NCWA Annual Journal 2023-05-16T10:45:45+00:00 Mr. Hemanta Kharel Open Journal Systems <p>NCWA Annual Journal is published by the Nepal Council of World Affairs. NCWA was established in 1948 to promote Nepal’s relations with other countries through various activities including study, research, lecture, and exchange of ideas and information with other organizations within and outside the country.</p> The Growing Importance of Development Diplomacy 2023-05-15T12:33:26+00:00 Hemanta Kharel <p>In recent times, development diplomacy has received the highest priority in international relations. It is mostly conducted through multilateral activities on a global, regional, and bilateral level, including cooperation from the United Nations and its specialized agencies. There are both opportunities and risks in development diplomacy. Therefore, it should be conducted very cautiously and efficiently. Even despite collective efforts internally and externally, Nepal is still lagging to make notable progress in the development arena with an adverse effect on the living standard and welfare of the people. There is a common understanding and consensus among the experts that Nepal should act simultaneously to receive foreign assistance in national priority areas through proper development diplomacy and attract foreign direct investment to increase national production by focusing on export-led economy. For effective conduct of development diplomacy, basic elements such as proven competence, skillful negotiation, good quality of public communications, knowledge about cultural and social aspects, and ample experience to manage public affairs are required. The personnel working in Nepal's diplomatic missions abroad need to be professionally trained and intellectually equipped.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Council of World Affairs Nepal’s Development Diplomacy: Road to Prosperity 2023-05-15T12:38:01+00:00 Mohan P. Lohani <p>Development diplomacy is crucial to the land-locked and least developed Nepal’s progress and prosperity. It has been more than seven decades since Nepal liberated itself from 104-year-old family autocracy and ushered in democratic rule. Ever since Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, land-locked Nepal has been categorized as one of the least developed among developing countries (LDCs). Hopefully, Nepal will graduate from LDC status by 2026. The country, faced with numerous development challenges, is effortful in overcoming them through internal policies and programs as well as international cooperation for development. Development diplomacy received priority attention following the restoration of parliamentary democracy in 1990. While the country’s land-locked ness, a geographical disadvantage, cannot be wished away, several task forces set up to recommend measures for the effective and efficient conduct of development diplomacy have identified trade, investment, tourism, foreign employment, and water resource development as major components of such diplomacy. The paper emphasizes the need for Nepal’s diplomatic missions abroad to be actively involved in promoting the country’s economic interests and facilitating all-round development through coordination and regular communication with the government’s line ministries including the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MoFA), National Planning Commission, and the private sector.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Council of World Affairs Diplomacy for Development: Key to Sustaining Democratic Transformation 2023-05-15T12:42:09+00:00 Dinesh Bhattarai <p>Foreign policy has a great bearing on a country’s sovereign and independent status as well as overall development. For a country like Nepal sitting in a highly sensitive geopolitical location between China and India that are becoming major global powers, a whole of government approach integrating into itself a coherent, consistent, and credible economic policy alone produces a sovereign and independent foreign policy. No policy works in isolation. Correct communication, coordination, and collaboration between government departments and ministries are essential for any policy to succeed and be effective at home and abroad. The strength of the country abroad comes from strength at home. For a country like Nepal diplomacy stands as its tool of first and last resort. Economic strength is the key to national strength and comprehensive national power. The following paragraphs discuss the close connection between socio-economic transformation and political transformation, and past efforts made to promote economic diplomacy. The moment there appears a disconnect between managing geopolitics and speeding the process of economic transformation, the country becomes a fertile ground for geopolitical play. The write-up towards the end puts up some suggestions to make diplomacy for developing effective and result oriented for the country’s development.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Council of World Affairs Role of Economic Diplomacy for Development 2023-05-15T12:46:06+00:00 Madhavji Shrestha <p>This paper discusses the role of economic diplomacy in the development of Nepal with special reference to its neighboring countries and other developed countries. An underdeveloped country like Nepal, should aspire for comprehensive and progressive growth and development to enhance its international image and promote its specific identity for becoming a self-reliant country. Implementable and good national policies led by wise political leadership and efficient bureaucratic set-up are highly needed. Good understanding and appropriate evaluation of the existing ambiance of the national demands and needs must be taken into account by the national leadership for conducting economic diplomacy. The writer has used information from various secondary data sources including books, journals, periodicals, and online media in the process of writing this paper.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Council of World Affairs No, the World is not Destined for War 2023-05-15T12:50:54+00:00 Shambhu Ram Simkhada <p>War is not a destiny; it is a human creation, a failure of politics, economics, diplomacy, and security policy. International Relations (IR) is the study of great power relations and how they affect the world. Understanding and conduct of contemporary IR based on old assumptions can be as erroneous and risky as concluding the inevitability of war between two 21<sup>st</sup> Century great powers based on what a scholar reminds us of the "Thucydides' Trap", history of two warring Greek city-states because they could not accommodate each other's national interests. What is Graham Ellison of Harvard's Kennedy School, arguably one of the greatest global institutions of higher learning and powerhouses of ideas, trying to convey by characterizing 21<sup>st </sup>Century America-China relations by 5<sup>th</sup> Century BC Greek city-states? Do scholars and practitioners of IR realize the irony?</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Council of World Affairs Nepal’s Water Diplomacy: Relationship with her Neighbours 2023-05-15T13:01:08+00:00 Dwarika Nath Dhungel <p>Water is the most important natural resource of Nepal. Its importance and demand have been increasing over time, not only in Nepal but also in all of the South Asia region. The Ganges River Basin is the most populous region in the world. People living in and around the Basin rely mainly on the Ganges River to meet their growing water requirements. However, the Ganges River is mostly fed by the rivers that originate in Nepal and Tibet Autonomous Region of China. This paper explores the possibility of Nepal using water as a driver for the development of the region as part of its regional diplomacy.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Council of World Affairs Making Foreign Aid Effective Nepal's Success Stories Underscorethe Criticality of Empowerment at the Grassroots 2023-05-15T13:27:28+00:00 Bihari Krishna Shrestha <p>The rationale supporting foreign aid has been that it enhances the investment capabilities of poor countries to achieve accelerated national development. But Nepal's experiences suggest that there is more to it than that. Foreign aid can be effectively delivered only if sufficient institutional preconditions are put in place in the country.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Council of World Affairs The Relationship between Nepal and Japan: Diplomacy and Development 2023-05-15T13:31:18+00:00 Sunil Babu Shrestha <p>After learning that Japan had developed and made marvelous progress because of education development, the then reformist Rana Prime Minister Dev Shumsher decided to send eight Nepalese students with the spirit of "Let's learn from the East". Later, the students sent to Japan during the Chandra Shumsher era became beneficial and effective not only for the transfer of knowledge, skills, and technologies; it has also helped to bud the relationship between Nepal and Japan. Later the diplomatic relation was established on September 1, 1965. Furthermore, the relationship between both nations has been strengthening through high-level exchange visits, people-to-people relationships, and development diplomacy. Japan has been helping Nepal in key sectors such as human resource development, health, agriculture development, infrastructure development, environment protection, culture, etc. through grants, loans and technical support This has made a great contribution to the socioeconomic development of Nepal. Nepal and Japan's relationship is without any problems since the establishment of the relation between the two countries and put similar views on the international agenda in the United Nations (UN) and international platform based on the principles of peaceful coexistence, sovereign equality of the states, and non-alignment. In this context, this paper tries to advocate for the promotion and integration of science diplomacy to deepen ties between Nepal and Japan in the era of science and technology so that more long-term benefits could be achieved from Japan for the sustainable development of Nepal.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Council of World Affairs Redefining Nepal’s Foreign Policy on the Basis of Its Soft-Power Assets 2023-05-15T13:36:12+00:00 Khadga K.C. Binod Khanda Timilsana <p>This paper examines the bilateral and multilateral relations of Nepal with soft power superpowers. It discusses the proper identification of soft power resources and instruments on their ground and mobilization of those to the targeted country using formal, public, and economic diplomacy with an aim of uplifting soft power ranks and indices. The homilies and diplomatic activities of Nepal have been examined using the soft power theory and the small state lens. In addition, it also aims to analyze Nepal's complex involvement in international affairs at the levels of governments, think tanks, research institutions, and academia. This paper has been prepared primarily based on desk research, mainly utilizing secondary data sources.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Council of World Affairs Navigating Political Landscapes: Overcoming Geopolitical Adversaries in Nepal's Development Diplomacy 2023-05-15T13:49:33+00:00 Gopal Khanal <p class="Default"><span class="A4"><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">Nepal has achieved remarkable economic and social progress over the past two decades, but it still faces daunting challenges. The country is still wrestling with poverty, unemployment, and inequality. Its infrastructure remains inadequate, and it lacks the necessary human capital and resources to launch a sustained economic and social development program. Nepal's political system is still in transition, with the new constitution still being implemented. The Nepali government is committed to implementing the constitution and has taken steps to establish a federal system of government. The government must continue to prioritize economic and social development for achieving a prosperous future for the country and its people. This should include investments in infrastructure, human capital, and the productive sectors. The government must ensure political stability, which is essential for the country to attract foreign investment and foster economic growth. Nepal has to take advantage of its geopolitical position, with its unique position in between two powerful and important countries- India and China. Nepal’s relationship with both countries is important and should be developed further. Nepal can use its diplomatic relations and leverage to strengthen bilateral ties with both countries and build cooperation, which in turn can be used to promote the development of Nepal. Nepal should focus on building its capacity and expertise in the field of development and diplomacy. Nepal should look to further strengthen its ties with development partners such as the United Nations, World Bank, and other financial institutions. What are the challenges and opportunities of development diplomacy in Nepal? How can the shifting global geopolitical order impact Nepal's endeavors toward development diplomacy? This research revisits the prospects and challenges of Nepal's development diplomacy in the changing global geopolitical order based on a desk study.</span></span></p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Council of World Affairs Role of Ambassadors in Development Diplomacy in the Context of Nepal 2023-05-15T13:53:29+00:00 Nir Bahadur Karki <p>Diplomacy has existed for a long time as an integral component of maintaining relations with other countries as required by factors like geopolitical aspects, international situation, population size, the economy's productivity, security sensitiveness, military strength, and main law of the land. Diplomacy is a vital tool for implementing foreign policy construed as an art of dealing with the diplomats of other countries for the host country’s benefit. The style and manner of diplomacy are shifting with time in the form of expanding the sphere of influence by the stronger power over the weaker power, economic domination, marine power, and navigational supremacy. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, led by the foreign minister, ministry staff, and ambassadors abroad constitute the key actors in executing development diplomacy. Nepal has failed to grasp the opportunity due to her inability to select skillful candidates for such fascinating but challenging roles at various times compared to the past. Development diplomacy constitutes a significant part of overall diplomacy for most of the developing countries as is the case of Nepal with a major thrust of receiving development cooperation as much as possible from the advanced countries in the form of grants as well as loans with the minimum possible rate of interest.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Council of World Affairs Boundary Issues should be Resolved Diplomatically 2023-05-15T13:57:09+00:00 Buddhi Narayan Shrestha <p>No abstract available.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Council of World Affairs Sustainable Development Diplomacy and Nepal’s Foreign Policy 2023-05-15T14:01:10+00:00 Rajendra Bahadur Shrestha <p>Sustainable development is one of the great challenges of our time. The unprecedented crisis that we cross today is a blunt reminder of the need for cooperation across borders, sectors, and generations. More than ever international assistance is needed to deal with the Covid-19 crisis and its economic and social impacts. The United Nations has been spearheading major diplomatic efforts: to define sustainable development agenda for the world focusing think globally and acting locally. Sustainable development diplomacy builds on but significantly advances the traditional understanding of diplomacy. This situation calls for a stronger approach toward aid assistance (i.e., development cooperation) and development diplomacy, particularly the cooperation between developed and developing countries. A new understanding is needed to make the fight against poverty sustainable. A systematic approach and a clear framework for cooperation, coordination, and management should be established for multilateral, regional, and bilateral engagements. It has been realized that coordinated diplomacy must be built around networks drawn from several government ministries as well as the private sector and civil society. With the changing global environment over the years, the United Nations has evolved and its importance for Nepal continues to remain even stronger. Both diplomats and practitioners in the field are crucial in making these changes, and they need a good knowledge of what development cooperation is and how it functions since their tasks may include the support to the formulation of policies and strategies, the mobilization and allocation of funds, and negotiation and monitoring of development interventions. This paper has been prepared based on desk studies, utilizing relevant publications and websites.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Council of World Affairs Environmental Degradation and Development Diplomacy for Nepal 2023-05-15T14:05:14+00:00 Niranjan Man Singh Basnyat <p>This article aims to shed light on the challenges of global warming and climate change. The disasters produced by such phenomena are impacting the lives of people inhabiting the mountains, hills, and Tarai areas of Nepal. It also explains how to safeguard our ecological environment and mitigate the effects of global warming and climate change. Similarly, it also elaborates on how Nepal can face this difficulty as 80 percent of our population has been affected and the income of the people has been diminishing with low productivity in agriculture. With the active pursuance of development diplomacy under the overall economic diplomacy as a Middle Income Country (MIC), it is envisaged that Nepal will be able to cope with the new situation at the time of world recession as well as facing the adverse aftermath of Covid-19 pandemic with the good preparation to negotiate and implement the projects.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Council of World Affairs The Transitional Justice Process of Nepal: National and International Dimensions 2023-05-15T14:09:59+00:00 Krishna Chandra Chalisey <p>Transitional justice is an evolving discipline for academics and researchers. It is the full range of processes and mechanisms associated with a society’s attempt to come to terms with a legacy of large-scale past abuses, to ensure accountability, serve justice and achieve reconciliation. The transitional justice process of Nepal aims to address the humanitarian consequences of the non-international armed conflict that Nepal went through from 1996 to 2006. International law-human rights and humanitarian law-governs the transitional justice process together with domestic laws. The transitional justice process in Nepal is an issue of concern to the international community as well. It is now an element of Nepal’s diplomatic intervention in various platforms and fora. Nepal is struggling to find an appropriate modality of transitional justice. This article has been prepared primarily based on desk research-consulting relevant publications, websites, positions of the stakeholders-and diplomatic representations of the Government of Nepal. It updates the readers on Nepal’s initiative on transitional justice and argues that it falls within the wider scope of Nepal’s foreign policy.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Council of World Affairs Federalism: New Avenue for Nepal’s Development Diplomacy 2023-05-15T14:15:32+00:00 Liladhar Upadhyaya <p>Nepal has entered into a new governance model under the federal structure. It is a basic format of the new constitution assimilating federalism from its preamble to other relevant articles of the Constitution of Nepal. It is a new system for Nepal, and the nation should focus on enduring the system by rectifying lapses of federalism. It is criticized for being expensive and promoting means of corruption, but it can give positive results if we apply the principles and practices of federalism with due attention. As federalism is the basic guiding principle of the new political and constitutional context, the development diplomacy of the country should steer the path under the federal structure. Nepal's foreign policy is mainly guided by mutual respect territorial integrity and sovereignty; non-interference in each other’s internal affairs, respect for mutual equality, non-aggression, and the peaceful settlement of disputes, cooperation for mutual benefit, abiding faith in the Charter of the United Nations and value of world peace. Development diplomacy is also an expansion of these principles and practices for the prosperity of the nation. The ultimate goal of every form of diplomacy is to optimize national interest and promote world peace. Nepal has challenges as well as opportunities to get benefit from the means of development diplomacy under the federal system of governance. This article briefly talks about development diplomacy in the changed context of Nepal.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Council of World Affairs