Molung Educational Frontier <p>Molung Educational Frontier is published by the Molung Foundation, Koteshwar, Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> en-US <p>© Molung Foundation</p> (Prof. Bhupa P. Dhamala) (Sioux Cumming) Sun, 20 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Linked Lives: Exploring the Narratives of Second-Generation Migrants in Nepal <p>This article describes the narratives of second-generation migrants in Nepal. The paper explores the reasons for migration as shared with their offspring by first-generation migrants. The article also shares the narratives by second-generation migrants on experiences of family, school, community, and the State. Second-generation migrants or adult offspring of first-generation migrants from Tibet and India comprised the sampling frame for the qualitative study. Data were collected through a non-probability sampling technique, and in-depth semi-structured interview schedules were used. Nine in-depth interviews were conducted for the study. Thematic analysis was employed to examine the data. Key reasons to migrate to Nepal featured in the narratives of the migrants were opportunities for business, availability of good education, and a suitable climate in Nepal. Furthermore, lack of opportunities for employment and education and instances of violence at their place of origin pushed the migrants towards Nepal. Most of the interviewees shared having solid bonds with their families. They shared mixed experiences (both encouraging and humiliating) at school and varied experiences in their interaction with the broader society (both supportive and conflicting). Furthermore, all interviewees shared challenges in dealing with or receiving help from the Nepali State.</p> Chhabilal Devkota, Sanjeev Dahal Copyright (c) 2021 Molung Foundation Thu, 17 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Breaking the Wall of Poverty: Microfinance as Social and Economic Safety Net for Financially Excluded People in Nepal <p>Microfinance is a financial service aimed at economically underprivileged people who have no or limited access to formal financial institutions such as banks due to the lack of financial resources, collateral, or low income. Microfinance institutions provide a collateral-free loan to low-income individuals with the principle of financial inclusion, which allows them to invest in various self-employment activities. In this article, we critically review the development of microfinance and its issues and challenges in Nepal. More specifically, using the concept of the Grameen Bank model and its relevance in the context of Nepali microfinance institutions, we explore how microfinance can be an effective tool of financial intervention to alleviate rural poverty in Nepal. Methodologically, we utilize secondary data sources such as government and non-government reports and existing empirical studies. We offer recommendations for policymakers to establish appropriate modalities, programs, and microfinance services targeting the socio-economic transformation of rural communities in Nepal. We conclude that the government and financial institutions can stimulate microfinance institutions through multidimensional interventions and facilitation to advance the socio-economic status of financially underprivileged people in rural communities in Nepal.</p> Karun Kishor Karki, Nirajan Dhungana, Bhesh Bahadur Budhathoki Copyright (c) 2021 Molung Foundation Thu, 17 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Devaluation of Cultural Life: A Study of Reconstruction-Resilience Practices of an Earthquake Displaced Community <p>This article investigates how earthquake reconstruction was practiced without considering socio-cultural values in the dislocated community after the 2015 earthquake. The process of disaster resilience tended to focus only on technical structures like the number of houses and school buildings as the main indicators of recovery from earthquake. The resilience programs conducted by the government and NGOs did not pay due attention to caste/ethnic tensions, religious division, political clash, and cultural loss among the villagers. In this study I thus wanted to know what were the meanings/ interpretations of reconstruction and community resilience; how reconstruction programs considered socio-cultural resilience; what socio-cultural aspects in practices of reconstruction were missing, and what were the challenges of cultural resilience among the displaced communities. The study was done at Kunchok-Nabalpur of Sidhupalchok.&nbsp; Local people’s perspectives of reconstruction, values, cultural life (ethnographic study) and narratives were collected by using observation, interview, case study and field visit methods. The study found that caste/ethnic, religious and cultural cohesion had not been reinstalled. Socio-cultural diversity and diverse social needs of displaced people were ignored by the resilience programs of the government. This shows how technocratic reconstruction programs were not as effective as expected due to the devaluation of socio-cultural life of the disaster displaced people who otherwise could contribute to the policy and programs of sustainable and inclusive development of the society.</p> Madhu Giri Copyright (c) 2021 Molung Foundation Thu, 17 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Bhada Tharu Homestay: Building National Integrity through Cultural Performance <p>This article studies the challenges of modernity in Tharu people’s way of life and how successfully they have sustained to maintain aesthetics of ethnicity coping together with modernity. The scholarly discussion of the impact of ritual performances of Tharu people to identify themselves in the national and international domain through the socio-cultural aspect of homestays provides us insight into how Tharus have become successful in preserving the memory of identity through cultural heritage. This study confines its approach within the Bhada village of Kailali district. It examines the progressive changes institutionalized after the homestay programmes in socio-cultural development of Tharu people’s cultural performances facing urbanization. Homestay programmes in the Tharu village of Kailali district have accelerated their financial advancement chiefly by their exceptionally distinct social-cultural legacies of rituals and performances. With the assistance of various exploration reports, it essentially analyzes the part of social execution like dance melodies among Tharu people to bear the progressions for economic exercises and vocation. With the assistance of Devkota and Bhattarai’s notion of homestays and rural development, the paper legitimizes the imminent practical development in the indigenous community by analyzing the issues from culture to modernity.</p> Mohan Dangaura Copyright (c) 2021 Molung Foundation Fri, 18 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Building Community Resilience: A Study of Gorkha Reconstruction Initiatives <p>This article is based on the major findings of a field study recently conducted in Gandaki&nbsp; Rural Municipality of Gorkha district after the 2015 earthquake with its epicentre at Barpak of the same district, which quaked&nbsp; the &nbsp;region of northern midhills of Nepal. The study examined how far neighbouring households, community organizations, and state agencies contributed to building community resilience in this earthquake affected area. More specifically, it investigated into the efficacy of reaconstruction initiatives to provide relief to the earthquake victims for their recovery. To explore the issue, mixed-method approach of both quantitative and qualitative research was applied. Primary data were collected from the stakeholders through questionnaires and focus group discussions. The convenience sampling method was used to select 116 households from Ward No. 1 of the Municipality. The findings of the research indicate that contribution towards building community resilience was the highest from the neighbouring households followed by community organizations whereas the least contribution was from the state agencies. We found that community resilience practice in the area has not been as effective as expected. So collective and coordinated effort is necessary for building community resilience.</p> Nirmal Chongbang, Devraj Bharadwaj Copyright (c) 2021 Molung Foundation Fri, 18 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Multifold Impact of COVID-19 on Vulnerable Communities in Nepal <p>This paper brings out the pressing issue of Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic and its multifold impact on the vulnerable communities such as women, children, elderly people, persons with disabilities, and marginalized groups in Nepal. The study identifies the groups corresponding with the kinds of problems and effects in relation to caste/ethnicity, gender, and age. It also categorizes groups in terms of socio-economic conditions such as employment, income, livelihood, access to basic food, shelter,&nbsp;health and education. The analyses based on these issues contribute to highlighting the protection measures for reducing the level of vulnerability. Both the primary and secondary data were collected through desk review and telephonic interviews among the selected women and underprivileged people of the study area. Findings of this study suggest that the pandemic has serious effects that have been seen on vulnerable communities in the area. Curtailment, reduction and/or stop of regular salary or income of the employees from enterprising sectors can have lasting impact on the overall livelihoods of the vulnerable groups unless they are offered special packages to promote their conditions. The research indicates the pandemic as a humanitarian crisis. In such a crisis, only legal treatment and actions may have adverse effects on the poor and helpless people who have lost their resources due to unavoidable situations like lockdown, prohibition order, and insecurity of their jobs.</p> Padma Prasad Khatiwada Copyright (c) 2021 Molung Foundation Fri, 18 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring Intersectionality: Theoretical Concept and Potential Methodological Efficacy in the Context of Nepal <p>This article engages in theoretical discussions of intersectionality on such issues as: how does Kimberle Crenshaw's intersectionality theory function in various forms of social divisions, and how do various scholars respond to it? Why is intersectionality theoretically and methodologically critical to examining Nepali political and social contexts, especially on women and Dalit's issues? This article examines the overview of intersectional theoretical standpoints explicitly based on Crenshaw's ideas and how it problematizes political practices of domination and discrimination against minority groups in societies today. Rather than providing an empirical and positivist approach to findings, this write-up offers a theoretical framework that helps conceptualize and utilize it in examining power exercise and politics in the Nepali context. It emphasizes discourse analysis to explore the systemic discrimination and the genealogy of structural violence to moot debates about central and marginal subjects concerning women and Dalit issues in Nepal.</p> Rabindra Chaulagain, Laxmi Pathak Copyright (c) 2021 Molung Foundation Fri, 18 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Modernization in Medical Practices in Rural Nepal: An Ethnographic Study of Hyolmos <p>This article attempts to investigate the modern medical practices and the major factors triggering the changes in views, attitudes, and practices among the Hyolmos, an indigenous people residing in high hill region, Helambu, the northeast of Sindhupalchok, central Nepal. This ethnographic study with the key informants' interview, participant observation and household census was employed during a year-long fieldwork. The collected data were thematically analyzed and interpreted. The finding shows that the major triggering factors bringing such changes are education, communication, and transportation that increased awareness among the people for choosing alternative opportunities. Tourism and foreign employment raised the economic level that created better financial options for treatment. Conservation of forest was limited to the performance of herbalists and Amchis. To some extent, inter-caste marriage practice and the urbanization process also increased awareness about the use of western medicine.</p> Ram Hari Dhakal Copyright (c) 2021 Molung Foundation Fri, 18 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Unpacking Human Trafficking from Neoliberalism and Neoconservatism Paradigms in Nepal: A Critical Review <p>This theoretical review paper examines the trafficking of women and children in Nepal caused by oppression and socio-economic marginalization and unpacks human trafficking from neoliberal and neoconservative paradigms. It does not discuss human smuggling but instead provides a critical examination of the forces contributing to human trafficking in Nepal according to the neoliberal and neoconservative paradigms. It begins with a brief overview of human trafficking in Nepal and then explores the international frameworks related to human trafficking. It then briefly examines the “4 P” strategy – prevention, protection, prosecution and partnerships – related to anti-human trafficking efforts and identifies gaps in practice/policies. It concludes with a critical discussion of the implications for social work. The paper also stresses that anti-trafficking intervention programs and approaches must be accountable and responsive to the aspirations, strengths, wisdom and experiences of the specific community and be sensitive to the external and internal forces contributing to the trafficking they seek counter. It claims that there is a need for participatory action research that invites trafficking survivors to engage in critical dialogue and conversation and help develop integrative strategies to address human trafficking in Nepal. To write this paper, the author critically reviewed secondary data, including qualitative and quantitative studies and NGO publications, but does not claim to provide a comprehensive or systematic analysis of evidence.</p> Rita Dhungel Copyright (c) 2021 Molung Foundation Fri, 18 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Editor’s Note Vol.11 <p>Not available.</p> Bhupa P. Dhamala Copyright (c) 2021 Molung Foundation Thu, 17 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Development and Public Health in the Himalaya: Reflections on Healing in Contemporary Nepal: A Book Review <p>Not available.</p> Kapil Babu Dahal Copyright (c) 2021 Molung Foundation Fri, 18 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000