National College of Computer Studies Research Journal <p>The National College of Computer Studies Research Journal is a scholarly journal that incorporates articles based on research on management, administration, technology and social issues. </p> en-US (Dr. Gokarna Prasad Gyawali) (Sioux Cumming) Mon, 27 Nov 2023 14:43:34 +0000 OJS 60 Editorial Vol.2 <p>No abstract available.</p> Gokarna Prasad Gyanwali Copyright (c) 2023 National College of Computer Studies Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effects Of Covid-19 Pandemic on Studying Habits of Students <p>The research article investigates the impact of COVID-19 on the performance of students studying at the graduate and undergraduate levels in Kathmandu Valley. The aim of the study is to present how students have adapted to the shift from in-person to online learning environments during the pandemic. The text is based on representatives of 223 from varied groups allowing its relevance with authenticity. Indeed, COVID-19 has destructed and scattered the understanding and belief which is inherited throughout the generations. Its effect touched almost all fields and the education industry also became a victim of it. Students faced ample challenges along with the faculties members to cope with it. Students were found frustrated when they were deprived of physical education and at the same time, it is observed that they faced several inconveniences in the developed e-learning system. Observing students' psychology, using techniques to teach, the technology used to generate a learning environment, and so on found that e-learning is not as effective as physical learning.</p> Ashok Bhandari, Pratima Poudel Copyright (c) 2023 National College of Computer Studies Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Determinants of Lending Interest Rate of Nepalese Commercial Banks <p>This research analyzes the determinants of lending interest rates of commercial banks in Nepal. The lending interest is the main source of income for any financial institution. Secondary data has been collected from the annual reports of seven commercial banks for the study. Using convenience sampling techniques only seven banks are taken as samples out of 21 commercial banks in Nepal. 35 observations of the study are analyzed and interpreted using correlation and simple regression analysis. The study is based on the dependent variable lending interest rate and independent variables: liquidity ratio, deposit interest rate, return on assets, default risk, gross domestic production, and inflation. This study found a statistically positive and significant effect of deposit interest rate, return on assets, and inflation on the lending interest rate of commercial banks in Nepal.</p> Ballav Niroula, Bindu Gnawali Copyright (c) 2023 National College of Computer Studies Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Performance Evaluation of Different Images Using Edge Detection Algorithms <p>To determine which edge detection method performs best and worst on different image types, numerous edge detection algorithms are examined. For the performance analysis, some sample photos from the web and some from Java are used as sources. The entropy and signal noise ratio are used to gauge how well the edged image performs. In image processing, conducting a thorough investigation of various edge detection techniques is highly worthwhile two widely used edge detection algorithms Log, and Canny—are taken into consideration in this analysis. Here in this paper, the analysis is focused on the performance of different edge detector algorithms. All candidate algorithms of edge detection are implemented in JAVA. The result of empirical performance shows that two variants namely canny perform better results for the edge detection algorithm. The result shows that when considering only the performance aspect. Cycle/byte is calculated for comparing different variants. Cycle/byte is decreased when the canny edge detector is examined. The canny edge detection algorithm shows a better performance than LoG. LoG has more than 3 times higher cycle/byte than Canny Edge detection.</p> Chhetra Bahadur Chhetri, Manish Pandey Copyright (c) 2023 National College of Computer Studies Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Performance Analysis of Sketching Methods <p>One of the problems in data mining or machine learning is the high-dimensional dataset. MinHash can generate sketches of sparse datasets efficiently reducing the dimension to a few thousand. These sketches, then, can be used for different machine-learning applications. It takes O(kd) computations to generate k hash values for a data point with d non-zeros. The Sketch of a data point is the vector of k hash values. Weighted Minwise Hashing is another method to generate a sketch of size k in O(kp/d) computations. Here, p is the size of the universal set. Optimal Densification is the most efficient and accurate method as it can generate k hash values in mere O(d + k) computations. In this paper, we investigate the performance of Optimal Densification, Weighted Minwise Hashing, and Vanilla MinHash by performing two experiments. Firstly, we investigate Jaccard similarity estimation accuracy on six different synthetic datasets. Then, we perform one nearest neighbor classification (1NN) of four real datasets. Optimal Densification outperforms both Weighted Minwise Hashing and Vanilla MinHash in terms of accuracy and time taken to generate the sketches.</p> Dinesh Maharjan Copyright (c) 2023 National College of Computer Studies Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Nepal's Policies and Practices for Gender Equality <p>The development policy of the government of Nepal based the article on gender equality, inclusion, and its relationship with development in the context of the current federal structure. This article focused on two objectives: to examine the institutional contributions to gender equality and inclusion and to learn how to participate and benefit from the development activities and services on an equal basis. Gender inclusion in the development sector is defined as the participation, decision-making roles, responsibilities, attributes, and power relations in all development government sectors. Using secondary sources, this article gathered and reviewed related literature from books, articles, election commission reports, related acts, policies, and constitutions, as well as collected profiles. 31.1 percent of people who find this article are elected, 58.9 percent of them are men, and 41.1 percent of them are women. In province No. 5, there are 22.28 percent of elected officials, of whom 58.78 percent are men and 41.22 percent are women. In Province No. 6, a total of 29.73 percent of candidates are elected and 26.73 percent of the province's 7 candidates are elected, with 59 percent being men and 41 percent being women. Gender equity and its relationship to government among elected candidates is quite high compared to what the Nepal Constitution of 2072 and various political parties' election manifestos of 2074 allotted, as the Nepal Constitution of 2072 stated that every political party must include at least 33 percent women in all of its political activities, including elections. Considering gender when making decisions and giving women leadership roles. Lack of participation in local development activities, allocation of gender-sensitive funds, and policy- and program-making.</p> Dipendra Bikram Sijapati, Manamaya Mishra Copyright (c) 2023 National College of Computer Studies Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Performance Analysis of Trading Company Through Cost Volume Profit (A Case Study of Salt Trading Corporation Limited) <p>The objective of the research is to analyze the performance of a Trading Company through cost-volume-profit with reference to Salt Trading Corporation Limited. The major goal of this paper is to scrutinize the financial performance from 2069-70, as well as its influence on the economic growth of Nepal. According to the findings, Salt Trading Corporation has a low contribution margin, low P/V ratio, high breakeven point, and low margin of safety. It further indicates that cost and breakeven point have a positive correlation as sales price and breakeven point have a negative correlation. The company's condition is very poor and requires effective improvement in the given situation.</p> Mausam Shah Copyright (c) 2023 National College of Computer Studies Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship Between Work-Related Stress and Accidents: Moderating Role of Safety Factors <p>Work-related stress has been identified as a risk factor for accidents according to the inadaptability theory of accident causation. The same theory says that increasing adaptability can reduce accidents. So, safety culture can be expected to be a moderator in the relationship between work-related stress and errors or accidents (as a composite construct). A survey was conducted among 431 employees from various industries using the job stress index, safety culture scale, and workplace error-accident history scale with the aim of testing if safety culture mitigates the relationship between workplace stress and errors/accidents. Work-related stress and errors/accidents correlated significantly, r=.18, p&lt;.01. However, safety culture was not found to moderate their relationship. The conclusion is that a safety culture may not reduce the accidents caused because of work-related stress, and alternatives need to be sought. However, other studies with more methodological rigor or more objective data are needed to verify this conclusion.</p> Pralhad Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 National College of Computer Studies Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge and Practice on Sanitation and Hygiene among Secondary-Level Students <p>Sanitation and hygiene are essential components among the students to create a behavioral impact for living a healthy lifestyle. In this context, the study intends to investigate the knowledge and practice of sanitation and hygiene among the students in Shree Adinath Madhyamik Vidayala in Kirtipur municipality ward number six of Kathmandu Valley, where most of the students are from a middle-class background. The study employed quantitative and qualitative research, with an emphasis on exploratory and descriptive research designs. A total of 35 students in grade 10 of the school were the universe of the study and all these students were included in this study and the census methods were applied. The study indicates that students possess knowledge of hygiene conditions.</p> Ram Raj Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2023 National College of Computer Studies Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Tourism and Its Impact on The Growth of The Nepalese Gross Domestic Product <p>This article aims to show the impact of Real Tourism Earnings (RTER) on Real Gross Domestic Product (RGDP). A time-series economic analytical design was employed using secondary data covering the period 1990–2022 AD. All data were obtained from the Central Bank of Nepal, the Ministry of Finance, and the Central Bureau of Statistics to establish the impact of RTER on RGDP. In this respect, to capture short-run relationships among variables, the pairwise Engel Granger Test (PRGT), and Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) were developed, and co-integration analysis was introduced to capture long-run relationships among variables. In the paper, a 100 percent increase in RTER leads to a 90 percent positive change in RGDP in the short run; the coefficient is positive as well as significant at the 5 percent level in the short run. ECM has a unit root at the first difference in long-run relationships. The coefficient of ECM -0.96 and significance at 1 percent showed that it corrected all the disequilibrium at the convergent speed of 96 percent. All the stability and diagnostic tests of the model have no symbols of misspecification, and residuals are normally distributed, homoscedastic, and not serially correlated.</p> Santa Prasad Bhusal Copyright (c) 2023 National College of Computer Studies Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000