Molung Educational Frontier <p>Molung Educational Frontier is published by the Molung Foundation, Koteshwar, Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> en-US <p>© Molung Foundation</p> (Prof. Bhupa P. Dhamala) (Sioux Cumming) Wed, 28 Jun 2023 09:41:59 +0000 OJS 60 A Story of an Untamed Woman Hero: A Book Review of Parijaat’s Shirish Ko Phool <p>Not available.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Pragya Paneru Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 28 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Interdisciplinarity and Multiculturalism in Education <p>Not available</p> Bhupa P. Dhamala Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 28 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Students in Economics Facing a Digital Divide <p>The digital divide in schools in developing countries is becoming increasingly evident as information communication and technology (ICT) has entered the educational system. However, access to ICT infrastructure alone does not guarantee that a person would be motivated to use it. The unequal access to digital technology is a digital divide. In Nepal, the COVID-19 pandemic caused limited access to ICT among low-income families and rural populations. This research aimed to inquire into the motivational access-based digital divide among12 students in economics in Kathmandu Valley. The research problem of this study was: what are the ICT access levels for Class 12 economics students in Kathmandu Valley regarding motivational access? The researcher utilized a descriptive study design under quantitative methodology for the study. Closed structured questionnaires were used to collect primary data. Descriptive analysis is included in the analysis of data. It is used to calculate the percentage, frequency, mean, and standard deviation to assess the motivational access level of students through the Likert-scale data. The study's findings demonstrated a digital divide among students regarding motivational access. There is no distinct difference between the students regarding school type (private and community).The digital divide between gender, rural and urban origin, ethnicity, and parents ‘employment conditions is evident. This study implies that parents and concerned authorities should provide favorable environments to increase motivational access to ICT, which reduces the digital divide in terms of motivational access.</p> Bishnu Maya Joshi Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 28 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Virtual International Group Study Program: Towards Understanding Sustainable Development Goals and Community Development in Nepal <p>To fill the gaps in international education left by the COVID-19 pandemic, many study abroad educators have become creative with their international programming by going online. This theoretical paper describes the conceptualization and delivery of a virtual collaborative program that was developed through a partnership between the Faculty of Social Work professors at the University of Calgary in Canada and Southwestern State College in Nepal. In this article, we share the model of the program and our motivations for developing the program; a formal evaluation of the model has not yet been conducted. Our pedagogical approach was grounded in anti-oppressive practices, which prioritizes the importance of engaging in empowering practices that share power based on mutual respect and learning. In our attempt to address and mitigate divides of students in the Global South and North, we sought to maximize engagement between students, educators from both institutions and social work practitioners (formal and informal) from Nepal to help promote intercultural learning. We also chose the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals as a site of inquiry with the aim of bridging divides and uncovering commonalities across the two countries – Canada and Nepal. With a mission to deliver an interdisciplinary approach to social work, in this paper, we outline the ways that virtual programming can be made collaborative, immersive, and experiential for all participants regardless of their global location. Lastly, the future of this program will be discussed as travel-based education reopens around the world. In presenting our model, we hope to inform the development of future anti-oppressive international education in social work.</p> Christine A. Walsh, Hana Curties, Rita Dhungel Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 28 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Workplace Stressors on Employee Burnout: A Survey on Diversified Professionals <p>The study has focused on the impact of workplace stressors explained byworkload, work hours, unsupportive supervisors, and unfair treatment on employee burnout. The study adopted a quantitative research approach using a survey method. Professional employees of different sectors have been considered as the population. The 115 usable samples have been taken for the study purpose. The sample has been taken purposively. Five Point Likert Scale and multiple-choice questionnaire have been used for the collection of the data. Questionnaires have been administered online. SPSS and Microsoft Excel software has been used to analyze data. However, data were analyzed using correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. The study results suggest that work hours are the major predictor of employee burnout among Nepalese professional employees, and workload, unfair treatment, and unsupportive supervisors have negligible contributions to the burnout of Nepalese professional employees.</p> Dhruba Lal Pandey, Nischal Risal Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 28 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Supervisors’ Perspectives on Generic Difficulties Faced by EFL Students in Writing Thesis: A Multiple Case Analysis <p>Writing a thesis is one form of academic writing that requires adequate research-related knowledge, interest, motivation, and effort. For this reason, students often consider thesis writing a challenging task. This qualitative multiple case study seeks to explore supervisors' perspectives on the difficulties faced by master’s level English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students while writing theses in English Education. The participants consisted of eight thesis supervisors who have supervised at least ten master’s theses written by the students who studied English Education as the specialization subject at the Master’s level at constituent campuses under the Faculty of Education (FoE), Tribhuvan University (TU). I used simple random sampling to select the constituent campuses and purposive sampling to select the sample. I collected the data using a semi-structured interview. The interviews were conducted via a video conferencing tool named Zoom. According to the interest of the participants, the interviews were conducted in English, and all the interviews were audio-video recorded in Zoom. Recorded interviews were then transcribed and analyzed using the constant comparison method of qualitative data analysis. The findings show that the students' typical challenges with thesis writing were connected to their difficulty in integrating and generalizing related literature, their inability to prepare a theoretical framework, their lack of general knowledge of research, their lack of knowledge of citation and referencing, their difficulties in selecting appropriate methodology, and their inability to use academic language. The study concluded that EFL graduate students, regardless of their performance on the written examinations, depend substantially on their supervisors when writing a thesis.</p> Hari Prasad Tiwari Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 28 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Estimation of Global Solar Radiation using Angstrom and Gopinathan Model on Sunshine Hour and Temperature in Highland, Nepal <p>In developing countries like Nepal, the direct measurement of global solar radiation (GSR) is difficult. So, the estimation of GSR is carried out at Jumla (29°16′ N, 82° 11′ E and about 2347 m altitude) for the year 2015 and 2017 using regression technique to the meteorological parameters on Angstrom model, Gopinathan and Olomiyesan- Oyedum models. Among three models, Olomiyesan and Oyedum model is better than other models. Its empirical constants <em>a</em>=0.38, <em>b</em>=0.10 and <em>c</em>=0.09 are found. The values of statistical errors MBE, MPE and RMSE are smaller than other models. Similarly, the coefficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup>=<strong>0.89</strong>) is greater than other models. Finally, the finding empirical constants and meteorological parameters sunshine hour, and temperature are used to estimate the GSR for the year 2017. In addition to this, the annual average GSR for the year 2015 and 2017 are found to be 18.86 MJ/m<sup>2</sup>/day and 17.50 MJ/m<sup>2</sup>/day respectively. It is concluded that the finding empirical constants are used to estimate the GSR and solar energy at similar geographical location of Nepal.</p> Jay S. Saud, Prakash M. Shrestha, Usha Joshi, Babu R. Tiwari, Indra B. Karki, Khem N. Poudyal Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 28 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Mental Health as a Global Development Challenge: A Critical Analysis of the Case in Nepal <p>This paper builds on primary literature to provide a critical analysis investigating mental health as a global development challenge in the context of Nepal. First, the Nepalese mental healthcare context is introduced and reviewed. Second, challenges for mental healthcare progress in Nepal are examined, and solutions are suggested. Third, this analysis considers the critical role of Nepalese traditional healers in the solution to its mental healthcare challenge. Further, community development is discussed in the context of mental healthcare, and finally, suggestions are devised for global mental health promotion.</p> Jonas F. Buerkner, Christine A. Walsh Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 28 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Vulnerable to Precarity: COVID-19 and the Experience of Difference by Newcomers, Immigrants, and Migrant Workers in Canada <p>When COVID-19 struck Canada in 2020, immigrants, newcomers, and migrant (agricultural) workers were among those most vulnerable to the pandemic. Their experiences of the pandemic were accentuated by an exacerbation of pre-existing racial and other forms of discrimination. The article emerged from a systematic review and thematic synthesis of the broadly defined literature on immigrants, newcomers, and migrant workers’ experiences of multifaceted challenges amid the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada. We established inclusion criteria and systematically searched for articles in databases, including JSTOR Journals, Social Work Abstract (EBSCOhost), PsycINFO, and other grey literature published between March 2020 and January 2023. The findings suggest that immigrants, newcomers, and migrant workers in Canada experienced systemic inequalities, which worsened their socio-economic status, placing them at higher risks of poor health outcomes. The following themes that underscore the experiences of immigrants, newcomers, and migrant workers in Canada were identified: a) that immigrants, newcomers, and migrant workers in Canada experienced negative socio-economic impacts due to COVID-19, b) that immigrants, newcomers, and migrant workers in Canada experienced aggravated precarious and inequitable employment during COVID-19, c) that immigrants, newcomers, and migrant workers in Canada experienced COVID-19 related racial discrimination, and d) that COVID-19 negatively impacted immigrants, newcomers, and migrant workers’ mental health and well-being. Important directions for future research, including for studies that prioritize new &nbsp;immigrants, are provided.</p> Karun Kishor Karki, Festus Y. Moasun Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 28 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Rethinking Madhesi Politics of Recognition <p>A gradually emerging dissension in the micro politics of the Madhesi community has not received the attention it deserves in scholarly discourse. This article makes an effort to understand the contexts and processes that made pan-Madhesi identity intrinsically problematic and seemed to be rife with internal conflicts. Drawing on the lived experiences collected through ethnographic interviews with the Madhesi people who belonged to the low-caste groups and admitted to being poor, it is argued that while overemphasizing the socio-cultural recognition of the Madhesi community, Madhesi politics of recognition undermined the issues of economic inequality prevailing within it for a long time. As a consequence, over time, the ties of low-caste groups with the elitist leadership of high and middle-caste groups in terms of socio-cultural and economic aspects resulted in certain fissures or divisions in the Madhesi community. This prompts us to rethink the Madhesi politics of recognition and to argue that pan-Madhesi identity was not a cohesive identity that guaranteed parity of participation of the Madhesi population irrespective of their caste and class position.</p> Nirodh Pandey Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 28 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the Fundamental Cause of Social Crime: A Study of Sexual Violence, Mass Murder, Burglary, and Corruption <p>There are effective police mechanisms administered by the governments in each country, for instance, the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) in India and the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) of Nepal Police in Nepal. The authority claims its mechanism is intact and highly alert to find convicts, but they appear to be walking out in the street freely. This indicates that the police mechanisms have been unable to control the crimes despite their high alerts. This article explores the fundamental causes of social crimes that are increasing alarmingly. The study shows that the fundamental cause of crime is the inherent weakness of a person who cannot control emotions of jealousy and anger. The uncontrolled anger of a person leads them to the stage of crime. The criminal may also have psychological disorder leading to accidental crime. Several types of social crime are prevalent, but this study discusses the causes of sexual violence, mass murder, burglary, and corruption. The study has applied the psychoanalytical approach to investigate the issue.</p> Raj Kumar Gurung Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 28 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Experience and Expectation of Socialism: Principle versus Practice in Nepal <p>This article discusses Nepali people’s experience with socialism and their expectations by addressing these questions: What is socialism? Which socialism do Nepali people expect? Why do they expect socialism? How does the principle go against the practice in the context of Nepal? Qualitative secondary sources are critically analyzed as methodological tools to reveal the present experience and expectations of Nepali people. It presents the disparity between principle and practice demonstrated by the Nepali political parties. The Constitution of Nepal2015 has formally promised that the guiding political-economic principle of this state is socialism-oriented. However, the sayings and doings of major political parties in Nepal have a big gap. In their doings, they are highly influenced by liberal capitalist principles, and they continue implementing neo-liberal policies. They put forward liberal bourgeois policies and programs that suited the interest of the comprador bourgeoisie. Thus, we have seen a contradiction in their implementation of the socialist principle, which goes against the expectation of the Nepali people. By pointing out this gap, this article highlights the need for serious discussions on achieving socialism as stated in Nepal’s constitution and expected by the people while also drawing the attention of the political actors to take immediate and radical actions to correct their behaviors in time in order to achieve the goal of a Socialism Nepal.</p> Rudra Prasad Paudel Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 28 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Preparation and Implementation of School Improvement Plans (SIPs): Its Implication in Improving Learning Outcomes <p>In the last two decades, Nepal’s community (public) schools have been preparing, Implementing and reviewing School Improvement Plans (SIPs) periodically. Schools submit SIPs to the Local Government (LG) to get disbursed school funds annually. One of the components of SIP includes learning outcomes (MoE, 2017).In this context, there is a general lack of research on the process of making Sips and its effects on learning outcomes. To fill the existing lack of knowledge in this field, this research aims to answer two interrelated questions. First, what is the policy process of preparing SIP and how it is practiced? Second, what are the effects of teaching and learning process as envisioned in the SIPs on students ‘learning outcomes?</p> <p>This research applies qualitative methods, analysing content of selected Sips of three community schools of Kailali district from the far western region, especially focusing on the plans to improve learning outcomes. Building on these findings, case studies are conducted in the schools using semi – structured interviews by taking into consideration experiences of teachers, students, parents, SMC/PTA Chairs and members, resource persons and LG authorities (ten interviews in total) in July 2019, exploring how SIP has been understood and realized in practice on the ground. It is generally observed that the process of preparing and implementing SIPs has positive correlation with learning outcomes even if it is minimal over the time. In fact, the will – power on the part of school stakeholders is the key for the quality SIP, and the policy as envisioned at the centre has partially been implemented at grassroots.</p> Shak Bahadur Budhathoki Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 28 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 From Rescue Mission to Colonial Ambitions: A Reading of Stanley's My African Travels <p>This study examines Henry Morton Stanley's My African Travels through a post-colonial lens in order to explore how Stanley’s mission of rescuing a missing explorer turns into his colonial ambitions in the interior of Africa. Primarily with a project of finding the missing missionary and explorer David Livingston by name, Stanley sets out on his African journey in 1871. But after finding Livingston, Stanley’s eyes fall upon the plenitude of natural resources and backwardness of the native people that instantly stimulate in him a sense of the possibilities of commerce and Christianization of the natives. Consequently, he makes more explorations, draws maps and fills them with names, fights the locals, and establishes stations at different locations that ultimately turn into European colonies. This study analyzes and interprets his My African Travels as a colonial discourse in that it operates as a tool for the European colonial enterprise. The study employs conceptual terms related to colonial discourse for analysis and interpretation.</p> Toya Nath Upadhyay Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 28 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000