MedS Alliance Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms <p>The MedS Alliance Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences is the official peer-reviewed journal of Centre for Clinical Research and Community Health (CC-REACH), MedSpirit Alliance Inc.</p> en-US <p>© The Authors</p> <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons Licence" /></a><br />The articles in MJMMS are licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a>.</p> alliance@medspirit.org (Dr. Jitendra K. Singh) sioux.cumming@ubiquitypress.com (Sioux Cumming) Sun, 06 Feb 2022 11:41:30 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.6 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Impact of Change in Structure of Government on Health Service Delivery: A Case Study of Dang District of Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42961 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> Nepal has changed its structure of governance from a centralized into decentralized system to improve its health service delivery to people. This paper aims to highlight the impact of this changed structure in health service delivery during this transition phase. Thus a cross sectional study was performed to study the impact, where semi-structured interviews in Nepali with officials of different health institutions under different tiers of government was conducted.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> An input-process-output framework was applied to study the components of health service delivery. The data obtained was transcribed into English language and content analysis was executed under several headings.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> After analyzing the findings, mixed impact was observed with various challenges and opportunities in the way ahead for improving the health service delivery. A positive impact on the physical infrastructure was seen along with opportunities as well as challenges in human resource procurement. Management of budget as well as logistics have become difficult. Plan as suitable as possible are being made meanwhile, organizing the health system is becoming haphazard. Staff management along with training them and coordination among agencies have become more tedious. However a good outcome was present in aspects of service utilization and community participation.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> Nepal as a developing country has been making an effort in the way forward on improving its health service delivery and further research on this field is necessary. Also robust framework and policies to drive the country in delivering an improved health service is required.</p> Amrit Khanal, Bishal Bhandari, Pradish Poudel, Pravakar Dahal Copyright (c) 2021 Amrit Khanal, Bishal Bhandari, Pradish Poudel, Pravakar Dahal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42961 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Music on Mental Health https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42959 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> Music affects our brain at different levels. Our mood changes with different types of music. However, at a very deep level, its effect is similar to that of deep meditation. The main objective of this study was to explore the impact of music on mental health. This paper explores, how daily listening and practising of music affects our body and mind.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> Qualitative method based on personal experience and document review method was used in this research. Relevant and related literatures were searched through different search engines to draw the conclusion.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Different systematic experimentations have shown that music practice cultivates the life of a human being. Music as yoga is a combination of breathing exercises and physical activities.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> Music has valuable, powerful and important role in happiness, managing mental stress, and for providing relief to the mind.</p> Ramesh Pokharel Copyright (c) 2021 Ramesh Pokharel https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42959 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Aesthetic Pleasure: The Arts of Healing https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42960 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> Arts are creative things that provide aesthetic pleasure to the readers, viewers and audience. The joy can be experienced by listening to music, reading novels, watching drama and film, viewing paintings, sculptures and architecture. Such experiences add colors to life, transforms us from inside ourselves and then we derive pleasure from within, being independent of the external world. The involvement of an individual in the creation and appreciation of arts, heals their wounds from inside. The objective of this research paper was to trace the healing properties of arts.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> This study used qualitative method for exploration of the research area. Artworks were primary sources whereas books and articles on arts and aesthetics were the secondary sources.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Arts enhance the quality of life. Moreover, they have the capacity of healing mental and emotional wounds. When individuals have frustration, dilemma and confusion, they resort to music, fictions and films. Arts have rescued many from anxiety and depression. Practicing and appreciating arts like music, drama, dance, painting, sculpture or poetry provides rhythmic flow of imagination and allows one to forget the painful moments of life. These creative aspects of arts have healing properties.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> The creation and appreciation of art is one of the easiest, safest and most accessible means of healing ourselves from pain and suffering in the world. There is a need of application of art in healing patients.</p> Yam Prasad Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Yam Prasad Sharma https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42960 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Madhesh Institute of Health Sciences (MIHS): A Dream Project of Medical Science in Province 2, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42962 <p>No abstract available.</p> Khushbu Yadav Copyright (c) 2021 Khushbu Yadav https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42962 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Partner Relationships and Sexual Desires: Has COVID-19 Impacted? https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42913 <p>No abstract available.</p> Jitendra K. Singh, Dilaram Acharya Copyright (c) 2021 Jitendra K. Singh, Dilaram Acharya https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42913 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Bacteriuria in Pregnant Women Visiting Provincial Hospital, Janakpurdham, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42996 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> Considering the importance of urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnant women which is responsible for several complications, its diagnosis and treatment are essential to maintain the health of mother and baby.The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the isolation and identification of Escherichia coli from the UTI suspected pregnant women visiting at provincial Hospital Janakpur.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> A total of 200 mid-stream urine samples were collected from UTI suspected pregnant women of 18 to 45 years visiting antenetal OPD in Provincial Hospital Janakpur in between February 2021 to April 2021. The collected urine samples were processed in the microbiology department of the Model Multiple College, Janakpur. Standard Microbiological procedures were followed.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> The Escherichia coli were predominant identified as 17 (35.41%). Patients aged between 25-30 years were mostly infected 35 (72.9%). The majority of bacteria isolated were more sensitive to Cephalexin and nitrofurantoin.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> Escherichia coli is one of the most important pathogen for UTI in pregnant women. The majority of bacteria isolated in the present study were more sensitive to Cephalexin and nitrofurantoin.</p> Nagendra Prasad Yadav, Rudra Narayan Thakur, Rakesh Kumar Yadav Copyright (c) 2021 Nagendra Prasad Yadav, Rudra Narayan Thakur, Rakesh Kumar Yadav https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42996 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Anaemia among Patients attending Central Laboratory at a Tertiary Care Centre in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42917 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> Anaemia is a very common problem in developing country like Nepal among children’s and young females. It is necessary to detect haemoglobin at early stage to know about anaemia. Anaemia in female causes dizziness and loss of concentration, which may lead to fall down and cause severe injury. In pregnant woman anaemia leads to developmental delay in children. In anaemic pregnant females, loss of blood during delivery can cause complications and even death of mother and foetus. In children iron deficiency anaemia may cause loss of concentration, developmental delay and delay in maturity of brain.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> This prospective, cross-sectional study was carried out at Rapti Academy of Health Sciences from 1<sup>st</sup> March 2019 to 1<sup>st</sup> April 2019. A total of 1000 samples which came in central laboratory on regular basis were taken and Mindray 5 part hematology analyzer was used to evaluate the samples. In samples with low haemoglobin count, peripheral smear examination was done to determine the type of anaemia.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Patient blood samples were taken irrespective of age and sex. Out of the total 1000 cases from various Outpatient departments of Rapti Academy of Health Sciences, 240 (24%) patients were anaemic.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> Anaemia is a major problem worldwide and the most common anaemia is microcytic hypochromic anaemia, especially iron deficiency anaemia followed by megaloblatic anaemia and hemolytic anaemia. Thus, it is necessary to do haemoglobin count and stool examination of woman in hilly regions on a regular basis, which will be helpful to avoid further anaemia related complications.</p> Krishna Kumar Jha, Dipesh Regmi Copyright (c) 2021 Krishna Kumar Jha, Dipesh Regmi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42917 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Physical Health Problems and Patterns of Self-Care Associated with the Use of Digital Devices among University Students https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42918 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> Utilization of digital devices create some problems for users, such as, mental disorder, visual problems, headache, weight gain and unnecessary time consumption. Therefore, this study aims to identify the information about the practices on the use of digital devices, its impact on physical health and pattern of self-care among the university students involved in different professions.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> MPhil scholars involved in different professions (n= 315) of Nepal Open University (NOU) had participated in this cross-sectional online survey during January 2019 to August 2019. Multivariable analysis was employed to obtain rate ratios and chi-square test was used for the association of the use of digital devices with physical health problems.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Socio-demographic factors like age was significantly associated with neck pain (p=0.02) and stiffness in hands/arms (p=0.04), while profession was associated with weight gain and difficulty in sleep (p=0.04). Moreover, the use of tablets or taking tea or coffee during the use of digital devices was associated with headache among university students (p=0.05) with small effect sizes. Additionally, we found that headache (p&lt; 0.001), and weight gain (p= 0.01) were significantly associated with the daily use of computer and TV respectively.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> Physical health problems among the subjects who used computers and TV were relatively high as compared to the subjects who used laptops. Self-care measures taken by participants for physical health problems involved the use of medicine and meditation.</p> Dirgha Raj Joshi, Umesh Neupane, Roshan Chitrakar Copyright (c) 2021 Dirgha Raj Joshi, Umesh Neupane, Roshan Chitrakar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42918 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Food Habits and Nutritional Status of Adolescents in Malangwa Municipality, Sarlahi, Nepal: A Cross-sectional Study https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42997 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> Stunting and thinness are major nutritional problems affecting adolescents in the developing countries. This cross- sectional study was conducted to identify food consumption pattern, nutritional status and lifestyle pattern of adolescents studying in public schools of Malangwa municipality, Sarlahi, Nepal.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> Analytical cross-sectional study was carried out among adolescents of public schools. A semi-structured questionnaire was developed and face to face interview method was used to collect information from three public schools of Malangwa municipality. Simple random sampling technique was applied. Food consumption pattern were reviewed by 24 –hour recall method and 7– day food frequency questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> The result indicated that protein rich food intake was very low (29%) among the adolescent’s daily diet and 82% of the respondents took fruits and vegetables in daily diet. 40.1% respondents were found malnourished, out of which 37.5% were and 64.8% were boys while 35.2% were girls. Also, 2.5% were overweight, out of which 50.0% were girls and 50.0% were boys.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> Awareness on healthy eating of the adolescents needs to be created to uphold their nutritional status.</p> Sakil Dhobi, Mahendra Giri Copyright (c) 2021 Sakil Dhobi, Mahendra Giri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42997 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Perception and Practice Regarding Prevention of COVID-19 among Community People During and After Lockdown https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42942 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> Due to erratic growth of COVID-19 infection across the globe, the mortality and morbidity due to COVID-19 is rapidly changing across the world. An assessment of the perception and practices of community members is important to reduce the risk for COVID-19 infection. Therefore, this study aims to assess the perception and practice regarding prevention of COVID-19 infection among community people before and after lockdown.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted among community sample from November 2020 to January 2021 at Janakpur sub-metropolitan city of Dhanusha district, Province-2, Nepal. Two stage random sampling technique was used to select the study sample (n=422). A structured questionnaire was administered. McNemar Chi-square test was used to assess the association of perception and practice regarding prevention of COVID-19 infection during and after lockdown. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as significant.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> The perception among community people regarding prevention of COVID-19 infection during and after lockdown was insignificant for all the component (p&gt;0.05) except perception regarding preventive measures against COVID-19; p=0.002 whereas the practices for prevention of COVID-19 infection among community people for all the components during and after lockdown was found to be significant (p&lt;0.0001).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> The study showed decreased practices among community people after lockdown for the prevention of COVID-19 infection compared to practices during lockdown. However, perception remains unchanged during and after lockdown for the prevention of COVID-19 infection. Therefore, the government and non-government agencies should implement awareness program through mass media and social campaigns to improve the practices on prevention of COVID-19 infection even after lockdown, among community people.</p> Poonam Shah, Sanjana Shah, Laxmi Shah, Shree Shyam Giri, Shambhu Prasad Kushwaha, Lokeshwar Chaurasia Copyright (c) 2021 Poonam Shah, Sanjana Shah, Laxmi Shah, Shree Shyam Giri, Shambhu Prasad Kushwaha, Lokeshwar Chaurasia https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42942 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Surgical Site Infection and Its Associated Factors Following Obstetric Surgeries: A Retrospective Study https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42943 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> Surgical site infection (SSI) is most common type of Hospital Acquired Infection (HAI) in low and middle-income countries. The objective of the study was to find out the incidence and associated factors of SSI following obstetric surgeries especially Lower Segment Cesarean Section (LSCS).</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> A retrospective cross sectional study was conducted at Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital. A total of 1739 patients files who had undergone Lower Segment Cesarean Section from 14th April 2019 to 12 April 2020 was reviewed. Data was analysed using IBM SPSS Version 20.0 and interpreted in descriptive and inferential statistics.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Among 1739 obstetric surgeries performed, 50 patient showed signs and symptoms of SSI yielding to an infection rate of 2.9%. Majority (80%) of patients developed SSI after they were discharged. There was significant association between SSI and type of surgery (p=0.007) and, SSI was not associated with haemoglobin level, blood transfusion, residence and age of the patients.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> Though overall infection rate was low, most of the women developed infection after being discharged, thus it is recommended that discharge counselling about wound care should be emphasized.</p> Ram Prasad Sharma G, Laxmi Rajbanshi, Basanta Thapa, Jaya Prasad Singh, Renuka Tamrakar Copyright (c) 2021 Ram Prasad Sharma G, Laxmi Rajbanshi, Basanta Thapa, Jaya Prasad Singh, Renuka Tamrakar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42943 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Clinco-epidemologial Profile of Organophosphorus Poisoning at Provincial Hospital, Janakpurdham, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42944 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> Organophosphorus is one of the most common causes of poisoning worldwide. Organophosphorus (OP) poisoning is a major public health problem in Nepal. This study was conducted to observe the epidemiological pattern and mortality in patients with OP poisoning admitted to provincial hospital Janakpurdham, Nepal.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> It was a retrospective study. All the consecutive poisoning cases due to op compound admitted through emergency either in the ward or ICU of the provincial hospital from 15 May 2020 to 15 November 2020 included in the study.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> A total of 160 cases of poisoning were admitted through emergency either in the medical ward or ICU of the provincial hospital. Out Of these 81 (51.63 %) was OP poisoning. Among 81 cases 51.85 % were male.70.37 % of cases were from the young adult group i.e., 15 to 30 years. 38.37 % were housewives. Among all included cases 43.20 % had consumed Methyl parathion (Metacid) followed by Phorate 24.69 %. 55 % of total cases were from Dhanusha district followed by Mahottari and Sarlahi. The mortality rate was 14.81 % of total admitted cases, with an average of 5.7 days of hospital stay in the recovered case.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> OP poisoning is a major public health problem in province 2. It affects mostly the young age population. Housewives are at more risk of poisoning. The mortality in patients with OP poisoning is high even if antidotes are available. Considering the common occurrence and full curability of the condition early arrival to the hospital, timely monitoring, and prompt management may help to reduce mortality. With strict laws on the provision of pesticide availability, the poisoning incidence can be decreased and by proper development of infrastructure and ICU facility mortality can be decreased.</p> Sanjeet Kumar Jha, Divyanshu Jha, Manish Panday, Mahesh Mahaseth Copyright (c) 2021 Sanjeet Kumar Jha, Divyanshu Jha, Manish Panday, Mahesh Mahaseth https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42944 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Willingness to Pay and Expected Benefits for Social Health Insurance: A Cross-sectional Study at Pokhara Metropolitan City https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42945 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> The government supported SHI is the largest health insurance schemes ever launched in the country since 2016 by Health Insurance Board. Prior to UHI program, small scale community health insurance programs are running in fragmented structure The paper aims to examine the association between the potential policyholder's paying willingness for the social health insurance their characteristics, and tries to predict the willingness to pay for social health insurance schemes and their expected benefits from the SHI run by Government of Nepal.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> The study was carried out during Jan-July 2018 in Pokhara Metropolitan city 29, Kaski District, Nepal.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Among the 5,000 households residing in the study area 360 households who have not purchased social health insurance schemes till the survey period but interested to buy within one year were selected for the study. Respondents were selected with purposive sampling method. The association between respondents' characteristics and their willingness to pay for SHI and expected benefits from SHI has been explore using the chi square test and found that association is significant with the family size and education. The predictors variables are identified using the hierarchical regression model. The study reveals that among seven demographic characteristics of respondents (gender, age group, household head, family size, ethnicity, qualification, and occupation), family size and profession are good predictors for willingness to pay SHI and family size and family head are the good predictors for the expected benefits.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> The study concludes family size is most influential factors while deciding the premium and sum assured for social health insurance, however, family head influences expected benefits while profession influences amount of premium.</p> Rabindra Ghimire, Shreejana Wagle Copyright (c) 2021 Rabindra Ghimire, Shreejana Wagle https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42945 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Dietary Patterns of Pregnant Women in Southern Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42948 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> Quality and balanced diet becomes very crucial to the health of woman during and after pregnancy. Therefore, the study was focused on the nutritional behaviour and dietary pattern of women during pregnancy.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> Cluster random sampling was adopted. Total 336 pregnant women were selected, out of which 224 were pregnant women (cases) and 112 were non-pregnant healthy women (controls). Maternal demographics information was collected by a structured questionnaire. Data was entered into MS Excel and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Chi-square test was used. The p-value (p&lt; 0.05) was considered statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Among pregnant women, 27.23%, 32.58%, 30.95% and 9.82% women consumed meat daily, twice per week, once per week and none respectively while among non-pregnant women the consumption of meat was 25.89%, 50.89%, 17.85% and 5.35% respectively. The association of consuming meat twice per week and fish among pregnant and non-pregnant women was noted statistically significant (p=0.005). More number of study participants drank tea and milk daily. The co-relation between pregnant and non-pregnant women regarding drinking (tea and milk) daily was statistically insignificant (p=0.881 and p=0.122) respectively. However, the relation between pregnant and non-pregnant women for intake of juice was statistically significant (p=0.007).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> Thus, the findings of this research suggest the need for a balanced nutritional diet among Nepalese pregnant women for proper foetal growth, good health of pregnant women and to avoid complications during pregnancy. Nutrition education programs in the community should be launched.</p> Satyam Prakash, Dipendra Raj Pandeya, Khushbu Yadav, Basant Kumar Yadav Copyright (c) 2021 Satyam Prakash, Dipendra Raj Pandeya, Khushbu Yadav, Basant Kumar Yadav https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42948 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Educational Intervention on Knowledge Regarding Child Abuse among School Students in a Sub-Metropolitan City https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42949 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> Child abuse or maltreatment constitutes all forms of physical and/or emotional ill-treatment resulting in actual or potential harm to the child’s health, survival, development. The objective was focused to measure the effectiveness of educational intervention on knowledge regarding child abuse among school students at Janakpurdham, submetropolitan city.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> This study was conducted in Janaki higher secondary english school, at Janakpurdham, Dhanusha. One group pre-test and post-test design was used. A self- administered structured questionnaire was developed to assess the knowledge regarding child abuse among participants. Differential and inferential statistics were used to analyse data by SPSS package.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Out of total 44 participants, 12 (27.3%) participants had poor level of knowledge in pre-test whereas none had poor knowledge in post-test. 25 (56.8%) participants had average level of knowledge in pre-test but only 15 (34.1%) had average level in post- test. 7 (15.9%) participants had good level of knowledge in pre-test, however 29 (65.9%) had good level of knowledge in post-test. The scores of pre-test 18.80 (3.87) and post-test 24.23 (2.78) were found to be statistically significant. There was no any association between level of knowledge in pre-test and post-test with their selected socio-demographic variables except sex, education status of mother and occupation of father in post-test.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> Majority of participants had average level of knowledge in pre-test that was increased to good knowledge in post-test. The scores of pre-test and post-test were found to be statistically significant which determined the effectiveness of educational intervention programme.</p> Reena Ishwar, Dilip Kumar Ishwar, Punita Yadav Copyright (c) 2021 Reena Ishwar, Dilip Kumar Ishwar, Punita Yadav https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42949 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Self-medication Practice in Primary Dysmenorrhea among Nursing Students: A Cross Sectional Study https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42951 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> Self-medication and home remedies are most commonly employed for relief from menstrual discomfort in female students. Self-medication practice varies among adolescent female students. Hence, this study aims to observe and analyze self-medication practice and drugs used for primary dysmenorrhea among nursing students.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> This cross sectional study was conducted at Janaki Medical College and College of Nursing, Sinha Health Foundation, Dhanusha from October 2019 to December 2019, among nursing students of various academic years of intermediate level and bachelor level through structured questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS version 21.0.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Out of 156 female students, the mean age of menarche was 13.20±1.53, interval of menstrual cycle was 30.29±7.26. Majority (82.1%) of the female students reported lower abdominal pain during menstrual bleeding, of which 48.4% had pain for less than 1 day, 47.7% had pain for 1-3 days and 3.9% had pain for more than 3 days. Self-medication practice was observed in 35.20 % of students while 60.20% of them practiced resting in bed for pain relief during menstrual bleeding. The most commonly self-medicated drug was mefenamic acid (64.4%), followed by paracetamol (40%), ibuprofen (26.7%) and nimesulide (13.3%).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> Self–medication of drugs was found to be lower in primary dysmenorrhea among nursing students. Therefore, education programs on the drawbacks of self-medication of drugs needs to be implemented; properly and timely.</p> Lokeshwar Chaurasia, Laxmi Shah, Gita Paudel, Deependra Prasad Sarraf, Poonam Shah, Jitendra Kumar Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Lokeshwar Chaurasia, Laxmi Shah, Gita Paudel, Deependra Prasad Sarraf, Poonam Shah, Jitendra Kumar Singh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42951 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Awareness and Perception Regarding Health Insurance among Community people in a Municipality: A Cross Sectional Study https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42952 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> Health insurance program is a social protection program of the government of Nepal, which aims to enable its citizens to have access to quality health care services without placing financial burden on them. There was insufficient knowledge and awareness of the health insurance activities. Insured persons have complained of poor attitude and behaviour of service providers operating in the health insurance scheme. The aim of this study was to investigate the awareness and perception regarding health insurance among community people in a municipality.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> A cross-sectional survey assessing awareness and perception of community people on health insurance was conducted using a structured questionnaire in Bardibas municipality of Mahottari district of Nepal during the month of August 2019 to October 2019. A total of 422 sample were selected by use of simple random sampling technique and face-to-face interview was conducted using the structured questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression model was applied to test the effects of independent variables after adjusted potential confounders. A p-value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Participants who were from age group of less than 30 years [aOR 2.82; 95% CI (1.46-5.47)] of male gender [aOR 2.03; 95% CI (1.13-3.66)], from upper caste [aOR 6.22; 95% CI (2.97-13.0)], and had higher secondary education level and above [aOR 4.66; 95% CI (2.81-7.74)] were likely to have adequate level of awareness than counterparts. Likewise, participants who were married [aOR 3.46; 95% CI (1.57- 7.63)], had higher secondary education level and above [aOR 4.74; 95% CI (2.85- 7.87)], and involved in services or business [aOR 8.67; 95% CI (3.54-21.23)], were more likely to have satisfactory perception on health insurance.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> Education level and occupation has influence on the level of awareness and perception of health insurance. Therefore, awareness programme on health insurance need to be implemented through mass media campaign.</p> Bharat Ram Dhungana, Shree Shyam Giri, Shambhu Prasad Kushwaha, Dammar Kumari Khanal, Binod Kumar Yadav Copyright (c) 2021 Bharat Ram Dhungana, Shree Shyam Giri, Shambhu Prasad Kushwaha, Dammar Kumari Khanal, Binod Kumar Yadav https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42952 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Video Assisted Teaching Programme on Knowledge Regarding Prevention of Shaken Baby Syndrome among Antenatal Women at Selected Hospitals of Banglore, India https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42954 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of video assisted teaching on knowledge regarding prevention of shaken baby syndrome among antenatal women and also the association between knowledge with their selected socio-demographical variables.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> A one group pre-test and post-test design was adopted. Structured knowledge questionnaire was prepared. The data were collected from 60 women who attend the OPD for antenatal regular checkup using non probability purposive sampling techniques. The reliability of tools was established (0.724).Pilot study was conducted. The data was analyzed and interpreted using descriptive and inferential statistics.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> The findings revealed that the overall mean pre-test Knowledge score was 11.06 and the overall post-test knowledge score was 19.98 respectively. The mean post-test knowledge score of antenatal women who were exposed to video assisted teaching were significantly higher, than the mean pretest knowledge scores. There was suggestive significance between the knowledge scores and demographic variables. The findings suggest that the video assisted teaching program is an effective teaching strategy to enhance the knowledge of antenatal women, regarding prevention of shaken baby syndrome.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> The post-test knowledge score was higher than pretest knowledge score regarding prevention of Shaken Baby Syndrome among antenatal women.The study concluded that, the video assisted teaching Program was an effective teaching strategy, to enhance knowledge of antenatal women regarding prevention of shaken baby syndrome.</p> Punita Yadav, P Menaga, Sunil Kumar Bhinawar Copyright (c) 2021 Punita Yadav, P Menaga, Sunil Kumar Bhinawar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42954 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence and Associated Factors of Dental Caries among Basic School Children in Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Nepal: A Cross-sectional Study https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42955 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> Oral health problems of school children are one of the most common health related problem in the world. The prevalence of dental caries is significantly higher in school children. In Nepal, the morbidity of dental caries is very high among school children compared to other age groups. Dental caries is neglected at initial stages in children, but when the disease becomes progressive the treatment options being one of the most expensive and unaffordable. This study sought to identity the prevalence and associated risk factors of dental caries among basic school children age group from 6-12 years.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> Analytical cross-sectional study design was carried out among school children. . A semi-structured questionnaire was developed and face to face interview method was used to collect information from two public schools and two private schools of Kathmandu metropolitan City. Purposive sampling technique was applied. DMFT (Decayed, Missed, Filled, Teeth) index was adopted to measure mixed dentition, and also to assess the oral health status of school children. The collected data was entered and analyzed using IBM SPSS-20.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Among 274 participants, there were equal number of female and male students (Female: 137, Male: 137), likewise the number of participants from public and private school was also equal. The prevalence of dental caries among school children was found to be 55.84% and there was significant association between frequency of brushing with dental caries (p=0.001). 176 (64.2%) of the participants consumed normal food, 56 (20.4%) consumed junk food and 39 (14.2%) consumed spicy food. The consumption of different food types played a significant role in the occurrence of dental caries.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> Frequency of brushing and types of food consumption are significantly associated with the higher prevalence of dental caries among school children. Regular dental check-up and good brushing practice can reduce the prevalence of dental caries in school children. Hence, continuous oral health programs including demonstration of proper brushing technique along with oral health awareness programs at school can help to reduce the burden of dental caries among school children.</p> Mahendra Giri, Shailesh Kumar Pandit, Hari Prasad Oli, Sujata Giri Copyright (c) 2021 Mahendra Giri, Shailesh Kumar Pandit, Hari Prasad Oli, Sujata Giri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42955 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Relation between ABO blood group and Helicobacter pylori infection among patients with peptic ulcer disease at Provincial Hospital: A cross sectional study https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42958 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> To document the potential relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection (H. pylori), ABO and Rhesus (Rh) blood groups in affected individuals with peptic ulcer disorder.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> This cross-sectional, research was accomplished from February 2021 to May 2021 among individuals experiencing dyspeptic conditions visiting Endoscopy Unit of Janakpur Provincial Hospital. All the patients were investigated for their blood group phenotype and Rhesus dependent through slide hemagglutination test. Also all the patients went through esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in order to identify peptic ulcer disease. Gastric biopsies were acquired and evaluated for H. pylori through urease test.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> A total of 103 patients were registered in this study, which included 49 males and 54 females with a mean age of 15-77 years. H. pylori was found positive in 75(72.8%) cases and negative in 28 (27.2%) cases, Blood group A, B, AB and O were found in 19.4%, 33.0%, 13.6%, and 34.0% of the patients respectively. Relatively higher prevalence of H. pylori was found in each blood groups O (33.3%) and B (33.3%) compared to blood group A (20.1%) and AB (13.3%). However, association of ABO blood group and prevalence of H. pylori was found to be insignificant (p=0.991).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> The study concluded that B blood group people were more prone to H. pylori infection. Our study revealed that H. pylori contamination was definitely an endemic issue, which needs to be handled by enhancing hygiene, supply of filtered water and in addition other measures for its elimination. Further meticulous studies are needed to establish relationship between blood type and H. pylori contamination in different age groups.</p> Mahesh Mahaseth, Gaurang Mishra, Sanjeet Jha, Manish Pandey, Gyanendra Yadav, Gautam Sah Copyright (c) 2021 Mahesh Mahaseth, Gaurang Mishra, Sanjeet Jha, Manish Pandey, Gyanendra Yadav, Gautam Shah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mjmms/article/view/42958 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000