Nepal Journal of Environmental Science https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/njes <p>The Nepal Journal of Environmental Science is published by the <a title="Central Department of Environmental Science" href="https://www.cdes.edu.np/">Central Department of Environmental Science</a>, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Nepal.</p> <p>The submission of the manuscript can be made at <strong>editor@cdes.edu.np</strong> or <strong>cmsharma@cdes.edu.np</strong>.</p> Central Department of Environmental Science, Tribhuvan University en-US Nepal Journal of Environmental Science 2350-8647 Status and future pathways of resin tapping in Nepal: Appeal for special attention https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/njes/article/view/41527 <p>Resin tapping was pioneered five decades ago since the Laxmi Tapping industry started tapping in western Nepal in 1973. Resin tapping is acknowledged as a cost-effective, viable, and adjuvant source of income for rural people with the potentiality for payment for ecosystem services (PES) outside the resin tapping period. This paper explores the SWOT analysis of resin tapping and future pathways to improve this enterprise in Nepal. The systematic and comprehensive literature search was conducted in Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, PubMed, and Scopus; and PRISMA flowchart summarizes the search strategy of the literature survey. SWOT analysis concludes that resin tapping has more strengths and opportunities, but this enterprise is currently under threat due to the shutting down of many resin enterprises with royalty hikes and no incentive. Poor tapping techniques lead to the depletion of pine resources in the long term, so the weakness of the rill method should be counteracted by the modern, cost-effective, more efficient borehole method practiced in many developed countries for resin production. Implementation of the proper policy framework, provision of incentives for enterprise, and sufficient research to create a knowledge base about resin tapping is an urgent need to minimize threats and pedal this enterprise in the right direction. We insist policymakers and stakeholders adopt the integrated forest-based enterprise approach for enabling environment in resin tapping and recommend nine promising value chain upgrading strategies as pragmatic endorsements to execute this enterprise in the long run.</p> Vivek Thapa Chhetri Sachin Timilsina Copyright (c) 2021 Central Department of Environmental Science, Tribhuvan University http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 9 2 35 43 10.3126/njes.v9i2.41527 Generation, characterization, and environmental implications of solid waste and its management in the Everest region https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/njes/article/view/37381 <p>Managing solid waste is becoming a rather challenging task in remote areas, including the Mt. Everest region in Nepal, due to its cold climate, complex topography, and extreme environmental factors. Using published and unpublished literature and personal communications to key informants, this paper analyzes the situation of solid waste management in the Everest region as it relates to increasing tourism and possible environmental implications in the region. The study revealed that combined efforts from people of all levels associated with the mountain region would create a circular waste management system. The paper also reports the existing practices and planned activities for the essential process such as source segregation of waste, collection, use of material recovery facility, and recycling which could lead to sustainable solid waste management in the Everest region and beyond with similar context.</p> Sambuddha Bajracharya Anish Ghimire Mohan Bahadur Dangi Copyright (c) 2021 Central Department of Environmental Science, Tribhuvan University http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-08-04 2021-08-04 9 2 1 11 10.3126/njes.v9i2.37381 High altitudinal vegetation dynamics including treeline ecotone in Langtang National Park, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/njes/article/view/36605 <p>Identification of high altitudinal vegetation dynamics using remote sensing is important because of the complex topography and environment in the Himalayas. Langtang National Park is the first Himalayan park in Nepal representing the best area to study vegetation change in the central Himalaya region because of the high altitudinal gradient and relatively less disturbed region. This study aimed at mapping vegetation in Langtang National Park and its treeline ecotone using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Two treeline sites with an altitude of 3927 and 3802 meters above sea level (masl) were selected, and species density was measured during the field survey. The linear slope for each pixel and the Mann Kendall test to measure significant trends were used. The results showed that NDVI has significantly increased at the rate of 0.002yr<sup>-1</sup> in Langtang National Park and 0.003yr<sup>-1</sup> in treeline ecotone during 2000-2017. The average 68.73% equivalents to 1463 km<sup>2</sup> of Langtang National Park are covered by vegetation. At the same time, 16.45% equivalents to 350.43 km<sup>2 </sup>are greening, and 0.25%, i.e., 5.43 km<sup>2 </sup>are found browning. In treeline ecotone, the vegetation is mostly occupied by grasses, shrublands and small trees where the NDVI was found from 0.1 to 0.5. The relative changes of NDVI in barren lands are negative and vegetative lands above 0.5 NDVI are positive between 2000 and 2017. The dominant treeline vegetation were <em>Abies spectabilis, Rhododendron campanulatum</em>, <em>Betula utilis</em> and <em>Sorbus microphyla, </em>with the vegetation density of 839.28 and 775 individuals per hectare in sites A and B, respectively. The higher average NDVI values, significantly increased NDVI, and higher density of vegetation in both A and B sites indicate that the vegetation in treeline ecotone is obtaining a good environment in the Himalayas of Nepal.</p> Binod Baniya Narayan Prasad Gaire Qua-anan Techato Yubraj Dhakal Yam Prasad Dhital Copyright (c) 2021 Central Department of Environmental Science, Tribhuvan University http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 9 2 13 24 10.3126/njes.v9i2.36605 A baseline study on diversity of birds in Sani Bheri River Valley, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/njes/article/view/37378 <p>Rivers and lakes are important habitats for both resident and migratory wetland-dependent birds. This paper presents the study of birds’ seasonal diversity in Sani Bheri River Valley, outside the protected areas of Nepal. The study was carried out from 8-17 March 2019 (Spring) and 12-21 October (Autumn) 2019 covering a 52 km river stretch from Naighat (upstream area where Pelma River and Uttarganga River mix and flow as Sani Bheri river) to Remnaghat (downstream towards the confluence with Thuli Bheri) using the Mackinnon Listing method. The present study recorded 851 occurrences belonging to 11 Orders, 33 Families, and 71 bird species. Order Passeriformes (52 species) and family Muscicapidae (13 species) were dominant. Plumbeous Water-redstart (<em>Phoenicurus fuliginosus</em>) had the highest relative abundance (7.64%). Shannon-Weiner diversity index (H’= 3.61) and Evenness index (e= 0.85) indicate the diverse assemblage of avian fauna in the study area. This study showed that Sani Bheri River Valley provides the habitat for one globally threatened, four nationally threatened, and eight species listed in Appendix-II of CITES. The results provide the baseline information on avian species, which can provide a good database and can be incorporated in conservation implications.</p> Ganga Shrestha Mohan Bikram Shrestha Rejina Maskey Byanju Swabhiman Reule Sundar Oli Copyright (c) 2021 Central Department of Environmental Science, Tribhuvan University http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 9 2 25 33 10.3126/njes.v9i2.37378 Macroinvertebrate assemblages in mountain tributaries of glacial-fed and rain-fed rivers in eastern Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/njes/article/view/39988 <p>While river macroinvertebrates are the most widely used form of bioindicators, their baseline information, although crucial, is scarce in Nepal. The main objective of this study was to assess the macroinvertebrate assemblages in mountain tributaries of the glacial-fed Tamor and rain-fed Kamala rivers. A total of eight sites were sampled during March 2015 (Spring), November 2015 (Autumn), January 2016 (Winter), and May 2016 (Summer). Altogether, 49 Families of macroinvertebrates belonging to 15 Orders were identified with 39 Families and 12 Orders in Tamor’s tributaries, and 33 Families and 10 Orders in Kamala’s tributaries. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (NMDS) revealed different assemblages between the two river systems. The most dominant Order in the Tamor was Ephemeroptera and it was Trichoptera in the Kamala. EPT (Ephemeroptera Plecoptera Trichoptera) assemblages were the most abundant in all four seasons for both the river systems and higher % EPT in Tamor’s tributaries indicate better water quality than in the Kamala's tributaries. Typical cold water adapted Families such as Rhyacophilidae and Stenopsychidae were observed in Tamor’s tributaries whereas in Kamala’s tributaries, warm water adapted Families like Naididae and Thiaridae were found, reflecting a difference in the abiotic variables such as temperature, dissolved oxygen attributed to each of the catchments. This baseline data can serve as the foundation for further bioassessment including those of climate change impacts on aquatic biodiversity.</p> Smriti Gurung Rashmi Singh Bisrantee Wagle Bibhuti Ranjan Jha Kumar Khatri Dean Jacobsen Copyright (c) 2021 Central Department of Environmental Science, Tribhuvan University http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 9 2 45 55 10.3126/njes.v9i2.39988