NCWA Annual Journal 2024-03-06T12:47:04+00:00 Mr. Hemanta Kharel Open Journal Systems <p>NCWA Annual Journal is published by the Nepal Council of World Affairs. NCWA was established in 1948 to promote Nepal’s relations with other countries through various activities including study, research, lecture, and exchange of ideas and information with other organizations within and outside the country.</p> Dynamics in International Relations and its Implications for Nepal 2024-02-22T03:57:18+00:00 Hemanta Kharel <p>It is a well-known fact that international relations has evolved in the past around the interaction between sovereign states. Because of the interconnectedness and complexity of the globalized world, the non-state actors also significantly influence international affairs at present. International organizations such as the United Nations and the World Trade Organization are playing a significant role in addressing global issues. Similarly, multinational companies have significant economic leverage which allows them to exercise soft power and influence state policies. As diplomacy is a major tool of foreign policy and international relations, its effectiveness is always desirable. Through the conduct of effective diplomacy, Nepal can receive adequate amount of development assistance and foreign direct investment to meet the country’s requirements for development. Unfortunately, foreign investors express their concern about the lack of a foreign investment[1]friendly environment. Nepal is also unable to absorb foreign assistance received from the development partners on stipulated time. Its expenditure level, on average, is less than sixty percent since the last decade. Therefore, massive improvement is needed both internally and externally, to improve this situation.</p> 2024-03-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 COP 28 and Nepal’s Climate Diplomacy 2024-02-22T04:06:45+00:00 Mohan Lohani <p>Climate change has become an issue of global concern in recent years. No country is immune to the impact of such change. Unrestricted emission of greenhouse gases resulting in global warming and challenging the earth’s ecosystem has threatened the very survival of mankind. Nepal, a mountainous country with rugged geographical terrain of varying altitudes, has become highly vulnerable to the impact of climate change on the living conditions of people and their livelihoods based on natural resources. Prime Minister Pushpa Kamal Dahal, addressing the 28th meeting of the Conference of Parties (COP) in Dubai last year, presented the plight of the country and forcefully pleaded for global partnership and international cooperation to cope with the climate change-induced crisis affecting the world, in particular, Least Developed Countries like Nepal with low adaptation.</p> 2024-03-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 History of Yemen’s Crisis and its Global Implications 2024-02-22T04:19:51+00:00 Dinesh Bhattarai Keshav Bhattarai <p>Yemen’s story, from becoming one country in 1990 to the rise of the Houthi rebels and how they affect global trade, is full of changes. First, when North and South Yemen joined in 1990, people hoped for stability and progress. But inside Yemen, there were fights, tribal issues, and struggles to modernize. The fights for power and bad governance made things worse. Then came the Houthi movement. It started because some Shia Muslims in Yemen felt left out politically and economically. Originally just a religious group, it became a strong political and fighting force. Iran helped them, and they took over important sea routes like the Bab el Mandeb strait. The world’s response to the Houthi blockades shows how tricky Yemen’s situation is. Countries tried diplomacy, asked for breaks in fighting, and secretly tried to influence things. Big countries like the United States, China, Iran, and Russia got involved too, making things even more complicated. With sea routes disrupted, shipping costs go up, and it takes longer for goods to reach their destination thus affecting global politics, trade and business. In short, Yemen’s story from unification to the Houthi rebels shows how history, politics, and money all mix together. Yemen’s problems show that the world needs to work together to fix things and bring peace, happiness, and cooperation to everyone.</p> 2024-03-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Climate Diplomacy: Implications and Prospects for Nepal 2024-02-22T06:36:50+00:00 Umesh B. Malla <p>Nepal has come a long way from the time of the ‘Kalapathar Declaration’ in 2009 for the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP) up to the COP 28 in 2022. With just 0.4% of the total global population and emitting only 0.025 % of total greenhouse gas emissions, Nepal is disproportionately affected by climate change and is listed as the fourth most climate-vulnerable country in the world as per the global climate risk index. The loss of lives due to climate-induced disasters within a decade (2001 – 2010) and in 2023 alone is reported to be more than 4000 and 393 people respectively causing an economic loss of USD 5.34 billion and 2.89 billion respectively. Since Nepal lacks institutional and technical capacity and financial resources to tackle the impacts of climate change, the pursuit of robust climate diplomacy is called for ‘to shape and reframe the core national interest at home and influence deliberations abroad’. Hence, climate diplomacy could be a strategic instrument of Nepal’s foreign policy in terms of energizing relations with friendly nations and mobilizing climate change-affected countries to take up a common stand for getting maximum international assistance and support.</p> 2024-03-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Nuclear Aspects of the Russia-Ukraine War and its Implications for Nepal 2024-02-22T06:51:06+00:00 Kamal Krishna Shrestha <p>Nearly two years old Russia-Ukraine war seems to go on for a long period. The United States and European Union are supporting Ukraine’s offensive to regain their lost land. The Russian threat to use nuclear bombs at the outset has taken the world by great surprise. The use of a megaton nuclear bomb could lead to unimagined catastrophe killing a billion people, and a nuclear winter could set in leading to a worldwide famine that could kill millions more. The nuclear watchdog of the United Nations - the International Atomic Energy Agency, is keeping track of Europe’s largest nuclear power plant in Ukraine. Nuclear-related international treaties are fast becoming ineffective and World War III could be possible. This war is, however, coming to a stalemate. Peace initiatives taken are ineffective so far. This war must end soon and nuclear weapons should remain as deterrence and should not and never be used to save mankind.</p> 2024-03-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Artificial Intelligence: Opportunities and Challenges for the Global South with a Focus on Nepal 2024-02-22T07:07:49+00:00 Agni Raj Upadhayay <p>Artificial intelligence is a relatively new and contemporary technological tool that also figures significantly in the current discourse of international relations. AI stems from its ability to mimic human cognitive functions, allowing machines to perform tasks that previously required human intelligence. AI systems can analyze massive amounts of data, identify patterns, and make data-driven decisions by utilizing advanced algorithms, machine learning, and data processing capabilities. The primary goal is to improve efficiency, accuracy, and automation across multiple domains, including healthcare, finance, manufacturing, and transportation. Furthermore, AI has the potential to address complex challenges, innovate solutions, and contribute to scientific advancements, making it an effective tool for supplementing human capabilities and driving progress in a variety of fields. However, ethical considerations and responsible development are essential for ensuring the responsible and beneficial integration of AI into society. Concerns regarding AI have also been expressed from the viewpoint of foreign policy, national security, data privacy, and the possible replacement of humans by machines. This is expected to pose additional difficulties for developing nations like Nepal as it may be very expensive to use AI in various development endeavors that aim to address global issues on an equal footing with developed nations. Because most of the countries in the Global South are developing or least developed, AI may therefore present more challenges than opportunities to them.</p> <p>Hence, this article attempts to incorporate the various dimensions of AI in terms of the different perspectives that are encountered in this changing context of the AI world, as well as the real impacts that may be opportunities or threats to Nepal from the perspective of international relations and diplomacy.</p> 2024-03-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Relevance of International Humanitarian Law in International Relations: National and International Contexts 2024-02-22T07:39:59+00:00 Krishna Chandra Chalisey <p>International Humanitarian Law (IHL) holds significance within the realm of international relations which encompasses various disciplines such as international law, diplomacy, and interactions among national and international entities. The prevalence of over 100 armed conflicts underscores the imperative for parties involved in conflicts and other influential actors to comprehend IHL. In the face of ongoing armed confrontations worldwide, the continued relevance of IHL in shaping international relations becomes apparent. States must prioritize the promotion of respect for IHL to establish a robust international relations system. This article endeavors to explore the interconnectedness of IHL with international relations and assess its importance. The study will delve into the role and significance of IHL in the context of international relations, with a particular focus on Nepal, where the Ministry of Law and Justice assumes a leading and coordinating role in promoting IHL. The study involves an extensive review of pertinent literature on international humanitarian law and international relations, primarily sourced from online publications.</p> 2024-03-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Historical Analysis of Nepal’s International Relations from a Defence Perspective 2024-02-22T08:41:02+00:00 Rabi Raj Thapa <p>Nepal has a track record of being one of the oldest as well as ever sovereign and independent nations of the world. Today, Nepal’s international relations is going through a critical and vulnerable phase. One of the main reasons for this may be that Nepal abruptly abandoned and stopped learning from the deeds of the founding heroes and has not been able to chart and steer an effective national policy strategy in its international relations. In the past, many of the rulers used to be kings and military generals and they had adopted hard power as their main instruments. Today, Nepal cannot think of hard power but rather soft power and smart power. At this point, it would be pertinent to reflect on Nepal’s past international relations policy strategy so it may help to understand the value and role of national security policy strategy as an integral part of successful international relations in the future. This paper has tried to examine the international relations of contemporary Nepal from a defense perspective based on historical references.</p> 2024-03-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Need for Revitalization in Nepal’s Role at the United Nations and Non-Aligned Movement 2024-02-22T08:52:56+00:00 Nir Bahadur Karki <p>The formulation, execution and promotion of foreign policy to safeguard its independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity and promote relations for mutual benefit with neighboring and other friendly countries for enhancing national image abroad is the responsibility of Nepal’s government. Garnering support for any scheme of national interest by way of developing strategic foreign policy and implementing it through diplomatic maneuvers to negotiate with other countries in response to the changing context is also its duty. Each country has its way of managing its international relations as the changes in world affairs are dynamic with time. Nepal is one of the oldest countries in the world where no foreign flag is ever flown. It has been adopting its foreign policy mainly in line with the vision of the founder of the nation, late King Prithvi Narayan Shah the great who foresaw the geopolitical implications, challenges and opportunities and had emphasized the need for a carefully formulated strategy in running foreign affairs. Since the world has been witnessing changes at a fast speed, Nepal needs to be more equipped as the current performance appears less result-oriented in comparison with the past ones. Since Nepal’s representation at the United Nations and Non-aligned Movement are considered suitable venues for pleading and presenting the country’s perspectives, the government of Nepal needs better efforts than what is prevailing at present.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2024-03-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 State of Governance, Development and Diplomacy in Republic Nepal 2024-02-22T10:14:30+00:00 Rajendra B. Shrestha <p>A new constitution was promulgated in 2015. There are several major problems in the execution of the constitution in achieving the aspired goals. It excludes the participation of large sections of society. All three branches of government, the executive, legislative and judiciary, lack coordination, autonomy, and effectiveness in carrying out their respective duties. They are marred by corruption, nepotism, and non-adherence to the rules, norms and values that govern them. The economy is in shambles with all the key economic indicators showing negative trends. The economy, development works and delivery of basic needs/services are in dire need of major improvement. Over the years, development strategy and priority have prevented the economy from being self-reliant and sustainable. Nepal’s foreign policy execution in recent years has become more and more unbalanced and ineffective threatening its autonomy, independence, sovereignty and non-aligned policy. The need of the day is a system that promotes unity and inclusiveness of all sections of society.</p> 2024-03-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Agnipath Scheme of the Government of India: A Dilemma for Nepal 2024-02-22T10:24:34+00:00 Khaga Nath Adhikari <p>The Agnipath Scheme was unveiled by the Government of India on June 14, 2022. It plans to recruit Agniveers for a period of four years, after which only 25 percent would be retained in the service, and the rest would be demobilized with an amount of INR 1.17 million. The laid-off Agniveers will not be entitled to pension and other benefits provided for defence pensioners. This plan mainly aims at lowering the average age of the Indian military and reducing defence expenditure. The introduction of the new scheme has put Nepal into a dilemma as to whether or not to allow its citizens to join the Indian Army as provisioned by the 1947 Tripartite Agreement. This is a complex issue and needs to be analyzed from economic, social, political, and diplomatic and security perspectives before making a decision. There are pros and cons on either side. Therefore, a dispassionate and pragmatic decision needs to be taken following in-depth discussions and analyses.</p> 2024-03-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Metamorphosis of Nepal-China Relations 2024-02-23T07:36:29+00:00 Chandra Dev Bhatta <p>This article explains how Nepal-China relations would unfold at a time when China is on the verge of becoming a superpower while Nepal is sadly still reeling under political instability and economic underdevelopment and is largely unable to address new geopolitical challenges. How geopolitics pans out in South Asia in general and the Himalayan region, in particular, will determine Nepal’s relations with China in the days to come. Nepal-China relations are historical, but they are only such in the sense that both states have existed since time immemorial and lived side by side. Yet understanding the nature of relations between the two neighbors has been difficult. Many would not like it but the fact remains that we do not see much of historical intricacies of significance between the two countries. How things are evolving in the recent past and present would shape the relations in the future. At the bilateral level, China prefers that (a) Nepal recognizes Tibet as an integral part of China (b) Nepal embraces the One-China policy (now moved towards the One-China principle) concerning Taiwan, and (c) Nepal does not allow its territory to be used against China by others. Nepal, however, does not seek/demand any such commitment from China. Does China reciprocate in the same manner and method? How does China prioritize Nepal with regard to its foreign policy? These are some of the key questions requiring careful answers. Certainly, this paper cannot delve into all of them but will only give a perspective in that regard.</p> 2024-03-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Eyeing for External Resources: Wants and Ways 2024-02-23T08:09:35+00:00 Dileep K Adhikary <p>External resources have shaped the making and breaking of the nations. In the past, the rulers dominated the source or provider of external resources while in the present days, the rulers (political leaders) are under the domination of resource providers (be it a government, agency or company). In the period following World War II, the United States rose to prominence politically and economically. The 21st century is seeing the rise of China. This study deals with the methods and practices relating to foreign aid and investments that have evolved and looks into their hold on Nepal. The study shows that the availability of external resources started with a goodwill approach. However, over time it has moved onto the sphere of influence of the resource providers while the governance failure has made the country more and more dependent on external resources failing to adopt safeguard measures.</p> 2024-03-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Mobilising Nepalese Missions for Tourism Promotion 2024-02-23T08:25:27+00:00 Chandra Prasad Bhattarai <p>With a huge comparative advantage, the tourism sector is Nepal’s most potential sector for its economic development. Despite this, it has not yet been established as the engine of economic growth. The immense opportunities for its development can contribute eventually to the overall development of the country. The slow pace in its international marketing is one of the reasons behind the weak performance of the industry. Nepal’s diplomatic missions can be mobilized effectively for branding and marketing if the government has a proper strategy for this. The Ministry of Tourism should realize this first, and take initiatives in benefitting from Nepal’s diplomatic presence in the major source markets worldwide.</p> 2024-03-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Foreign Aid and Agricultural Development in Nepal 2024-02-23T07:50:39+00:00 Bishnu B. Bhandari <p>The history of foreign aid for agricultural development began in 1951 under the Point Four Program of the United States to strengthen Nepal’s democratization process and human resources development. Answering the questions related to the trend of foreign aid inflow, its impact on the development of the agricultural sector and the contribution of the agricultural sector to Gross Domestic Product make the theoretical framework of the paper. Secondary data analysis was the method employed to seek the answers. The results suggest that the per capita total outstanding debt was NPR 50,000 in FY 2076/77 BS, foreign aid and its disbursement increased over the period of 5 years, but its functional use in the agricultural sector had declined sharply to 1.1% at the end of the five years. The agricultural sector had the lion’s share of 25.12% of total GDP in 2076/77 BS. The production status of rice and other cereals has increased slightly but not significantly. However, rice import has increased sharply (788,492 mt) at the end of FY 2076/77 BS, i.e., 36.6 times more than the 22,802 mt at the beginning of FY 2072/73 BS. Even then data shows a positive relationship between the inflow of foreign aid and the development of agriculture in Nepal, foreign aid is inversely related to the import of rice during the time of the studied period.</p> 2024-03-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024