Nepal Journal of Multidisciplinary Research 2024-04-29T10:55:25+00:00 Dr. A Sharma Open Journal Systems <p>The <strong>Nepal Philosophical Research Center</strong> (NPRC) is responsible for the publication of the "<strong>Nepal Journal of Multidisciplinary Research</strong> (NJMR)," a peer-reviewed journal that comes out quarterly. NJMR is dedicated to encompassing a wide array of disciplines, including Sociology, Anthropology, Economics, Political Sciences, Geography, Agriculture, Forestry, Management, Education, Literature, Information Technology, and Public Health. The journal is open to a variety of article types, including those based on experience, reviews, and original research. NPRC is committed to fostering the creation of new knowledge through research, and as such, it actively encourages individuals with an interest in these diverse fields to contribute and publish their work in NJMR. The primary aim of the journal is to facilitate the sharing of knowledge among scholars on a global scale. By providing a platform for researchers to disseminate their findings, NJMR contributes to the advancement of understanding and collaboration within the academic community.</p> Decolonization in Focus: A Bibliometric Analysis of Scientific Articles from 2010 to 2023 2024-04-25T06:37:52+00:00 Dipak Mahat Tej Bahadur Karki Dasarath Neupane Diwat Kumar Shrestha Sajeeb Shrestha <p><strong>Background:</strong> Decolonization refers to the process of undoing or dismantling the systems and ideologies imposed during colonialism. Recognition of colonialism's enduring impacts has increased scholarly attention to conceptualizing and advancing decolonization.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A systematic literature review approach was employed to analyze existing research on decolonization from 2010 to 2023. Quantitative bibliometric methods were used to extract metrics from publications and perform statistical analyses of trends. The Scopus database provided coverage of different four subjects.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 980 documents were analyzed from 636 sources. Key findings include steady annual increases in production, with outputs doubling from 2019 to 2020. The United States, United Kingdom, Canada and South Africa contributed the most publications. "Decolonization", "colonialism" and population-centric keywords dominated.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Decolonization remains an important topic of interdisciplinary and global research. Future work will be conducted on a comprehensive bibliometric analysis in this field.</p> <p><strong>Novelty:</strong> This study applied bibliometric techniques to provide valuable information about quantifiable trends, relationships and gaps within the extensive body of decolonization. Network and clustering analyses revealed collaborative patterns and thematic developments over time.</p> 2024-04-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) Social Media Marketing Initiatives and Brand Loyalty 2024-04-28T14:45:19+00:00 Bharat Rai Rewan Kumar Dahal <p><strong>Background: </strong>Social media advertising strategies have radically changed how brands interact with consumers and cultivate brand loyalty. The study's principal objective was to identify the influence of social media marketing activities on consumer brand loyalty toward shopping goods.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The study used primary data from a structured survey questionnaire with the six-point Likert scale sent to Nepalese customers. The study's sampling was convenient, and the Kathmandu-based location was chosen as the sample site. The study's population was the consumers of consumer shopping goods. People who purchase consumer shopping items were given 600 surveys, but only 395 usable questionnaires were collected.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Through the path analysis, the influence of the credibility of social media significantly and positively influenced brand loyalty (β = 0.165, p &lt; 0.05). It was also found that the informativeness of social media significantly impacted brand loyalty toward consumer shopping goods (β = 0.130, p &lt; 0.05). Likewise, it was also investigated whether social media entertainment significantly impacts brand loyalty (β = 0.426, p &lt; 0.05) toward consumer shopping goods in the Nepalese market.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>By leveraging the power of social media venues to engage with customers, deliver pertinent content, and create personalized experiences, businesses may cultivate a strong emotional connection with their target audience, increasing brand loyalty and trust.</p> <p><strong>Novelty: </strong>The study results show how future researchers and business people can look at the new conditions for market growth.</p> 2024-04-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) Psychological Distress and Students’ Academic Achievement in the Colleges of Education: Does Gender Matter? 2024-04-28T15:17:53+00:00 Edmond Kwesi Agormedah Francis Britwum Samuel Obed Amoah Edwin Adjei Vincent Kusi-Appiah <p><strong>Background:</strong> Students are exposed to a wide range of potentially stressful situations which could negatively affect their academic achievement and their health. The study examined the influence of psychological distress on students’ academic achievement in the Colleges of Education (CoE) in Ghana.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Using descriptive cross-sectional survey design, 325 students were selected from six CoE using a multi-stage sampling procedure. Primary data was gathered using DASS-21 and analysed via SEM, Moderation analysis and independent sample t-test.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The study discovered that psychological distress (i.e., depression, anxiety, and stress) negatively significantly predicted the academic achievement of college students. Specifically, academic anxiety and stress has a negative influence on students’ academic achievement. However, gender does not moderate the relationship between psychological distress and academic achievement of the students. There was a significant gender difference in the psychological distress of students. Female students experienced a high level of anxiety and stress compared to male students. There was no gender difference in depression among students.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> School officials and teachers should intensify their academic interventions, workshops, and counselling to help reduce the psychological distress among students to improve mental health for academic excellence.</p> <p><strong>Novelty:</strong> Study found that psychological distress, including depression, anxiety, and stress, negatively predicts the academic achievement of college students in Ghana, highlighting the need for academic interventions and counseling to improve students' mental health and academic performance.</p> 2024-04-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) Momentum Investment Strategies across Time and Trends: A Review and Preview 2024-04-28T16:19:32+00:00 Dipendra Karki Prajjwol Bikram Khadka <p><strong>Background:</strong> This study provides a bibliometric analysis of momentum investment strategies, examining their historical evolution, behavioral dynamics, and the challenges faced by professionals in equity markets. It aims to explore the persistent profitability of momentum strategies amidst market fluctuations and the significant influence of behavioral biases on trading decisions.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Employing a Bibliometric Analytical framework, the study systematically maps the knowledge structure of momentum investment strategies. It utilizes the Dimensions database for scholarly journal searches and examines peer-reviewed research publications spanning from 1993 to 2024. This method enables the identification of key research works, emerging trends, and an assessment of the literature's impact.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The research reveals the persistent profitability of momentum strategies despite market changes, highlighting the significant role of behavioral biases in trading decisions. This work contributes to both academic discourse and practical investment strategy development, offering insights into exploiting momentum's transformative potential in dynamic equity markets.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study contributes to both academic discourse and practical investment strategy development by offering evidence-based insights into the effectiveness of momentum strategies. It identifies research gaps, suggests new directions for future studies, and analyzes collaboration networks to enhance interdisciplinary research efforts.</p> <p><strong>Novelty: </strong>The utilization of a Bibliometric Analytical framework in studying momentum investment strategies brings a novel approach to the field. This method not only offers a systematic mapping of knowledge but also facilitates the identification of influential research works and emerging trends, guiding both academic research and practical applications.</p> 2024-04-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) Madheshi Women and Feminist Movement in Nepal 2024-04-28T23:13:28+00:00 Ranju Yadav <p><strong>Background:</strong> The formal feminist movement in Madhesh emerged in reaction to the discriminatory, oppressive, and autocratic actions perpetrated by the state, entwined with concurrent political movements, effectively spotlighting and confronting prevalent social issues. Feminist movements in Nepal have played a significant role in bringing about major changes in various aspects of society, advocating for gender equality, women's rights, and social justice.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This research adopted a qualitative method with an intersectionality theoretical framework to explore the firsthand experiences of Madheshi women who have actively engaged in feminist movements. The research collected data from face-to-face in-depth interviews with 28 women political leaders, 8 women journalists, 15 women rights activists, and 3 family members of women rights activists and political leaders with purposive sampling. Similarly, this study also gathered the perceptions of 14 Madheshi men from various sectors.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> This paper explores Madheshi women’s contribution to feminist and other movements in Nepal. It examines the challenges that they faced during the movements. The study underscores the heterogeneous nature of Madheshi women's involvement, illustrating varied roles across historical contexts. The findings of the study revealed that Madheshi women are challenging patriarchies through various means.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> There is a significant gap in the documentation of the Madheshi women's and feminist movements in Nepal. Despite their active participation in feminist movements, their voices and concerns persistently remain on the periphery. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Novelty:</strong> The research documents the contribution, challenges, and strategies of Madheshi women adopted by Madheshi women. It also addresses the gap in the existing literature regarding the Madheshi women.</p> 2024-04-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) Does Interest Rate Impact Economic Growth? Empirical Insight from Nepal 2024-04-29T00:04:44+00:00 Prem Bahadur Budhathoki Ganesh Bhattarai Yadav Mani Upadhyaya <p><strong>Background:</strong> The relationship between interest rates, inflation, and non-performing loans on economic growth is debated in theoretical and empirical research. Hence, the study examines the effect of interest rate, inflation rate, and non-performing loans on the economic growth in Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The paper incorporated quarterly data spanning nine years (2011-2019) and consisted of 972 observations. The study collected secondary data from the official websites of Nepal Rastra Bank and the Ministry of Finance, Nepal. The study used a panel cointegration test and random-effect models to examine the long-run relationship between predictor and response variables.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The impact of lending rate (LR) on economic growth is positive and statistically significant (β<sub>1</sub> = 0.017, p &lt; .01) in Nepal. Similarly, the coefficient of LNCPI (β<sub>2</sub> = 0.687, p &lt; .01) suggests that there is a positive relationship between the Consumer Price Index (CPI) and the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The regression coefficient of CPI (β<sub>3</sub> = -.001, p &gt; .05) suggests that an increase in non-performing loans (NPL) led to a decrease in GDP. However, this relationship was not statistically significant for the Nepalese Economy.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study concludes that the interest and inflation rates positively affect Nepal's economic growth. The findings indicate that policymakers, such as Nepal Rastra Bank, should maintain interest rates at an appropriate level.</p> <p><strong>Novelty:</strong> This study is novel because it thoroughly analyzes numerous observations over long periods to investigate the impacts of loan rates, inflation rates, and non-performing loans on economic growth in Nepal, improving its generalizability.</p> 2024-04-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) The Impact of Covid-19 on Urban Planning of Port Harcourt City, Nigeria 2024-04-29T07:01:04+00:00 Moses Odigwe Akaawase Alexander Mchi <p><strong>Background:</strong> Coronavirus disease is a communicable and contagious respiratory disease that has not only affected human social lives, interactions and relationships but equally changed other significant patterns of people’s normal lives, and there is need for a robust urban planning to meet the emerging changes. This study sought to investigate how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the inhabitants of Port Harcourt City and its implications on urban planning in Port Harcourt City, Nigeria. This study examined how the COVID-19 pandemic affected human interactions and business activities, and its implication on urban planning in Port Harcourt city.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study adopted descriptive survey design with questionnaire used for data collection. Port Harcourt inhabitants aged 18 years and above were studied using four major clusters in Port Harcourt city. Purposive sampling technique was used to select participants from five most affected COVID-19 business areas in each cluster in the year 2020. A total of 400 participants assessed on people’s economic activities and welfare attributes using Likert-scale. Data were analysed using simple percentages, mean and standard deviation.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Major findings revealed that COVID-19 negatively affected the lives of people, closure of markets and other economic centres, lack of face-to-face communication and interaction, change in people’s social welfare and lifestyle, to halt in education and academic activities, restriction in movement and transportation, and household welfare challenges. It is suggested that policymakers should intensify efforts to ensure coronavirus is eradicated by providing COVID-19 drugs to all Nigerians.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study underscores the urgent need for comprehensive measures to mitigate the multifaceted impacts of COVID-19 in Nigeria, emphasizing equitable access to essential medications as a crucial strategy for combating the pandemic's adverse effects on society.</p> <p><strong>Novelty:</strong> This research offers novel insights into the broad-ranging impacts of COVID-19 on various aspects of life in Nigeria, highlighting the imperative of equitable access to medications as a pivotal solution.</p> 2024-04-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) Healing through Ruqyah and Academic Achievement of Children in Muslim Community 2024-04-29T07:18:19+00:00 Shastha Banu Anup Adhikari Bhagwan Aryal <p><strong>Background</strong>: Ruqyah, an Islamic alternative healing practice, involves treating illnesses using Quranic verses and invocations, focusing on the names and attributes of Allah. The literature on the academic performance of Muslim children in Nepal and the use of Ruqyah is limited and requires further exploration. This study aimed to identify the use and practice of Ruqyah in healing children within the Muslim community and assess their academic achievement.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This study explored the issue among the seven participants of four families from Muslim community who undergo Ruqyah often via a descriptive phenomenological method that included in-depth interviews. Three themes emerged from the interview data which offered insight into the Muslim community.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Parents found the use of Ruqyah and children's academic achievements reasonable. Muslims respect the Holy Quran as the word of God, using it as guidance for Ruqyah and their children, as they believed it was the right choice. The study found that the family preferences dictated whether to take it immediately or only when needed. Children who followed Ruqyah and supplemented it with modern medications improved health patterns and their academic success.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Children who undergo Ruqyah are influenced by their parents' religious knowledge, educational level, and socio-economic background, and are academically prepared. Medications are used, with parents believing that aligning with Ruqyah improves their children's academic performance.</p> <p><strong>Novelty</strong>: The study could lead to new therapeutic research directions for the Muslim communities in Nepal, assisting children in coping with illnesses and improving their academic outcomes.</p> 2024-04-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) Productive Employee Training and Its Impact on Retention 2024-04-29T07:30:48+00:00 Ajaya Kumar Khadka Srijana Khadka <p><strong>Background: </strong>The present research examines the financial aspects of efficacious employee training and its influence on employee retention in corporate environments. The study aims to assess how management assistance for employee retention, training and development, and future growth are related to performance reviews.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Using a frequency distribution, the study looks at the demographic and social status of 297 participants who make up its sample. The reliability analysis demonstrates good consistency in the measurement scales.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Correlation analysis finds significantly positive correlations between the variables. A multiple regression analysis reveals a well-fitting model (R Square = 0.841), confirming the significant contribution of future growth, training, development, and management support to employees and performance reviews to explain variance in employee retention.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The coefficient analysis emphasizes the significance of strategic approaches to improving employee retention and highlights the individual contributions of these factors.</p> <p><strong>Novelty: </strong>This research adds to our understanding of the changing direction of employee retention. It offers valuable advice to firms looking to maximize managerial support and training strategies to cultivate a loyal and contented workforce.</p> 2024-04-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) Education Policies and Practices for Ensuring Quality Education in Nepal 2024-04-29T07:46:42+00:00 Bisna Acharya <p><strong>Background:</strong> Nepal's education policies and practices focus on enhancing the quality of education by implementing guidelines, regulations, and initiatives established by the government and educational institutions. The policies and practices are carefully crafted to address various aspects of the education system, ensuring that all students can access equitable, thorough, and effective educational opportunities.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> This study examines the education policies and practices implemented in Nepal to ensure high-quality education.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> An analytical and descriptive research design has been applied to analyze the data. Data were collected through a comprehensive field survey. Questionnaires were distributed to students, teachers, and guardians, while head teachers were interviewed. Additionally, policy experts and local leaders participated in a focused group discussion.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study found a strong correlation between various dimensions of quality education and the overall quality of education. Specifically, motivation, teaching-learning pedagogy, school environment, and training and development were found to be statistically significant in improving the quality of education. However, no significant relationship was found between resources and the quality of education. The regression results also showed similar findings.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on the hypothesis, it can be inferred that there was a positive impact of motivation, teaching-learning pedagogy, school environment, and training and development on the quality of education, even in primary and basic education settings. The study suggests that resources do not have a significant impact on the quality of education in primary and basic education.</p> <p><strong>Novelty:</strong> The researcher has expected that by implementing education acts, policies, and programs, Nepal's school education will be improved ensuring education quality.</p> 2024-04-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s)