MedS Alliance Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences <p>The MedS Alliance Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences is the official peer-reviewed journal of Centre for Clinical Research and Community Health (CC-REACH), MedSpirit Alliance Inc.</p> en-US (Dr. Jitendra K. Singh) (Sioux Cumming) Mon, 03 Apr 2023 09:11:28 +0000 OJS 60 Our Experiences in Initiating Implementation of Electives at a Bilawal Medical College, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Sindh Pakistan <p>Electives supplement to the core curriculum of undergraduate health professions education, thereby enriches personal and professional development of undergraduates in diverse areas. Electives provide an opportunity for transformative learning. This paper describes the implementation of electives at newly established Bilwal Medical College for Boys, a constituent college of Liaquat University of Medical Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan. Firstly, concrete policy for electives was developed by health professions educationist. Then Committee for the implementation of electives was constituted. Subsequently, feasible and achievable implementation plan was formulated focusing on the activities to be done before, during and after the placement of students for electives in different departments and process of implementation. The first batch of students studying in fourth year of MBBS attended the electives. With keen involvement of all stakeholders such as, students, faculty, administration, parents and collaborating departments and their faculty, the program was successfully implemented. Thorough supervision and monitoring during placement contributed toward the success of program.</p> Rano Mal Piryani, Abdul Ghani Soomro, Shahzad Ahmadani, Razia Asif, Asiya Parveen Shaikh Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Evolution of Laboratory Services in Nepal: A Historical Overview and Recent Developments <p>No abstract available.</p> Birendra Kumar Jha, Jitendra Kumar Singh Copyright (c) 2022 Birendra Kumar Jha, Jitendra Kumar Singh Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Status of Social Health Insurance in Nepal <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> Social health insurance (SHI) is a risk-sharing method-based health care financing and administration. SHI combines the contributions of people, households, businesses, and the government with people's health hazards. As a result, it shields people from financial and physical hardship and is a generally equitable way to pay for medical care. This study aims to assess the status of social health insurance in Nepal. <strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> The research is based on a review of empirical studies, reports, and data. The Google Scholar search engine was used to locate research publications on health insurance. The Google Scholar Open Database was applied to find the publications using the keywords "health insurance" or "social health insurance in Nepal." All papers that were published before July 2022 were checked for the study. Fifty-seven research papers were discovered during the initial inquiry; five duplicate articles were eliminated, and seven were out of the norm. Finally, 45 research papers and reports were selected for evaluation with the study titled "The status of health insurance in Nepal." <strong>RESULTS:</strong> This study finds that Madhesh province has poor status (4.63%) of social health insurance and province one has the highest (33.02%) of insured persons in Nepal. Females (52%) insured are higher than males (48%). The population covered by health insurance is seven percent in Nepal. Likewise, the renewal status of social health insurance is poor in Karnali province (50%) and highest in Lumbini province (85%) for the fiscal year 2021/22. <strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> Social health insurance is an effective strategy for fair access to healthcare services. The penetration of social health insurance is low in Nepal. Since the social health insurance program is one of the effective tools for improving the health system in developing nations like Nepal, so the government should speed up its implementation to achieve the goal of universal health coverage and sustainable development goals.</p> Bharat Ram Dhungana Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Functional and Radiological Outcome after Anatomic Coracoclavicular Ligament Reconstruction for Type III to Type V Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation Using Semitendinous Autograft <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Acromioclavicular joint dislocation is a commonly encountered shoulder injury. Various surgical methods are available for the treatment of complete ACJ dislocation (type III to VI), however, optimal surgical treatment is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiological and functional outcome of anatomic coracoclavicular reconstruction (ACCR) using semitendinosus autograft with suture augmentation for type III to V ACJ dislocation. <strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>It was a single centered, cross sectional, observational study conducted at Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Dhulikhel Hospital. Twenty-three consecutive patients who underwent ACCR with semitendinosus autograft from Jan 2017 to Dec 2019 were included in the study. Patients below 18 years of age and patients with previous ipsilateral shoulder injury were excluded. The radiological outcome was assessed using coracoclavicular (CC) distance and functional outcome using DASH score and Constant score. Paired t-test and Pearson correlation were used for inferential analysis. <strong>RESULTS: </strong>Mean age of the patient was 33.83 ± 7.08 years. Mean duration of follow up was 28.17 ± 6.19 months. Mean CC distance at final follow up was 9.93 ± 1.12 mm. Mean DASH score was 5.60 ± 5.35 and mean Constant score was 88.04 ± 12.13. There were 12 (52.17%) excellent outcomes, 6 (26.08%) good outcomes, 2 (8.69%) fair outcomes and 3 (13.04%) poor outcomes based on Constant scores. <strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>ACCR with suture augmentation is an effective method for management of type III to V acromioclavicular joint dislocation.</p> Rajiv Sharma, Bibek Basukala, Bikash Parajuli, Jagadish Thapa, Rabindra Regmi, Sandeep Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 Rajiv Sharma, Bibek Basukala, Bikash Parajuli, Jagadish Thapa, Rabindra Regmi, Sandeep Sharma Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Serum Electrolyte in Hypothyroid Patients Attending Chitwan Medical College <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Hypothyroidism is a clinical condition resulting from inadequate synthesis of the thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormone has an influence on renal hemodynamics, glomerular filtration, as well as the renin angiotensin aldosterone system and renal electrolyte handling. The aim of present study was to find out the serum concentration of electrolytes sodium and potassium in hypothyroid patients attending a tertiary care hospital. <strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>A hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from 24th July 2019 to November 30th 2019 at Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital. A venous blood sample was collected and T3, T4 and TSH levels were measured by using chemiluminescence technology. Sodium and potassium levels in blood were investigated by ion selective electrode (ISE) method. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS 21 software. <strong>RESULTS: </strong>In our study parameters (T3, T4 &amp; TSH and Na+) were significant (P&lt;0.05) in hypothyroidism subjects (group II) as compared to control subjects (group I) except for electrolyte potassium which was non-significant at P&lt;0.05. T3 and T4 were found significantly decreased whereas TSH was found elevated in subjects of hypothyroidism (group II) as compared to controls. The level of potassium was within the normal range but it was found not significant as compared to healthy controls. <strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>The study concluded that there was increase in TSH with decrease in T3 and T4 in hypothyroid subjects but the electrolyte sodium was found to be statistically significant.</p> Deepak Kafle, Dilip Mahato, Fuleshwor Mandal, Brishpati Rimal, Sabin Ranabhat Copyright (c) 2022 Deepak Kafle, Dilip Mahato, Fuleshwor Mandal, Brishpati Rimal, Sabin Ranabhat Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Inter-Incisal Distance among the Bachelor Level Students of a Tertiary Care Centre of Nepal <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>The inter-incisal distance at maximum mouth opening has been referred to as normal mouth opening. Variations in the inter-incisal distance exists among different age groups, sex, gender, race and ethnicity. The mean inter-incisal distance is required during the treatment of maxillofacial fractures, temporomandibular joint disorders, oral malignancies, reconstructed mouth anomalies, and craniofacial syndromes. The aim of this study was to determine the maximal inter-incisal distance among bachelor level students of tertiary care center of Nepal. <strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among the 320 bachelor level students of Chitwan Medical College. Convenience sampling method was used. Sex and ethnicity of the patient were recorded. Inter-incisal distance was measured in all the participants with the help of tongue depressor. The data were entered in Microsoft Excel 2019 and later transported to Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 16 for the statistical analysis. Descriptive statistical analysis was done. <strong>RESULTS</strong>: In this study among the 320 participants 131 (40.9 %) were male and 189 (59.1 %) were female. The mean age was 22.34 ± 2.02 years. The mean inter-incisal distance of male and female was 48.69 ± 6.92 mm and 46.51 ± 6.24 mm respectively. The mean inter-incisal distance was maximum in Muslims who had inter-incisal length ie.51.24± 3.54 mm, followed by Buddhists 48.86± 5.89 mm. <strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>This study concluded that the mean inter-incisal distance of male was more than that of female. On the basis of religion, Muslim students had maximum inter-incisal length followed by Buddhists, Hindus and Christians. On basis of ethnicity this study documented the maximum inter incisal distance in Chhetris and minimum in Newars.</p> Rajib Chaulagain, Sujata Baral, Shila Kandel, Alisha Agrawal, Ajeevan Gautam, Sanjeeb Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2022 Rajib Chaulagain, Sujata Baral, Shila Kandel, Alisha Agrawal, Ajeevan Gautam, Sanjeeb Chaudhary Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Oral Cancer Awareness and Knowledge in Patients Visiting Tertiary Medical Center <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Oral and pharyngeal cancer, grouped together, is the sixth most common cancer in the world. Oral cancer also has a significant impact on individual patient quality of life and substantial patient treatment costs, often due to late presentation when the disease is at an advanced stage. Primary prevention to increase awareness of risk factors and the early signs and symptoms for oral cancer is proposed. There is clear lack of awareness and attribution of oral malignancies and risk factors in general public. So, the study aims to assess public awareness in patients visiting a Tertiary Medical Center. <strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Outpatient department of Dental department at Nobel Medical College Teaching Hospital in Biratnagar, Nepal. A total of 120 participants both male and female above 18 years of age were participants in the study, consisting of smokers, non-smokers and former smokers. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics like mean and percentage. <strong>RESULTS: </strong>Out of total 120 participants, 60% belonged to age group of 18-29 years whereas 30% belonged to age group 30-40 years. 75% of the participants were married. 15% of the participants were uneducated and 40% had education upto high school. 70% of the participants had heard of oral cancer and the main source of information on oral cancer was television 45(45%) as compared to other sources of information. Out of total study subjects 75% were tobacco chewers, 55% were alcohol consumers while 75% of the study population had knowledge of early signs of oral cancer. <strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>This study highlights the inadequacy of knowledge about oral cancer in general population. It is highly recommended that mass media campaigns with government funded programs and private medical institutions should run oral cancer programs in timely intervals.</p> Saurabh Roy, Pritam Raj, Karnika Yadav Copyright (c) 2022 Saurabh Roy, Pritam Raj, Karnika Yadav Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Serum Bilirubin and Uric Acid Levels in Pan Masala Tobacco Users as Compared to Non-Users <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> Pan Masala Tobacco (PMT), consumed in smoke and smokeless form, contains various carcinogenic chemicals and free radicals. Bilirubin and uric acid are said to have both pro- and anti-oxidant activities. In this context, we aimed to compare the serum levels of bilirubin and uric acid between PMT users and non-users. We also wanted to observe the pattern of PMT consumption among the users. <strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> A total of 204 participants were enrolled in this community-based comparative cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in the Ranigaun community, Rupandehi, Nepal, from March 2020 to December 2020 AD for ten months. Serum bilirubin (total, conjugated and unconjugated) and uric acid levels of both PMT users (n = 103) and non-users (n = 101) were measured. MannWhitney U test and Chi-squared analysis were performed. A p-value of &lt; 0.05 was considered statistically significant. <strong>RESULTS:</strong> The majority of PMT users were male (n= 90; 87.3%). Most of them consumed smokeless forms of PMT (n = 64; 62.1%), with tobacco being the most preferred product (n = 42; 40.8%). The average age of PMT users was significantly higher (44 years) than the non-users (38 years). The serum uric acid and bilirubin levels were not significantly different among the PMT users and non-users. <strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> Male consumed more PMT than females. Smokeless tobacco was the most preferred product in the studied area. Serum bilirubin and uric acid levels did not vary significantly between PMT users and non-users.</p> Buddhi Raj Pokhrel, Samjhana KC, Archana Jayan, Jharana Shrestha, Binaya Tamang, Narayan Gautam, Amit Chandra Jha, Raju Kumar Dubey Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Dyslipidemia in Post-menopausal Women of Western Nepal: A Community-Based Comparative Study <p>INTRODUCTION: Dyslipidemia is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Menopause-related hormonal alterations are responsible for dyslipidemia. Early identification of such risk factors aids in the prevention and prompt management of CVDs. The current study was done to evaluate the prevalence of dyslipidemia in post-menopausal women and compare the lipid profiles between pre-menopausal and post-menopausal women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This community-based comparative crosssectional study was conducted among the female population of the Siyari rural community, Rupandehi from January 2022 to April 2022. After obtaining verbal and written consent, a total of 322 fasting samples were collected from healthy women based on the questionnaire strategy. Among them 160 were pre-menopausal and 162 were post-menopausal. Serum lipids for Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) were estimated by automated Humalyzer 600. Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL), and lipid ratios were calculated. RESULTS: The prevalence of dyslipidemia was high among post-menopausal women (73.5%). TG, TC, VLDL, LDL, TC/HDL, TG/HDL, and LDL/HDL were significantly increased in post-menopausal women compared to pre-menopausal women (p &lt; 0.001), whereas serum HDL was significantly decreased (p = 0.032). CONCLUSIONS: Higher serum lipids and lipid ratios in postmenopausal women could lead to increased CVD risks and other related complications in the long term.</p> Jharana Shrestha, Mohan Yadav, Buddhi Raj Pokhrel, Binaya Tamang, Narayan Gautam, Anjan Palikhey, Jigyasa Subedi, Goody Jha Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Level of Awareness about HIV/AIDS among People Living in Galmudug, Somalia: A Cross-Sectional Study <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> Around the world, HIV/AIDS infects nearly half of all victims of AIDS-related illnesses. In Somalia, 10,500 persons are thought to be living with HIV/AIDS. A 500-person estimate of children who are HIV-positive is also available. According to estimates, only 35% of HIV-positive persons go to ART centres for their medicine due to lack of awareness. Therefore, this study was designed to assess level of awareness about HIV/AIDS among people living in Galmudug, Somalia. <strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> A cross-sectional design was used to assess the degree of HIV and AIDS awareness among residents of Galmudug, Somalia. The study population consisted of reproductive-aged males and females (15 to 45 years old), and respondents were drawn using a purposive sampling technique. The structured questionnaire was developed to collect the information by interview method. A descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS version 25 software. <strong>RESULTS:</strong> This study found that most Somalians had moderate-to-adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS (57.8%), whereas 42.2% had poor knowledge. A total of 274 (78.3%) of the samples showed a poor attitude toward HIV/AIDS, while 76 (21.7%) displayed a positive attitude toward the disease. An association was also found between marital status (χ2 = 10.07, p&lt; 0.05) and education level (χ2 = 29.55, p&lt; 0.05) and knowledge of HIV/AIDS. In relation to attitude towards awareness of HIV/AIDS, demographic variables (marital status, age, occupation, and education) were significantly associated. <strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> The community needs to provide factual and precise knowledge of HIV/AIDS through aggressive awareness and door-to-door campaigns on the prevalence of the virus.</p> Ahmed Abdinasir Abdulle, Ibrahim Yasin Khalif, Aisha Hussein Hashi, Sakawe Farah Warsame, Mahendra Giri Copyright (c) 2022 Ahmed Abdinasir Abdulle, Ibrahim Yasin Khalif, Aisha Hussein Hashi, Sakawe Farah Warsame, Mahendra Giri Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Health Impact due to Online Education in Mid-adolescent School Students at Kathmandu Valley during 2nd Wave of COVID-19 Pandemic <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> There seems health impact both physical and mental health of mid – adolescent student due to online education due to untested way of implementation of remote mode of education. The aim of the study was to observe the health impact due to online education during covid-19 pandemic 2nd wave. <strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> This cross sectional study was carried out among 338 mid-adolescent students of selected schools of Kathmandu valley through convenient sampling technique. Physical health was assessed through semi-structured questionnaire, anxiety was assessed by GAD-7 scale and perceived stress was assessed by PSS-10 scale with validated and pretested questionnaire. Data were entered in SPSS version 23 and Chi–square test was applied to identify the association of Health impacts with different independent variables. <strong>RESULTS:</strong> Mental problem like anxiety was found as mild anxiety in 26.3%, moderate anxiety in 21.9%, and severe anxiety in 8% of respondents. Regarding stress, low stress was found in 10.9%, moderate stress in 83.4%, and high stress in 5.6% of the respondents. The association was observed with perceived feelings of loneliness and isolation during online education with anxiety (p&lt;0.0001) and stress(p&lt;0.0001); body ache (p=0.032) and headache (p=0.047) in-relation with type of gadget used, neck pain (p=0.02) and headache (p=0.045) in-relation with duration of online classes per day, backache (p=0.037) in-relation with physical activities, eye problem(p=0.016) inrelation with sitting arrangement during online education. <strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> More than half of the student have seen either kind of physical health issues and among four in five respondents have seen moderate perceived stress. The association of health impact was seen with type of gadget used, duration of online class, physical activity and weight gain. </p> Dikshya Nepal, Shailesh Pandit, Mahendra Giri Copyright (c) 2022 Dikshya Nepal, Shailesh Pandit, Mahendra Giri Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Opportunistic Screening for Raised Blood Sugar and Diagnosing Prediabetes and Diabetes among Patients Coming for Eye, ENT Consultation: A Descriptive Study <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> Diabetes is a pandemic of public health importance, and prediabetes has also emerged as a major public health concern. Unfortunately, one-third of individuals with diabetes are identified only after developing complications, and nearly three-fourths are unaware of their raised blood sugar status. Opportunistic screening at an earlier stage has good prognosis. The study aimed at an opportunistic screening of raised plasma glucose levels of outpatients and diagnosing prediabetes and diabetes among them. <strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among patients visiting an Eye ENT hospital in Bhaktapur, Nepal, between January to December 2019. Outpatients aged 40-79 years with unknown history of diabetes were invited for free hyperglycemia screening. Descriptive analysis was computed for patients participating in random plasma glucose (RPG) screening and patients coming for definitive tests for diabetes with elevated RPG levels. <strong>RESULTS:</strong> Amongst 6,913 outpatients, 14.9% had RPG levels of 140 mg/dL and higher. Among 159 patients with RPG levels 140 mg/dL and higher, 40.9% had prediabetes, and 32.7% had diabetes. <strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> Opportunistic screening in hospital OPD settings is feasible to identify people at risk of hyperglycemia. Timely detection of a silent killer - diabetes and prediabetes can be useful for early intervention and preventing complications.</p> Bijay Khatri, Manish Kayastha, Rajan Shrestha, Sangita Majhi, Anusha Lamsal, Sanjib Kumar Upadhyay, Madan Prasad Upadhyay, Kumud Kumar Kafle Copyright (c) 2022 Bijay Khatri, Manish Kayastha, Rajan Shrestha, Sangita Majhi, Anusha Lamsal, Sanjib Kumar Upadhyay, Madan Prasad Upadhyay, Kumud Kumar Kafle Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Stress among Students’ of Dental College in Nepal <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> Dentistry is a most stressful profession in the medical field. During the practicum period, most of the dental students feel stressed from internal and external environmental stressors. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the stress among dental students, this will provide applicable insights for further improvement. <strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> A descriptive, cross-sectional research design was used with an online Structure questionnaire to assess stress among the students of dental colleges of Nepal by using dental environmental stress (DES) questionnaire, which was developed by Garbee et al. Probability Proportionate to the size sampling technique was used to collect the sample. The organized data will be entered by using IBM Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20.0. The data will be further analyzed by using descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean, median and standard deviation) and inferential statistics. <strong>RESULTS:</strong> Out of 756 students, 58.7% of the respondents were equal to or greater than 22 years of age. The median age was 22 years. Among them, 78.7% were female. Stress-related to domain, Professional and carrier-related stressor had higher, followed by academic performance and Clinic patient-related stress is mean percentage was 70.43, 69.17 and 61.09, respectively. About 50.3% had moderate levels and 15.3% of respondents had a severe level of stress. There was statically association between stress level with age (p=0.01), first choice of study (p=0.026), academic year (p=&lt;0.001) and current residence (p=&lt;0.001). <strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> Professional and carrier-related stressor, academic-related and patient-related stressors are higher in dental students. Severe Levels of stress increased over the academic year and peaked in 5th year. Stress affects student academic as well as professional carrier in the future so minimize the stressor by the institutional level.</p> Srijana Ghimire, Jaya Prasad Singh, Soni KC, Sunita Poudyal, Rajib Chaulagain Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Knowledge Regarding Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Teachers in Selected Government Schools: A Cross-sectional Study <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neuro-developmental disorder that typically first manifest early in childhood and often persist into adulthood which can affect the academic achievement, well-being and social interactions of children. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge about ADHD among the government school teacher and to find the association between ADHD knowledge with their demographic variables. <strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> A cross section descriptive research design was adopted. A total of 112 numbers of samples were selected from government schools of Janakpurdham, Nepal by use of purposive sampling. The information was collected through the use of the Knowledge Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (KADDS) tool, and subsequently, data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). <strong>RESULTS:</strong> The result revealed that 43.8% demonstrated insufficient knowledge, while only 56.2% possessed adequate knowledge. There was significant association of gender and the ADHD knowledge among the government school teachers (p = 0.016). <strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> Insufficient knowledge about ADHD was noted among school teachers, indicating a need for the government to provide targeted training and in-service education in this field.</p> Lata Kusum Shah, Arpana Kamati Copyright (c) 2022 Lata Kusum Shah, Arpana Kamati Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge and Behavior Related to Junk Food among Adolescent Students in a Private School: A Cross-sectional Study <p>INTRODUCTION: Adolescents are a vulnerable group for developing unhealthy eating habits, especially with the increasing availability of junk food in the market. Private schools, which often provide a comfortable environment and higher income families, may also have an impact on the eating behavior of adolescents. Therefore, this cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the knowledge and behavior related to junk food among adolescent students in a private school. <strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among adolescent students in Shree Phuleshwar Public Secondary English school Kalyanpur, Saptari with the sample drawn from those present during data collection. Following their consent, the respondents were given a self-administered structured questionnaire. Knowledge was graded; mean, standard deviation, frequency, percentage and the chi-square test were used to analyze the data using SPSS 16.0. <strong>RESULTS:</strong> The participants' mean knowledge score was 5.80, with a standard deviation of 1.26. Similarly, the participants' average practice score was 7.07, with a standard deviation of 1.20.A total of 60 people took part in the study. The findings revealed that 31.7% of the participants possessed good knowledge, 31.7% possessed average knowledge, and 36.7% possessed poor knowledge. In terms of practice, 35.0% of participants did well, while 65.0% did poorly. <strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> The level of knowledge among adolescent students in Kalyanpur school was generally low, with only a small proportion having good knowledge. Similarly, the level of practice was poor, with the majority of participants having poor practice.</p> Poonam Shah, Suman Sah, Vijay Kumar Kapar, Shree Shyam Giri Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Nursing Personnel's Caring Behaviors during End-of-Life Treatment in a Tertiary Care Hospital <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> The standard of end-of-life care has become an important indicator of a hospital's general care standards in modern times. Unfortunately, the present nursing standards and level of care provided to patients reaching the end of their lives fall short of what they had hoped for. As a consequence, it's crucial to look at how caregivers demonstrate care. Therefore, this observational study aims to assess the caring behavior towards death and dying among nursing personnels. <strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> The research design adopted for the study was descriptive research design on 50 nursing personals working in the MICU, SICU, CCU, ITUs and wards working at SJMCH, Bangalore. Purposive sampling technique adopted to select nursing personals and participatory approach using observational rating scale during end of life care was used to assess the caring behaviour. The data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. <strong>RESULTS:</strong> The result showed that caring behaviour of nursing personnel during end of life care found to be 58.0% with moderate caring behaviour, 38.0% with good caring behaviour and 4 % with poor caring behavior. There is no statistically significant association of caring behaviour of nursing personnel with the baseline variables like age of staff nurses and patients. <strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> It was found that there was no significant difference between demographic variables and caring behavior in nursing personnel. This study depicts that the caring behaviour of nursing personnel during end of life care was found as 58% with moderate caring behaviour, 38% with good caring behaviour and 4 % with poor caring behaviour. </p> Shiwani Sah, Sugandhi Dsouza, Moses Charles Dsouza Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Brandt-Daroff Exercise versus Standard Technique on Symptoms Experienced by Patients with Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo in a tertiary Care hospital: A Comparative Study <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is one of the most common causes of vertigo. It’s considered to be the most common cause of vertigo among the elderly, since 30% of the people reported to have suffered from it at least once in their lifetime.Several studies have indicated that physical therapy, including rehabilitative exercises and physical maneuvers, is an effective treatment for BPPV. Therefore, the objectives of the study was designed to compare Brandt-Daroff exercise versus standardized technique on symptoms experienced by patients with Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) in a selected hospital of Bangalore, India. <strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> The post-test only group design was adopted for this study. The setting was ENT OPD of St. John’s Medical College Hospital. A sample of 20 BPPV patients in each Group 1 and Group 2 were taken using purposive sampling technique. A dizziness handicap inventory scale, a visual analogue scale and a checklist was used to assess the symptoms of patients with BPPV. <strong>RESULTS:</strong> Median score of dizziness in group 1 was 37 and in group 2 was 16, the obtained Mann Whitney value was 13, which is statistically significant at p&lt;0.001. Likewise, median score for nausea in group 1 was 3 and in group 2 was 0, the obtained Mann Whitney value was 108.5 which is statistically significant at p&lt;0.0001. Further, finding depicts that there was no statistically significant difference of vomiting between group 1 and group 2. <strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> there was a substantial difference in the degree of nausea and dizziness between groups 1 and 2. Group 1 had higher median scores for nausea and dizziness when compared to group 2. However, the frequency of vomiting did not differ substantially between the two groups.</p> Radhika Kumari Sah, Mary Walton, Neethu Paul, Anita Cecilia Ross Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Distribution of ABO and Rhesus Blood Groups among the Blood Donors in a Teaching Hospital of Hilly Region, Nepal: A Cross-sectional Study <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> The ABO and Rhesus-D blood group systems are important and widely used in humans for transfusion of blood and blood components for various medical conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution of ABO and Rhesus D blood groups among blood donors at Karnali Academy of Health Sciences, Teaching Hospital, Jumla, Nepal. <strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> From July 2019 to January 2022, a retrospective cross-sectional study among 800 blood donors was conducted using medical records from blood donors who donated blood in a Teaching Hospital of Jumla, Nepal. Microsoft Excel was used to analyze the<br />data, and the results were presented as frequency and percentage. <strong>RESULTS:</strong> The most common blood group was ‘A’ (30.6%) and the least common was ‘AB’ (14.5%) with a majority of male blood donors (84.6%). Only 2.2% of blood donors was Rhesus-negative, while 97.7% were Rhesus-positive. Considering ABO and Rhesus blood groups altogether, blood group ‘A’ Rhesuspositive (30.1%) was the most common and blood group ‘AB’ Rhesus-negative (0.1%) was the least common. <strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> Blood group ‘A’ was the most common, followed by blood groups ‘B’, ‘O’, and ‘AB’. The majority of the blood donors were Rhesus-positive, with blood group ‘AB’ Rhesus-negative being the most uncommon. This information would be helpful to the hospital’s blood bank in this rural hilly region, particularly in the hospital’s planning for blood transfusion services.</p> Bibek Pun Magar, Jharendra Bahadur Oli, Sagun Adhikari, Elisha Rana, Dilli Bahadur Pun Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Associated with Utilization of Modern Family Planning Methods among Married Women of Tharu Community of Madhuwan Municipality in Bardiya District of Nepal <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> The use of modern family planning methods varies by province in Nepal from a low of 37% in Province 4 to a high of 49% in Province 3 There is no previous study has documented on the factors associated with utilization of modern family planning methods among married women of Tharu community in Bardiya district of Nepal, so this study is expected to provide information on influencing factors and hindering factors for utilization of family planning methods and its prevalence. <strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> A Community based cross-sectional to find out factors associated with utilization of modern family planning method among married women of Tharu community of Madhuwan Municipality in Bardiya district of Nepal. Multistage cluster sampling was adopted. Sample size was calculated as 383. Face-to-face interview technique was adopted to collect data. Chi-square test was applied. A p-value of &lt;0.05 was considered statistically significant. <strong>RESULTS:</strong> Among all respondents (n=383), the current users of modern family planning methods were 72.3%. More than one fourth (28.7%) of the respondents were currently using sterilization family planning method. DMPA, OCP, Implant, Condom and IUCD current users were 17%, 10.7%, 8.6%, 4.4% and 2.9% respectively.<strong> CONCLUSIONS:</strong> Finding showed that most of the respondents were using female sterilization FP method which was only available at hospital or camp setting. So, the government should manage such an environment for family planning so that it is easily accessible to every desired couple.</p> Aitawari Chaudhari, Umesh Gautam, Bhuwan Dahit, Mahendra Giri Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Pattern of Self-medication among Undergraduate Medical Students: A Cross-sectional Study <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> Self-medication is one of the major emerging health problems. It may lead to many health hazards as well as resistance to antimicrobial agents. Lack of enough report on self-medication in medical students has encouraged to conduct this study. The study aims to find out the pattern, perception and reasons for self-medication in undergraduate medical students. <strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> This descriptive crosssectional study was conducted among undergraduate medical students at Janaki Medical College and Teaching Hospital (JMCTH) from February 2022 to April 2022. A pre-validated questionnaire was used for data collection and was analyzed using SPSS. <strong>RESULTS:</strong> Total of 134 students participated in this study, with mean age of21.70±1.66 years. 90.3% of students practiced self-medication in last 6 months. Mild nature of disease was the most common reason for self-medication. Fever (65.67%) was the most common cause of self-medication, whereas NSAIDS (45.9%) was most commonly used drugs for self-medication. Pharmacist (52.9%) were the most common source of drug information. Nausea/vomiting (32.09%) was the most common adverse effect experienced by participants. 80.6% thought that selfmedication was a part of self-care. More than one-third had opinion that self-medication was recommended by WHO. <strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> Majority of students practiced self-medication. More than half of them prescribed medication to others. Medical students should be made aware of the harmful effects of self-medication.</p> Ragni Sinha, Lokeshwar Chaurasia, Ram Chandra Shah, Smita Singh, Mina Jha, Sunil Adhikari Copyright (c) 2022 Ragni Sinha, Lokeshwar Chaurasia, Ram Chandra Shah, Smita Singh, Mina Jha, Sunil Adhikari Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000