Mangal Research Journal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mrj <p>Mangal Research Journal is published by the Mangal Multiple Campus, Kirtipur-10, Kathmandu, Nepal. It is a multidisciplinary, double-blind peer reviewed journal which aims at enhancing the capability of teachers to write research papers in several fields.</p> Mangal Multiple Campus, Nepal en-US Mangal Research Journal 2773-7802 Cultural Activities of Jagatpal Mahavihar and its Impact on Devotees of Kirtipur https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mrj/article/view/43569 <p class="Default"><span style="font-size: 10.5pt;">Jagatpal Mahavihar is a traditional Buddhist monastery of Kirtipur<strong>, </strong>situated at ChilancvoVihar, Kirtipur Municipality, Ward 10. There stands a complex area covered by five main Caityas in the central part of the monastery. The main aim of this study is to explore the cultural activities of the monastery, to assess the previous trend of renovation culture, and to find out the devotees the past renovation about the Caitya. There live 160 male members Vajracharyas among whom I selected fifteen as Ajus in the monastery as data for my study. I have applied the ethnographic method and entertained observation, and open interviews with the concerned members of the Guthi during the course of data collection. Photographies, inscriptions, books, and artifacts have been used for description. I started my research during Nepal earthquake 2015 and completed it in two years. My study revealed the series of events as the renovation acts. During renovation of the Caitya, the Ajus completed the amnesty worship; pulled the pinnacle by using a cow; removed nyasa and kept it in a secret place; installed the soul of the god by Pranpratistha pooja; and during the renovation of the center, devotees kept religious valuable things for merit. While building and renovating the Caitya in past it was revealed that ancestors used crystal, Fudan, images of Buddha, copper plate, gold, and silver and other valuable ornaments. Some archaeological artifacts have also proved that the last renovation had been done during the period of late King Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah Dev. </span></p> Bajramuni Bajracharya Copyright (c) 2021 Mangal Research Journal 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 1 14 10.3126/mrj.v2i1.43569 Self-study on Diligence as a Continuous Professional Development: A Teacher Researcher’s Perspectives https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mrj/article/view/43570 <p>Nepali teachers’ professional qualities are discussed from non-socio-cultural perspectives, which seem insufficient for the continuous professional development of Nepali university teachers. Teachers’ professional attributes that influence their professional and pedagogical practices are rarely researched, particularly in Nepal. The purpose of this self-study was to investigate how I, a university teacher, could improve my pedagogical practices to facilitate a Research Methodology course for Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Mathematics (STEAM) graduates. Adapting a socio-cultural perspective, I purposefully asked myself and my 27 graduate students whom I taught in 2021 from August to October. I collected and analyzed information adapting dialogue as a research method. Making dialogues with myself and my students, I unveiled five ways of improving my pedagogical practices. They were: by (1) creating a supportive learning environment, (2) enhancing curiosity, (3) enhancing inquiry skills, (4) enhancing evaluation skills, and (5) developing continuous learning habits. My reflective journal, classroom discussions, activities, and assignments hold evidence of my improved pedagogical practices. Finally, I learnt that my enhanced diligence contributed to my learning and my student’s learning as my professional development.</p> Parbati Dhungana Copyright (c) 2021 Mangal Research Journal 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 15 26 10.3126/mrj.v2i1.43570 Teaching Learning Mathematics in Multi-cultural Classroom https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mrj/article/view/43572 <p>In the multicultural classroom, students come from many different back-grounds, experiences, and ethnicities. As a result of poor performance in traditional mathematics assessments, teachers often believe English language learners to be weak students. This study aims to unveil the experiences of mathematics teachers while engaging students in multicultural classrooms and describing their ethnic and cultural influence in primary level mathematics teaching in the context of Nepal. The study focused on finding the reasons of the irregularity of the students, the use of their non - contextualized vocabularies and various other challenges faced by teachers in a multicultural classroom. This study underpins qualitative research design under which I applied phenomenological approach and in-depth interviewed six primary level mathematics teachers in Kirtipur Municipality. The data management was conducted through thematic analysis. The main finding of the study is that the teachers used different strategies that allowed the students to reason and communicate mathematically and develop students' abilities to solve problems. They acted in playing the role of facilitators to accomplish their professional responsibility. The study also revealed that the students, teachers, parents, environment and national policies are all responsible to influence the learning activities of the students. Moreover, teachers’ experiences help in motivating the learners and promoting the teaching learning activities in the multi-cultural classroom.</p> Shivahari Giri Copyright (c) 2021 Mangal Research Journal 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 27 36 10.3126/mrj.v2i1.43572 Nepal’s Relationship with India and China in the Changing Context https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mrj/article/view/43574 <p>Nepal cherishes aged old relationship with India and China. The geo-physical proximity, socio-cultural resemblances in many instances, economy and trade bound historical linkages are few among many aspects, on backdrop of which Nepal has sustained a bilateral and trilateral relationship with India and China. Nevertheless, in course of time, the historical dynamism of relation has changed. This article, in this context, attempts to assess the present day changed dynamics of relationship among Nepal, India and China. It attempts to explore the emergence areas of priorities that have brought trilateral relationship into a newer avenue. I have purposively used a few source books relating to foreign policy of Nepal and Nepal, India, and China relationship to collect data and conceive ideas on trends of relationship development among these three nations. I have applied descriptive research design and attempted to analyze the observed events and incidents in the relationship among these three nations and present it in an understandable manner. The study overall revealed that the economic rise of India and China has brought myriad opportunities to Nepal. However, the emergence of these two immediate neighbors as regional rival and as pursuant of two different ideological interests has higher prospect to grit Nepal’s national interest, and entangle it into a grave tension if it fails to maintain a balance relationship with both the nations. To Nepal, it is a high time to safeguard its national interest and refrain herself from being under the influence of either of the nations as its card.</p> Dilip Nepal Copyright (c) 2021 Mangal Research Journal 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 37 46 10.3126/mrj.v2i1.43574 Prevalence of Smartphone Addiction during COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown and Its Impact on Online Learning in Kathmandu https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mrj/article/view/43575 <p>The COVID-19 pandemic lockdown has encouraged students to use their smartphones in online classes and stay connected increasingly. Youths are using smartphone in COVID-19 pandemic more often than before. The present study aims to find prevalence of smartphone addiction during COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on BBA students' online learning in Kathmandu district. The questionnaire with Smartphone Addiction Scale- Short Version (SAS-SV) and smartphone using pattern was circulated through emails to collect data from four hundred students of 8 different BBA colleges in Kathmandu district using a convenience sampling method. After omitting incomplete data and exclusion criteria, overall 280 responses including 123 males and 157 females were recorded at a response rate of 70%. The result found the mean score of smartphone addiction of 34.67±9.29. Nearly half participants 48.93% (n=137) were found smartphone addicted. The study further revealed that gender was not associated with smartphone addiction but the time spent on smartphone in a day and age group was significantly associated with smartphone addiction. This study found that smartphone use is a contributing element to the success of online learning during COVID-19 pandemic. These results suggest the need to develop educational programme to educate the students to use smartphone effectively.</p> Rocky Maharjan Copyright (c) 2021 Mangal Research Journal 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 47 58 10.3126/mrj.v2i1.43575 शैक्षणिकता तथा र अनुसन्धानका सन्दर्भमा नारीवाद {Feminism in terms of Education and Research} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mrj/article/view/43769 <p>प्रस्तुत लेख नारीमैत्री शैक्षणिकता तथा अनुसन्धानका सन्दर्भ सहित नारीवादी मान्यतामाथि चर्चा गरिएकाले सैद्धान्तिक ढाँचाको बनेको छ । यस लेखको मूल उद्देश्य नारीवादका विविध आयामसहित नेपालका परिवेशमा नारीमैत्री शैक्षणिकता एवम् अनुसन्धानका सन्दर्भ प्रस्तुत गर्नु हो । प्रयोगात्मक सन्दर्भ एवम् अनुसन्धानलाई केन्द्र बनाइएको भए पनि यो वर्णनात्मक प्रस्तुति रहेको विश्लेषणात्मक ढाँचाको लेख हो । यसमा सैद्धान्तिक पक्षको यथेष्ट चर्चा गरी उपयोगमा कसरी ल्याउन सकिन्छ भन्नेबारेमा सरल दृष्टिकोण प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । यसलेखमा नारीवादका विविध आयामहरूको चर्चा गरिएको छ । यस अन्तर्गत उदार नारीवाद,माक्र्सवादी नारीवाद, मनोविश्लेषणात्मक नारीवाद, आमूल नारीवाद, समाजवादी नारीवादतथा समकालीन नारीवादको सैद्धान्तिक स्वरूप निरूपण गरिएको छ । उक्त विविधनारीवादका मूल मान्यता उद्घाटन गर्दै नेपाली समाजमा प्रचलित लैङ्गिक सन्दर्भको नमुना समेत दिइएको छ । यसका साथै नेपालका शिक्षण संस्थामा रहेको लैङ्गिकतासँग सम्बद्ध सूक्ष्म समस्यको पनि चिनारी दिइएको छ । नारीमैत्री शिक्षणका सन्दर्भसहति लैङ्गिकतथा नारीमैत्री अनुसन्धानका लागि लैङ्गिक तथा नारीकेन्द्री जिज्ञासा समेत प्रस्तुत गरिएकोछ । त्यस्तै नारीमैत्री अनुसन्धानका लागि क्षेत्र र ती सँग सम्बद्ध नारीमैत्री अनुसन्धानका लागिविधि तथा प्रक्रिया सुझाइएको छ । सैद्धान्तिक प्रारूपको भए पनि यो लेख शिक्षक एवम् अनुसन्धातालाई लैङ्गिक दृष्टिमा सन्तुलित शिक्षण एवम् सचेतताकेन्द्री अनुसन्धान गर्नसहयोगी बन्ने अपेक्षा गरिएको छ । साथै लैङ्गिक दृष्टिमा सन्तुलित धारणा निर्माण गर्न तदनुकूल शिक्षण एवम् अनुसन्धानका लागि बढी उपयोगी हुने अपेक्षा समेत गरिएको छ ।</p> राजेन्द्र Rajendra खनाल Khanal Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 59 74 10.3126/mrj.v2i1.43769 'मानसि' उपन्यासमा लैंगिकता {Sexuality in the Novel 'Manasi'} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mrj/article/view/43770 <p>प्रस्तुत लेखमा बलदेव मजगैयाँद्वारा रचित ‘मानसी’ उपन्यासको लैङ्गिकताको अध्ययन गरिएको छ । लैङ्गिक समालोचनाले कृति विश्लेषणका लागि अगाडि सारेका पितृसत्ता, शरीर, लैङ्गिक विभेद, लैङ्गिक सशक्तीकरण, उत्पादक तथा पुनरुत्पादक भूमिकाको सैद्धान्तिक पर्याधार तयार पारी यिनै पर्याधारका आधारमा उपन्यासको विश्लेषण गरिएकोछ । यस उपन्यासमा पितृसत्तात्मक समाज र त्यसको सामाजिक र सांस्कृतिक संरचनाको चिरफार गरी समाजनिर्मित लैङ्गिक विभेदबाट नारीलाई मुक्त गराउनुपर्ने स्वर प्रकट गरिएको छ । नेपाली समाजमा विद्यमान विभेदको कलात्मक चित्र उतारी विभेदका विरुद्धमानारीहरूले विभेदकारी संस्कृति र आफूमाथिको दमन तथा हिंसाका विरुद्धमा सशक्त रूपमा आवाज उठाउन थालेको यथार्थताजन्य सकारात्मकतालाई सशक्त रूपमा प्रस्तुत गरेको छ । पुरुषले गर्ने दमन, हिंसा तथा विभेदकारी कदमलाई पितृसत्तात्मक समाजको संस्कृतिले संरक्षण प्रदान गरेको दृष्टान्त प्रस्तुत गर्दै पुरुषप्रधान समाजमा नारीलाई भोग्या वस्तु ठान्दै प्रेम गरेर वा प्रेमको नाटक गरेर तथा कठिन परिस्थितिमा सहयोग गरेको नाटक गरेर अनि झुटो आश्वासन दिएर हिंसा, शरीरमाथि आफ्नो अधिकार जमाउन प्रयास, दमन र शोषणगरेर महिलालाई आफ्नो अधीनस्त बनाउन चाहन्छन् भन्ने यथार्थतालाई जीवन्त शैलीमा व्यक्त गरिएको निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> महेन्द्र Mahendra न्यौपाने Neupane Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 75 88 10.3126/mrj.v2i1.43770 दनुवारी नाम उपवाक्ययुक्त मिश्र वाक्यको संरचना {The Structure of a Compound Sentence with the Name Danuwari} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/mrj/article/view/43771 <p>दनुवारी नाम उपवाक्ययुक्त मिश्र वाक्यको संरचना शीर्षकको यस लेखमादनुवारी कर्ताकारक बुझाउने नाम उपवाक्य र कर्मकारकको सूचक नाम उपवाक्य पहिचान गरिएको छ । यसका साथै दनुवारी भाषाका पूरक सूचक नाम उपवाक्य र अधिकरणक सूचक नाम उपवाक्य पनि पहिचान गरिएको छ । यस लेखमा दनुवारी भाषाका माथि भनिएका प्रकृतिका नाम उपवाक्यको संरचनागत विश्लेषण गर्ने पनि उद्देश्य रहेको छ । यसमा गुणात्मक ढाँचाकोअनुसन्धान अवलम्बन गरिएको छ । यसको सामग्री सङ्कलन प्राथमिक स्रोतमाआधारित छ । यसको नमुना छनोट उद्देश्यमूलक प्रकृतिको रहेको छ । सिन्धुली जिल्लाको दुधौली नगरपालिकाको वडा नं. ४ र ६ का दनुवारी वक्ताबाट नमुना सामग्री सङ्कलन गरिएको छ । सङ्कलन गरिएका दनुवारी नाम उपवाक्यभएको मिश्र वाक्यको संरचनागत विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । दनुवारी भाषाकाअधिकांश अधीन उपवाक्यहरूमा मुख्य उपवाक्यको स्थानमा कर्ता, कर्म, पूरकआदि प्रयोग भएको देखिन्छ । दनुवारी भाषाका अकर्मक क्रिया भएको नामउपवाक्यले कर्ताकारक, कर्मकारक र पूरक बुझाएको पाइन्छ । दनुवारी भाषाका सकर्मक क्रिया भएका नाम उपवाक्य कर्ताकारक, कर्मकारक, पूरक र करणकारक बुझाउने प्रकृतिका देखिन्छन् ।</p> दुर्गाप्रसाद Durgaprasad दाहाल Dahal Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 89 102 10.3126/mrj.v2i1.43771