Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies A publication of the Central Department of Rural Development, University Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Nepal. en-US <p>© Copyright by Central Department of Rural Development</p> (Pushpa Kamal Subedi) (Sioux Cumming) Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Social Welfare Model of Rural Development <p>After analyzing the balanced growth unbalanced growth, unlimited supply of laborer, transformation of traditional agriculture and social choice theories as well as Gandhian model of rural development, US market model economy, Chinese socialist’s economy, Korean model of rural development (Saemual Undong), mix welfare model of Sweden, this paper emphasizes that people’s participation is inevitable to achieve desired development goals. However, all these doctrines, theories or model have identified active participation of the people in development process but still those doctrines are silent about how to emancipate and mobilize people. Here is why, this paper has designed and developed social welfare model of Rural Development (SWMRD) based on Sen’s social choice theory, Gandhian model of rural development and doctrine of factors of production of economics. According to the model people have to make plan of their resources for sustainable economic return and its implementation. Government has to assure freedom, human right, motivation and protection. Hence, SWMRD model will be applicable on development studies and useful to development policy makers.</p><p><strong>Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies</strong></p><p>Vol. 14 (Joint issue) (1&amp;2), 2017, Page: 1-11</p> Bharat Prasad Badal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Utilization of Remittance at Household Level: A Case of Khanigaun Village of Resunga Municipality, Gulmi District <p>The rural out-migration for labour of Nepal is a common livelihood strategy at household level. The paper tries to assess the utilization of rural-out migrants’ remittance at household level in Khanigaun Village of Resunga Municipality, Gulmi District. The study is mainly based on primary data and utilized mixed method. The primary information collected through household survey and focus group discussions techniques. 120 sample households were selected by using purposive sampling method. The targeted households were those where at least one family member of household who are working in the foreign country or who worked foreign country and have returned now as a labour migration. The data revealed that the major bulk of remittances were used for consumption purposes. Though, household investment in business or traditional productive sectors and savings were rather small, but remittances were also seen as important financial means for investment in human capital (i.e. education, health and hygiene), housing and land purchase. The importance of the repayment of the cost of migration should not be underestimated. Finally, the study concludes that most of migrant families had improved their living standard to some extent from the remittance money so far, either they used productive or not is in the debate.</p><p> <strong>Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies</strong></p>Vol. 14 (Joint issue) (1&amp;2), 2017, Page: 12-20 Bishnu B. Khatri ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Livelihood Strategy of Community Forest Users: A Case from Nawalparasi District <p>This paper aims to identify the diversification of livelihood strategies of community forest users of different ecological regions in Nawalparasi district. This paper basically based on primary and secondary sources of information primary information have been collected from focus group discussion, key informant survey and household survey. All the primary data are concerned with forest users of the study area. The forest users of the study area have adopted mainly three types of livelihood strategies i.e. farm based, forest based and off-farm based. The finding of the study shows that livestock farming has occupied major role to achieve the average income from farm based livelihood. The linkages between community forest and livelihood of rural people have been found different in the different ecological regions in the study area. The changing life style of members of community forest users can help to manage the forest and improve the livelihood of rural people with the support of such livelihood options in the study area.</p><p> <strong>Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies</strong></p><p>Vol. 14 (Joint issue) (1&amp;2), 2017, Page: 21-27</p> Devi Prasad Poudel ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Vegetable Gardening and Marketing in Kirtipur Area of Kathmandu <p>Vegetable gardening is one of the important branches of vegetable farming in which vegetables are produced for the purpose of self-consumption and local market. In these days, the demand of fresh vegetable is increasing day by day because of rapid population growth, urbanization and growing awareness towards green vegetable in the kitchen. Hence, in the urban fringes, vegetable gardening has appeared as one of the productive enterprises for cash generation as well as self-employment. This study is completely based on primary data collected in the field by household questionnaire survey, key informants interview as well as focus group discussion (FGD). Finding clearly indicates that the cultivation of vegetable around Kirtipur area is gradually increasing and also able to fulfill few demands of vegetables in the local market of Kirtipur. This area has emerged as one of the vegetable growing pocket area among the outlying areas of Kirtipur Municipality.</p><p> <strong>Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies</strong></p>Vol. 14 (Joint issue) (1&amp;2), 2017, Page: 28-35 Dhyanendra Bahadur Rai ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The Landless Sharecroppers of Dumraha Village: A Case Study on Food Sufficiency among Tharu Community <p>This research analyzed the situation of sharecroppers and their food sufficiency level in forty Tharu community households in Dumraha village of Sunsari. Household interviews, focus group discussions, key informants survey and observations are led to fulfill the research objective. Among ninety-one landless sharecroppers forty households were selected for the study applying the equation. The landlessness Tharu people are compelled to do agriculture or non-agriculture labor besides farming. The Tharu communities are engaged as sharecropper to face the challenges of food self-sufficiency. Some of the sharecroppers are found to be the previous owner of the land. The practice of sharecropping is fully based on mutual relationship between landlord and sharecroppers, where they agree in sharing the output equally. Sharecropping has helped the landless Tharus to be food self sufficient.</p><p><em> </em><strong>Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies</strong></p>Vol. 14 (Joint issue) (1&amp;2), 2017, Page: 36-42 Lalit Chaudhari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Educational Ceiling in a Rural Tamang Community in Nepal: An Ethnographic Study <p>This research study conducted in a rural Tamang community of Nepal aims to explore the real dynamics behind school dropout. The school drop-out is an act of stopping children from going to school after a couple of years of school attainment. A qualitative approach with ethnographic method was adopted to study the school dropout phenomenon. Data were collected over a prolonged stay where observations, in-depth interviews, interactions with research participants and focus group discussions (FGDs) were major data collection tool to understand this phenomenon more closely and to interpret it in relation to culture of the Tamang community. This research claims that various factors related to school, household, parents and children themselves revealed by earlier research studies as cause of school dropout are simply the enabling factors, which in combine, construct a more abstract dynamics, i.e. educational ceiling. The educational ceiling refers to the minimum level of education the people think that they must attain in their life. Actually, this dynamics guides individuals in evaluating the relevance of education in their lives and to take the decision of dropout accordingly. This finding was explored from the cultural artifices of the Tamang community and their way of setting their educational ceiling, employing the inter-actionist approach. This study implies that the scope of the dropout issue is beyond the education system. As and when these individual and society's contexts change, the educational ceiling of individual also changes and, thus, the dropout scenario changes accordingly.</p><p><em> </em><strong>Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies</strong></p>Vol. 14 (Joint issue) (1&amp;2), 2017, Page: 43-55 Laxman Acharya ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Caste-based Discrimination in Schooling: A Narrative Inquiry <p>This paper based on my MPhil dissertation which attempts to exemplify the way of caste-based discrimination practices around schools premises. The Dalit teachers who underwent various forms of such discrimination practices in their school life at different places of Dhading District are the narrated life hi/stories while pledging narrative inquiry. The method was developed with interpretive research paradigm as narratives had immeasurable potentialities to construct meaning of socio-cultural situatedenss of Dalits’ lives and caste-based schooling approach. I, as narrative inquirer, affirmed Freirean perspective to get insight on the nature of Dalit discrimination at school and the way they cope with it. Due to discrimination, there would be high rate of irregularity and dropout even still there is. However, at this context due to various reasons and efforts flexibility (improvement) is being taken places against caste-based discrimination at school in the name of inclusivity, encounters aged-long concept of social exclusion, in present days. It is, perhaps, because of transformative educational approach for a few decades. Transformative education is one of the best means to address Dalit issue with the advocacy of equality and equity. It is significant green signal of transforming ranked society into democratic one.</p><p><em> </em><strong>Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies</strong></p>Vol. 14 (Joint issue) (1&amp;2), 2017, Page: 56-62 Lila Bahadur Bishwakarma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Everyday Lives of LGBTI in Kathmandu Valley: A Narrative Inquiry <p>There is an increasing recognition of political and socio-economic right and identification of the LGBTI throughout the world. Hereby, I soaked into lived experiences of LGBTI people and interpreted those experiences for better understanding of their daily life activities, the gap between their individual identities and social identities, prevailing exclusionary provisions and need of their social inclusion in term of gender identities and social development. The study also relates to the multiple realities of the world view of LGBTI investigated through interpretive paradigms and narrative inquiry as methodology which focuses on critical life events depicted through participants’ stories, exploring their holistic views and holds valuable potential for researchers in a broad range of socio-cultural and economic structures. The research questions; how do LGBTI perform everyday life activities, how have they been appraising their identity and why social exclusionary practices have been affecting the lives of LGBTI in the development process of Nepal have been instrumental to materialize them.</p><p> <strong>Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies</strong></p><p>Vol. 14 (Joint issue) (1&amp;2), 2017, Page: 63-73</p> Megh Vilas Bhatta ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Direction and Effectiveness of Trade Policy Reform: A Case Study of Indo-Nepal Trade Development <p>This paper intends to assess direction and effectiveness of trade policy of Nepal by studying Trade Development between India and Nepal. It follows the comparative method based on the correlation and the simple logarithmic regression model between two-policy implication period: Import Intensive Trade Policy and State led imports intensive Trade Policy (1985-1994) and Export Intensive Trade Policy under Liberalization Regime (1995-2009). This study is based on the secondary data of trade published by the government agency including Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Ministry of Finance (MoF), Trade Promotion Center, World Bank, Asian Development Bank.</p><p><em> </em><strong>Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies</strong></p><p>Vol. 14 (Joint issue) (1&amp;2), 2017, Page: 74-79</p> R. K. Shah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Changing Social Behavior in Drinking Water Projects: A Revision of Water Supply Scheme in Western Nepal <p>This paper explored changing social behaviors of the service beneficiaries in drinking water supply schemes. The study included five most accepted types of water schemes like; overhead tank system, shallow tube well system, gravity system, rainwater harvesting and water lifting system. Intrinsic case study methodology was applied to evaluate eleven drinking water project of western region of the country. Field observation, focus group discussion, and key informant interview methods were deployed during collecting information. This study found that all the drinking water schemes are running presently with big social and cultural issues. Beneficiaries are changing their behaviour while getting drinking water services offering by government and non-government mechanism. As so far, for natural and effective use of drinking water schemes it is inevitable to change social stigma and cultural attitude of the local people. Finally, this study reveals the importance of social analysis during drinking water project formulation stage so that issues of changing social behaviour of the beneficiaries can be addressed.</p><p> <strong>Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies</strong></p><p>Vol. 14 (Joint issue) (1&amp;2), 2017, Page: 80-85</p> Rabin Adhikari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Technological Intervention in Agriculture Development <p>Agriculture sector is the single largest employer in the world. Even in Nepal, agriculture sector provides net employment to 60 percent people. In this contexts, this study highlighted importance of technological intervention in agriculture development. However, focus was given to assess socio-economic situations of the farmers and impact of modern technological interventions. In so doing, the survey was conducted in Lele Village of Godavari Municipality. The respondents were randomly selected 152 sample households using modern/traditional agriculture technologies. The necessary primary data collected through households’ survey questionnaires, observation and informal communications whereas secondary data generated from published/unpublished books, journals, inter/national reports and local level profiles. The study found that modern technological intervention has been fostering commercial farming activities in Lele village and increased family income, creating self-employment and generating rural economy in particular and supporting to the rural development process in general. Further, local development stakeholders need to provide technical/financial supports to the farmers for mounting intervention of modern agriculture technology in Lele village. The finding of the study has possibility to replicate in similar situation throughout the country.</p><p><strong>Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies</strong></p><p>Vol. 14 (Joint issue) (1&amp;2), 2017, Page: 86-97</p> Rajan Binayek Pasa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Understanding Vikas: How Dalits Make Sense of Development in Rural Nepal <p>The experiences, views and opinions of the marginalized people have generally not been included in the development discourse, even though they supposedly are the beneficiaries of development. Dalits are not only marginalized but also untouchable in the Hindu caste hierarchy. Notion of 'untouchability' labeled the Dalits unique characters in their identity from which other castes do not suffer. This study explores the Dalits’ understanding on development. It shows that the meaning of development is contextual and Dalits understand it differently according to their age and educational background. Their understanding on development mostly refers to infrastructural, social, economic, human, cultural and political aspects of development. This study suggests a more culturally sensitive development practices that address/incorporate Dalits issues in a holistic way.</p><p> <strong>Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies</strong></p><p>Vol. 14 (Joint issue) (1&amp;2), 2017, Page: 98-111</p> Sagar Shahi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Rural Womens' Access to Community Finance <p>This study explained access of women in community finance and its impact on their household economy. To the end, 140 community finance groups of Phulwari Village was regarded as case of the study and purposively selected 66 households were unit of analysis. Under case study methodology, descriptive/explanatory research design was used to analyze collected data. The study found that out of total 140 community finance groups, 92 were women led, 6 men led and 42 were jointly led by men and women. And from 66 sample households women are involved in 154 financial groups. The numbers of members in one financial group ranges from 9 to 296 at the time of establishment. A total amount NRs 22 million is saved from financial groups. The natures of groups are mostly unregistered, led by women, small amount of saving and dominated by Brahmin and Chhetri. Community finance has increased saving habit of the members and led them more access to credit facilities. Women are socio-economically and politically empowered due to the impact of community finance. They are participating in community work, becoming self-employed and supported to household economy. The status of the family has been improved. Finally, the study found that, level of education, labour migration, saving/credit and training opportunities are the motivational factors for involving women in community finance.</p><p><strong>Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies</strong></p><p>Vol. 14 (Joint issue) (1&amp;2), 2017, Page: 112-123</p> Suman Kharel ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Socio Economic Status and Its Impact on School Going Domestic Child Workers in Kathmandu District <p>The existence of child labor is not a new phenomenon as children are still engaging in all the sector of employment. The objectives of the study was to assess economic status of school going domestic child workers (DCWs), to assess the root causes of DCWs and to examine present working condition of the DCWs. To the end, 50 DCWs studying in Santi Bidhya Griha Higher Secondary School of Kathmandu are selected as respondents. The finding shows that the cause of poverty is an essential factor to increase domestic child worker. DCWs are involving in low level households activities. Their working hour is higher than study period. Remuneration paid for DCWs is very low or not paid, behave of the owner towards DCW's is low or medium in average. The bedding and fooding situations of the DCWs are not found good. Because of that most of them are not yet satisfied with their job but compelling to continue only for their school education life. At present 15 percent of the respondents are studying in primary level, 55 percent in lower secondary level and 30 percent in secondary level. Regarding job satisfaction, some of them want to kick out their job any time but some thoughtful children want to leave after completion of grade tenth. The thoughtful children want to start their professional career in teaching; business and political sectors and few of them also want to join police and army. However, they don't have the knowledge of child labour act and child right.</p><p> <strong>Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies</strong></p><p>Vol. 14 (Joint issue) (1&amp;2), 2017, Page:124-128</p> Surya Kumar Upadhyay ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000