Mangal Research Journal 2024-01-12T09:18:23+00:00 Prof. Dr. Laxmi Bahadur Maharjan Open Journal Systems <p>Mangal Research Journal is published by the Mangal Multiple Campus, Kirtipur-10, Kathmandu, Nepal. It is a multidisciplinary, double-blind peer reviewed journal which aims at enhancing the capability of teachers to write research papers in several fields.</p> Perceived Gender wise Judgement of NETs on English Language Errors 2024-01-10T05:07:02+00:00 Laxmi Bahadur Maharjan <p>The purpose of this study entitled 'Perceived Gender wise Judgement of English Language Errors' was to evaluate and determine the gravity of English language errors in terms of acceptability and intelligibility by the native English speaking teachers. Quantitative research methodology was utilized in this study. An error evaluation questionnaire consisting of 100 questions which were collected from the works of the higher secondary school level students was prepared with a Likert scale survey. The questionnaire was mailed to the teachers of colleges and universities of the native English speaking countries and 100 useable surveys were received electronically for a response rate of 50%, which is a good response rate for a mail survey. Received responses were analyzed using an SPSS programme and explained descriptively. The result of the study revealed that country wise native English speaking teachers judge the ESL errors alike in acceptability judgement whereas in intelligibility judgement, female teachers are found to judge the errors slightly ahead by 3.49%. Overall, both these sub-groups of teachers have perceived the errors almost similar. Moreover, the results reveal that out of the five country English speaking teachers, Australian male teachers have shown their most severity in evaluation of errors and the New Zealander teachers employed lenient patterns in their evaluation patterns. Likewise, the most severe male teachers are the Australian teachers (77.55%/58.78%) and the most severe female teachers are the New Zealander (70.96%) and American (70.12%/56.13%) teachers whereas the most lenient male teachers are the Canadian teachers (56.62%/44.10%) and the most lenient female teachers are the Australian (65.98%) and Canadian (50.84%) teachers. It is recommended that the native English speaking teachers’ evaluation of the learner errors should direct to formulate a common error evaluation pattern which can be utilized in the classrooms so that the teachers of English become aware of such universal rating scales of the ESL errors.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Situation, Risks and Prevention Strategies of Elder Abuse: A Lesson for Nepal 2024-01-10T06:26:04+00:00 Narayani Nepal Bhagwan Aryal Bhumidatta Poudel <p>The purpose of this paper is to identify and summarize the body of research on elder abuse in order to offer a more thorough understanding of the topic. Specifically, the goal is to identify and discuss the situation, risks and preventive measures related to elder abuse in light of Nepal's aging population. This narrative review was conducted after searching the article databases including Google Scholar, PubMed and Nepjol. A total of twenty seven journal articles, four systematic review articles, five books, five reports, one dissertation, two national acts of Nepal, four webpage articles and one methodological journal article were reviewed during a period from September 2022 to June 2023. The narrative review in the area of elder abuse is reflected in this article. Studies have shown that several misuse hazards are higher for senior citizens. Elder abuse is any single or recurrent act that hurts or distresses an older person and takes place in any relationship where there is an expectation of trust. The aging populations of many nations, including Nepal, are growing quickly, as are the number of senior abuse incidents. There are numerous government organizations, international and national non-governmental organizations, and local bodies doing admirable work concerning the investigation of elder abuse and the provision of assistance to elder abuse victims through the sharing of research experiences and the practical implementation of various prevention strategies. However, much more needs to be done for this at-risk population group in our society. In addition to raising social security for all seniors, it is recommended that each municipality in Nepal build an Elderly Service Center.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Students’ Attitude towards Mathematics and its Relationship with Mathematics Achievement 2024-01-10T06:35:37+00:00 Saraswati Shakya Rocky Maharjan <p>This study aims to investigate the relationship between students' attitudes towards mathematics and mathematics achievement among secondary-level students at community schools in Kirtipur Municipality. A convenience sampling method was used to choose schools and random sampling method was adopted to select 100 secondary level students, comprising 50 males and 50 females from five community schools in Kirtipur Municipality. The Mathematics Attitude Scale Short Form (MASSF), developed by Yasar, M. (2014), was employed to evaluate individuals' attitudes towards mathematics. Additionally, mathematics test-item was administrated to measure mathematical achievement. The results of this research revealed a statistically significant positive correlation between students' attitudes towards mathematics and their mathematics achievement. The findings suggest that as students' attitudes become more positive, their performance in mathematics tends to exhibit a concurrent increase. Furthermore, regression analysis revealed that variations in students' attitudes towards mathematics could account for about 26% of the variability in mathematical achievement. These outcomes highlight the significance of attitudes as a predictive factor in determining students' success in mathematics. Understanding the relationship between attitudes and achievement can assist educators, policymakers, and stakeholders in developing strategies and interventions aimed at nurturing positive attitudes and improving students' mathematical achievement.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Non-Academic Factors (De) Motivating Private School Teachers: A Case of EFL Teachers in the Nepalese Context 2024-01-10T06:45:22+00:00 Laxmi Prasad Khanal <p>Motivation plays a crucial role to regulate an individual for the exceptional performance in the workplace. Most importantly, it has drawn a grave attention of the people involved in the field of education in general and English language teaching in particular. This study discusses the fundamental factors, which are non-academic in nature, (de) motivating the secondary level EFL private teachers in the Nepalese context. For the conduction of this study, the narrative inquiry was employed as a research design. Four EFL male teachers teaching at institutional schools in Kathmandu Valley were selected as a sampling population of the study. The informants were chosen via purposive non-random sampling procedure. The data were obtained through in-depth teachers' narratives. The results show that the EFL institutional school teachers were found to be demotivated because of the non-academic factors, which include low social status, sore throat problem, nepotism and kinship, and improper schools' location. This study also suggests to the teacher educators, policy makers, environmentalists, and academic administrators that they take into account these non- academic factors that demotivate the EFL private school teachers so as to bring about a paradigm shift in the overall education system in general and English language teaching in particular in Nepal.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Work-Life Balance and Job Burnout of Female Staff in Private Commercial Banks in Kathmandu 2024-01-10T06:52:41+00:00 Sudarshan K.C. <p>The increasing presence of women in the modern workforce poses several challenges to businesses, employees and their families. Female employees of banks play the most critical role in the delivery of quality services to customers. However, they are in stress due to the workload and diversity of customers. Female employees experience various obstacles in their professional life as well as personal life. It is a huge challenge for them to satisfy the individual needs and expectations of the organization. The aim of this paper is to investigate the impact of work-life balance on job burnout among female employees in private commercial banks in Kathmandu. It is based on a quantitative research approach with the structured questionnaire for the survey. SPSS version 25 was used to analyze the data collected from 399 respondents among 8543 female employees. The result of the study shows that surveyed female bank employees have high work-life balance with low job burnout problem. It further reveals that work-life balance has a negative impact on job burnout</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Assessing the Need for Anti-Doping Education: A Study among Athletes 2024-01-10T06:58:08+00:00 Diwakar Lal Amatya <p>The present study aims to assess the level of awareness and knowledge among athletes regarding anti-doping education. Population of the study was 102 Nepalese athletes who participated in different South Asian Games held until 2019. The participants of this study were the athletes selected from sports disciplines that were entertained in the 13th South Asian Federation Games held in Kathmandu/Pokhara/ Janakpur and earlier. This study employed non-probability sampling method to select the athletes who were interviewed on their knowledge and education on doping. This study used a mixed-methods research design which employed quantitative data analysis techniques to identify patterns and trends in athletes' responses and qualitative to explore athletes' experiences, attitudes, and perceptions to gain qualitative insights into the need for anti-doping education. Moreover, this study employed interview as a tool of data collection and descriptive method used to analyse data. It used statistical graphic techniques to present information about data such as pie charts, bar-diagrams and simple percentage to analyze the data. It is revealed that one third of the athletes are found to ignore the effect of coffee and taking drug and the cough syrup could cause them into trouble of doping. Also, higher number of athletes did have not knowledge on side effects of anabolic androgenic steroids. Surprisingly, one fourth of athletes used to take diuretics for the reduction of the body weight before competition. The findings suggest that the level of awareness and knowledge regarding anti-doping is limited in Nepalese athletes. Based on the results of the study, the athletes should be provided anti-doping education properly in order to prevent trouble of doping in the athletes.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 कठपुतलाका कथामा लैङ्गिकता {Sexuality in Puppet Narratives} 2024-01-10T07:07:55+00:00 रजनी Rajani ढकाल Dhakal <p>प्रस्तुत अनुसन्धानात्मक लेखमा अर्चना थापाको कठपुतला कथासङ्ग्रहका कथालाई पाठका रूपमा लिई ती कथामा समाजले नारी, पुरुष र तेस्रोलिङ्गीका व्यक्तिलाई गरेको विभेदी लैङ्गिक व्यवहारका विभिन्न पक्षको विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । कठपुतलाका कथा लैङ्गिक चेतनाका कोणबाट महत्वपूर्ण रहेका र तिनका अन्तर्यमा नारीमाथिको दमन र त्यसका विरुद्ध निर्माण भएको चेतनाको स्वर, दमनमा परेका पुरुषका पीडा र तेस्रोलिङ्गीका समस्या के कसरी समेटिएका छन् भन्ने कुराको खोजी गरिएको छ । यसका लागि लैङ्गिकताको सिद्धान्तका आधारमा लैङ्गिक अध्ययनका आधारभूत मान्यतालाई कथा विश्लेषणका ढाँचाका रूपमा आलम्बन गरी कथाबाट प्राप्त तथ्याङ्कको विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यसका निम्ति कठपुतलाका आठवटै कथाको सघन पठन गरी लैङ्गिकताको विश्लेषण गर्न नारी र पुरुषमाथि हुने गरेको पितृसत्ताको दमन, नारीवादी प्रतिरोधी चेतनाको निर्माण, तेस्रोलिङ्गीमाथि गरिने सामाजिक विभेदको अवस्थालाई अध्ययनको आधार बनाइएको छ । कठपुतलाका कथाहरूमा पितृसत्ताको विरोध गरी नारी र पुरुषमाथि हुने विभेद र दमनका विरुद्ध सशक्त आवाज उठाइएको र परम्परागत लिङ्ग व्यवस्थाका आडमा ट्रासवुमनप्रति अझ थप हिंसा हुने तथ्य प्रस्तुत गर्दै त्यस सङ्ग्रहका कथाले लैङ्गिक चेतनाको निर्माणमा सशक्त आवाज प्रस्तुत गरेको निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 अदालतमा प्रयोग हुने नेपाली भाषा {Nepali Language Used in Court} 2024-01-10T07:30:37+00:00 दुर्गाप्रसाद Durga Prasad दाहाल Dahal <p>यसमा अदालतको फैसलामा प्रयोग भएको नेपाली भाषाको अध्ययन भएको छ । अदालतको फैसलामा प्रयोग हुने भाषाका सन्दर्भमा रहेका समस्या र सुधारका विषयमा समेत यसमा महत्वपूर्ण सुझाब प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । यस प्रकारको अध्ययनले नेपाली भाषाको प्रयोजनपरक अध्ययनका साथै जनताले न्याय पाउने अधिकारलाई पनि सहज बनाउने परिवेशको सिर्जना हुनेछ । अदालतको मुद्दाको फैसलामा प्रयोग भएका शब्दहरूको स्रोतगत अध्ययन गर्नु, अदालतमा मुद्दाको फैसलामा प्रयोग भएका शब्दहरूको निर्माण प्रक्रिया पहिचान गर्नु र अदालतका मुद्दाको फैसलामा भएका वाक्यहरूको गठन अध्ययन गर्नु महत्वपूर्ण हुन्छ । अदालतमा मुद्दाको फैसलामा प्रयोग भएका भाषाको स्रोत, निर्माण र वाक्यगठन सम्बन्धमा मुद्दाका फैसलामा फाइल अध्ययन गरी तथ्याङ्क सङ्कलन गरिएको छ । कानुनी नेपाली भाषामा लामो वाक्यमात्र नभई वाक्यगठनमा व्याकरणका नियमलाई पनि बेवास्ता गरिएको हुन्छ । यस्ता लेखाइमा अशुद्धता र प्रस्तुतिगत स्पष्टताको अभाव हुन्छ । यस्ता लेखनमा वाक्य पनि क्लिष्ट रहेका हुन्छन् । अदालतमा प्रयोग हुने नेपाली भाषामा संस्कृत, अरबी, फारसी, तुर्की आदि भाषाका शब्दहरूको बाहुल्य पाइन्छ । अदालती भाषामा पुरातन लेखनशैली पाइन्छ । यसमा पूर्णबिरामको सट्टा अल्पविराम चिह्न प्रयोग गरी वाक्य अस्वाभाविक रूपमा लम्ब्याउने र शुद्धताको बेवास्ता गर्ने गरेको देखिन्छ । अदालती लेखनमा अत्यन्त लामो प्रस्तुति गरिने भएकाले एउटै कुरा दोहरिएको हुन्छ । अदालती भाषाको यस प्रकारको पुनरावृत्तिलाई हटाउदै प्रस्तुतिलाई आवश्यकता अनुसार सङ्क्षिप्त बनाउनुपर्ने हुन्छ । यस प्रकारका लेखनमा कतिपय अनावश्यक तथ्यसमेत उल्लेख हुनाले प्रस्तुति लामो र भद्दा बन्नपुग्छ । यसका लागि यस्ता लेखनमा आवश्यक तथ्यहरू मात्र उल्लेख गरिनुपर्छ भन्ने कुरालाई मनन गर्नुपर्छ । अदालतमा प्रयोग हुने लेखनका लामो वाक्य आम अभ्यासको प्रचलनका रूपमा रहेको छ । यस प्रकारको प्रचलनलाई हटाई छोटा वाक्यहरूको प्रयोग गर्नु आवश्यक देखिन्छ ।</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023