Bhatta, R Bastola, P Gurung, M Gyawali ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20768 Wed, 15 Aug 2018 09:20:19 +0000 Unilateral Bifurcated Renal Pelvis with Partial Duplication of Ureter and An Accessory Renal Artery: A Case Report https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20769 <p><strong> </strong>Duplication of renal collecting system is the most common upper urinary tract congenital anomaly. Duplex collecting system is presence of complete or partial double pelvicalyceal system which is associated with single or double ureter. A duplicated ureter is commonly found in association with other congenital anomalies which are often an incidental finding during radiograph of abdomen and pelvic region for other purposes. During routine dissection of a female cadaver of about 60-65 years old, in the Department of Anatomy, National Medical College, Birgunj; the bifurcated renal pelvis with incomplete duplication of ureter and an accessory renal artery was found on left side. Two segments of ureter coalesce 2.4 cm distal to the lower pole of kidney and form a single ureter. Right sided renal pelvis and ureter was normal. Both the ureters opened in the urinary bladder with single opening as usual. Knowledge of normal anatomy as well as developmental anomalies of the urinary system is of utmost importance not only for anatomists, radiologists and urologists but also to surgeons for uneventful renal transplant.</p><p> <strong>Med Phoenix</strong>. Vol. 3, Issue. 1, 2018, Page: 91-94</p><p> </p><p>                                                        </p> Sudikshya KC, Shyam Babu Rauniyar ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20769 Wed, 15 Aug 2018 09:20:24 +0000 Gallbladder Ascariasis : A Rare Case Report https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20770 <p><strong> </strong>Ascariasis is the most prevalent helminthic infection to infest human beings caused by Ascaris lumbricoides. Rarely the worm migrates through ampulla of Vater and may enter common bile duct. This is a case report of live Ascaris lumbricodes in gallbladder, on USG.</p><p> <strong>Med Phoenix</strong>. Vol. 3, Issue. 1, 2018, Page: 95-97</p><p> </p><p>                                                        </p> Akhilesh Kumar Jha, Rajesh Acharya, Kamal Subedi, Anuj Shrestha, Krishna Rauniyar, aurav Bhandari ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/20770 Wed, 15 Aug 2018 09:20:31 +0000