Nepalese Veterinary Journal 2019-08-19T07:27:15+00:00 Dr. Narayan Prasad Ghimire Open Journal Systems <p>The Nepalese Veterinary Journal (NVJ) is an official journal of Nepal Veterinary Association (NVA). The journal is available in both print form and online. Efforts are underway to digitalize earlier volumes of the Nepalese Veterinary Journal and make it available online. The print form of the journal is available at the NVA and can be made available on request.</p> Editorial Vol.35 2019-08-16T14:21:02+00:00 Narayan Prasad Ghimire <p>No abstract available.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effectiveness of Different Hormonal Treatment Protocols on Treatment of Postpartum Anoestrus in Cross-Bred Dairy Cows 2019-08-16T14:21:03+00:00 P.K. Rana G. Gautam B. Devkota S.K. Shah S. Barsila I.P. Kadariya <p>Postpartum anoestrus (PPA) is one of the major factors causing prolonged calving interval &amp; that leading to decreased annual milk production. Hormonal treatments can be effective tools for treatment of PPA when nutritional &amp; environmental management are good. So, objective of this study was to know the comparative effectiveness of different hormonal protocols on treatment of PPA in cross-bred dairy cows. Used protocols were: single dose of GnRH, Ovsynch with TRIU-B and single dose of PGF<sub>2</sub>α injection which were used in three different groups, each containing ten animals. GnRH and Ovsynch with TRIU-B were used in postpartum true anoestrus cattle with inactive ovaries while PGF<sub>2</sub>α was used in postpartum silent oestrus condition having palpable corpus luteum and the condition were identifi ed through rectal palpation and history record. Cows treated with Ovsynch+TRIU-B showed higher oestrus expression rate within one week (80%) than cows treated with GnRH (10%) and PGF<sub>2</sub>α (50%). Ovulation rate was also comparatively higher in Ovsynch+TRIU-B group (100%) than GnRH (90%) and PGF<sub>2</sub>α (70%). But the pregnancy rate, checked after 45 days of first AI through rectal palpation, was comparatively higher in GnRH group (40%) than in Ovsynch+TRIU-B (30%) and PGF<sub>2</sub>α (20%). Among treated cows, pregnancy rate was found to be signifi cantly higher (P=0.02) in cows with ≥100 days duration of postpartum anoestrus (53.84%) than in cows with 100 days duration (0%). In conclusion, ovsynch with intravaginal progesterone (p4) releasing device was more effective at inducing oestrus and synchronizing ovulation than the single GnRH injection. However, single GnRH injection was as effective as ovsynch with intravaginal p4 releasing device for pregnancy outcomes in anoestrous crossbred dairy cows in a commercial dairy farm where formulated concentrate ration is daily fed.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Age and Frequency of Collection in Quality of Jersey Bulls Semen at National Livestock Breeding Center, Nepal 2019-08-16T14:21:05+00:00 S. Sankhi K.R. Sapkota B. Regmi <p>The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of age and frequency of collection on quality parameters of Jersey bull semen at National Livestock Breeding Center (NLBC), Pokhara, Kaski district. Nine Jersey bulls were selected randomly from NLBC. To obtain the effect of age, six bulls of three different age interval (3- 4, 5-7 and 8-9 years) were selected randomly. Remaining three bulls were used to determine the effect of frequency of collection on semen quality. Studies were conducted for three months (Nov/Dec to Dec/Jan 2017). Semen quality was analyzed using CASA system and SMILE software. ANOVA and paired t- tests were applied to find out level of significance. All the statistical analyses were done using SPSS 17.0. Sperm concentration (0.551 ±0.004 to 1.084 ± 0.014x109), post- thaw motility (42.44±0.11 to 51.72±0.03 %), live sperm (45.62 ± 0.13 to 51.23±0.15 %), and abnormal sperm (11.57±0.12 to 19.59±0.24%) were significantly affected by the age of the bulls. Semen quality was found superior in the bulls belonging to 5-7 years of age intervals. On the other hand, volume (3.98±0.09 to 6.72±0.06 ml), initial motility (72.68±0.02 to 78.64±0.15 %) and pre-filling motility (71.34±0.17 to 77.62±0.02 %) did not differ significantly among different age intervals. Significantly, higher value for semen volume (3.98±0.12 to 6.02±0.14 ml), sperm concentration (0.572±0.119 to 1.095±0.015) and post- thaw motility (40.34±0.21 to 48.54±0.06% was obtained on second collection. However, initial motility (70.58±0.06 to 75.64±0.13 %), prefilling motility (68.11±0.12 to 71.62±0.02 %), live sperm (53.27±0.54 to 56.17±0.02 %) and abnormal sperm (12.31±0.12 to 14.3±0.47 %) did not differ significantly between the frequencies of collection. Different quality parameters of semen like volume, concentration, initial motility, pre-filling motility, post thaw motility, live and normal spermatozoa percentage were higher in 5-7 years old bulls and in second collection of semen.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Non-Genetic Factors on Different Genetic Group of Buck’s Semen Quality and Quantity at National Livestock Breeding Center, Nepal 2019-08-16T14:21:06+00:00 R. Bastola M.R. Kolachhapati N.A. Gorkhali R. Poudel S. Sharma S. Sapkota <p>This study was conducted to assess the quality and quantity aspects of different genetic group of buck’s semen used for Artificial Insemination (AI) at National Livestock Breeding Centre (NLBC), Pokhara. For this, records from different breeds and genetic groups of buck semen collected over 3 years (2014-2016) were analyzed. Parameters such as volume, density, mass motility, initial motility concentration and post thaw motility were analysed for various non-genetic factors like year, season, green based feeding. Data were analyzed by least square method using Harvey 1990 software package. The result showed that different genetic group of bucks (P&lt;0.001) have highly significant effect (P=0.00) on volume of semen. Significant interaction (P=0.01, 0.001) was observed between year and season on volume and density of the semen. Similarly, different genetic group of bucks had significant effect on density (P=0.03). Year showed a significant effect (P=0.02) on initial motility of the buck semen. Similarly, significant interaction between year and season on initial motility percentage (P=0.01) and post thaw motility percentage (P=0.00) was found. Likewise, year has a significant effect (P=0.01) on the Post thaw motility percentage (P=0.03) of the semen. Also, a significant effect of different breed of buck was found on post thaw motility percentage (P=0.00). In addition, the average post thaw motility percentage semen of all the genetic groups of bucks was above 52% which is considered as a good percentage for the success of AI. This result might be due to use of egg yolk free extender which is soya-based protein. Moreover, adoption of new buck semen processing technologies might further improve the semen quality and long term storability along with better management and distribution of these buck semen by Government of Nepal through livestock unit at different municipalities will improve the conception rate and save huge effort and investment for the importation of buck semen.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Status of PPR and Sero-conversion of PPR Vaccines in Goats and Sheep of Midwestern Region of Nepal 2019-08-16T14:21:08+00:00 K.R. Pandey J. Shrestha <p>Peste des petits ruminant (PPR) is a common, acute, highly contagious and infectious viral epidemic disease of small ruminants which has caused significant economic losses in Nepal. Total of 247 suspected serum samples from 13 outbreaks from 8 districts of the Midwestern region of Nepal in 2015 were confirmed by using antibody ELISA test and in case of dead animals, the tissue samples were further confirmed by using antigen ELISA test. Out of 247 serum samples, 153 (61.9%) samples showed PPR antibody positive. The Ecozone wise distribution of PPR showed that the PPR outbreak were reported the highest in mountain followed by hills and the lowest in Terai. The highest outbreaks in mountain may be due to excessive movements of nomadic herd of sheep and goat, common pasture, low vaccine coverage in mountain whilst in hill region due to geographic difficulty and low sero-conversion of vaccine. Hence, strategic vaccination campaigns, proper biosecurity, movement control, risk analysis and early diagnosis need to be implemented for the control of PPR in the country.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Participatory Silage Making and Hay and Silage Mixed Feeding Technology for Winter Feeding to Goats in Jumla, Nepal 2019-08-16T14:21:09+00:00 R.R. Gyawali S. Yadav D. Yadav <p>This action research was carried out to demonstrate the method of silage making and its feeding, mixed with chopped hay to goats during feed scarcity periods as coping strategy for winter days in Jumla. Nine farmers took part in on-farm silage production and feeding trial. A total of 29 kids and 16 does as treatment group and 12 kids and 19 does of the similar age group and status as control were selected to compare the body weight gain. The normal practice of feeding was 3-4 hours of grazing daily, occasionally combined with tree fodder (Quercus sp.) in communal pastureland and offering hay for snowfall days in pens. In addition to this, treatment groups were supplemented with mixed silage and chopped hay at the rate of 2% of body weight on dry matter basis, half each from the silage and hay. The mixture was given daily early in the morning for 45 days from 25th of December to 10th of February, when the average minimum temperature dropped from -2.4 to -5.4° C. Goats consumed about 95% of the offered amount of silage whereas chopped hay was rejected by about 90%. The result showed that kids gained 0.49 kg with average daily gain of 10.88 g and does gained 2.44 kg with an average daily gain of 54.22 g for the treatment group. The difference between the initial and final body weight was positive for treatment group whereas it was negative for the control. Male kids grew faster by 8.6%, female kids by 6.7% and does by 12.6% for silage supplemented group compared to control. It indicated that proper fermented maize fodder silage can be obtained from pits prepared before winter and loss in body weight can be prevented by the supplementation of silage during cold days in high mountains when there is scarce of green forages.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Status of Antibiotic Residues in Poultry Meat of Nepal 2019-08-16T14:21:11+00:00 M. Prajapati E. Ranjit R. Shrestha S.P. Shrestha S.K. Adhikari D.R. Khanal <p>Antibiotic residues in livestock products are the burning issue in animal production as well as public health sector. Imprudent use of antibiotics in poultry production increases the risk of antibiotic resistance thus increasing risk in both animals and humans. To determine the trend of antibiotic residues presence in poultry meat, a study was conducted from June 2016 to May 2017 in Kathmandu, Kaski, and Chitwan districts of Nepal. A total of 92 breast samples of broilers ( Kathmandu-30, Kaski-40 and Chitwan-22) were collected randomly from different selling outlets of the study areas and tested for residues of commonly used antibiotic viz. Enrofloxacin (EX), Ciprofloxacin (CIP), Streptomycin (STR) and Chloramphenicol (CHL) using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique. Out of 92 samples, 57 (62%) samples were found positive for antibiotics residue of which 38% samples were positive for STR residue, 15.2% for CIP and 8.7% for EX. However, none of the samples showed positivity for CHL residue. The level of STR was determined to be higher in all districts in comparison to other antibiotics. The meat samples from Kaski were found to contain higher level of STR (56.1%) while highest percentage of CIP (16.1%) was detected in Kathmandu. Also, presence of EX was found highest in Kathmandu compared to other districts. The study concluded that antibiotics residues have been abundantly found in poultry meat which can have serious effect in human health. Hence, to mitigate this, routine antibiotics residues monitoring and surveillance programmes in food animal products should be conducted to ensure the consumer safety.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## [Retracted] Effect of Inclusion of Sickle Pod (Cassia Tora L.) Seed Meal in Diets on Performance of Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) 2019-08-19T07:27:15+00:00 S. Malla M. Sapkota I.C.P Tiwari R. Sah <p>This article was retracted by the authors prior to publication and is therefore not available.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Proximate Analysis of Ostrich Meat to Assess the Quality in Chilled and Frozen Condition 2019-08-16T14:21:14+00:00 R.P. Yadav A. Mishra <p>Ostrich meat is very popular due to its healthy composition thereby increasing its demand globally. Therefore, one study has been made on quality of ostrich meats of different ages at chilled and frozen conditions by targeting product development. Meat samples from two differently aged, 10- and 14-months ostriches were collected and divided into three parts for each type. One part was analyzed immediately, one part was put in chilling at 4°C for 72 hours and next part was put in deep fridge at -20°C for 30 days. Proximate analyses were carried out for moisture (73.98 to 75.22%), protein (21.08 to 22.46%), total fat (2.43 to 3.27%) and total minerals (0.83 to 1.82%). There was subsequent decrement in moisture at cold storage practices, at 72 hours chilling by 1% and one month freezing by 2.3% and there was no significant (?) difference in water content due to the age of bird. The amount of protein was found increasing at chilling, freezing and ageing? total fat was significantly different due to the age as well as meat storage practices and total ash was in decreasing trend in case of chilling and freezing conditions but found no difference due to the age.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Semen Extender Ratio and Season’s Effects on Hatchability of Turkeys in Nepal 2019-08-16T14:21:15+00:00 A. Subedi S. Gurung M. Sharma S. Bhandari N. Bhattarai <p>This study was carried out to identify the effects of season and semen extender ratio on hatchability of artificially inseminated turkeys of Chitwan, Nepal. Trials were conducted using four treatments of different dilutions of semen with skim milk powder in the ratio of 1:1 (T1), 1:2 (T2), 2:3 (T3) and 3:4 (T4). The 32 turkeys were artificially inseminated in 4 days interval for 3 months. The dose of insemination was 0.03 ml and insemination were done around 6:00 p.m. Trials were done in winter and spring seasons of 2017 to find out the seasonal variation on hatchability of turkey. The data were analyzed using GenStat3.6.2, computer software. The hatchability was noted on total eggs as well as fertile eggs. In total eggs, it was found that hens with T1 (67.80%) gave higher hatchability than T2 (63.82%), T3 (63.04%) and T4 (63.98%) whereas in fertile eggs, T3 (83.26%) and T4 (83.01%) gave higher hatchability than T1 (82.96%) and T2 (82.90%). Hatchability rate was almost similar in both spring and winter seasons in total eggs with non-significant differences. On the other hand, in fertile eggs, the hatchability rate was found higher in spring season. Similarly, seasonal effect on hatchability rate of various semen extender ratios in total eggs and fertile eggs was also carried out. In total eggs, T1 and T3 produced higher hatchability rate in spring than in winter; T2 had similar hatchability rate in both seasons and T4 had higher hatchability in winter than in spring. However, there were no significant differences on hatchability rate of semen extender ratio due to seasonal variation. In fertile eggs, all the 4 dilutions had more hatchability rate in winter season than in spring with significance (P&lt;0.05). The hatchability was highest in T1 (85.19%) in winter season. The present study provides evidence that in total eggs of turkey inseminated with 1:1 semen dilutions provides more hatchability rate than other dilutions, whereas fertile eggs have more hatchability with dilutions 1:2 and 2:3 than others and hatchability rate based on total eggs is higher in spring than winter.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Seroprevalence of Avian Infl uenza (subtype H9) in ducks at AI risk areas of Nepal 2019-08-16T14:21:16+00:00 N.R. Pradhan S. Singh M.P. Acharya <p>A study was conducted in duck population of Nepal from August-2013 to March-2014 as to find out the seroprevalence of Low pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI) subtype H9. Altogether 300 blood samples were taken from avian influenza risk areas of Nepal by using purposive sampling method and were analyzed in virology laboratory, Animal Health Research Division, NARC, Khumaltar. The serum samples were processed for Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI). Of the 300 serum samples, 16 samples showed HI positive (at&gt;3<sup>rd</sup> well) at two-fold dilution revealing revealing 5% Seroprevalence of LPAI H9 and overall average antibody titre 6.27. The seroprevalences of six districts were found to be Chitwan (10%), Sunsari (6%), Kathmandu (2%), Banke (8%), Bhaktapur (2%) and Jhapa (4%) with their mean antibody titres in log form were found to be 6.8, 6.3, 5, 6, 6 and 6.5 respectively. These samples when categorised into three divisions of influenza risk areas viz. Buffer zone, Border market area and Outbreak area, the seroprevalence were found to be 8%, 6% and 2% and their mean antibody titre in log<sub>2</sub> form were found to be 6.6, 6.3 and 5.5 respectively. The statistical analyses revealed that there is significant difference (P&lt;0.05) in age wise prevalence on group above 6 months and below 6 months. However, no significant difference (p&gt;0.05) occurred in prevalence by district, sex and influenza risk area.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Management System Including Health Care and Marketing of Pigs Adopted by Farmers in Dhankuta and Terhathum Districts 2019-08-16T14:21:18+00:00 R.P. Sah S.K. Jha S. Karki <p>Study was carried out to explore the management system of pig including health care and marketing, adopted by farmers in Hattikharka of Dhankuta and Phakchamara of Terhathum districts. A semi-structured questionnaire was distributed to a total of 200 pig farmers of selected sites. Farmers were surveyed to acquire information on management systems of pig such as, housing, breeding, feeding, health care and marketing. Majority of pig farmers kept Pakhribas black pig, chawanche and their crosses. Population of local pigs was found three times more than improved breeds in both sites. Generally, 1-5 pigs were raised by a farmer. Bamboo, wood and mud were mostly used as housing material. Stall feeding system was adopted by most of the farmers. Locally available feeding materials such as, rice bran, rice polish, maize, sisno, karklo, swill feeding, leftover food and green grasses like rayo, latte sag, kande jhar, twigs of fodder, khubhindo, pumpkin etc were mostly used for pig. Rai, Sherpa, Tamang, Gurung, Limbu, Magar, BK and Shrestha communities were mainly rearing pigs. Diarrhea, gastroenteritis, piglet mortality, agalactia, repeat breeding, parasitic infestation, etc were reported as the common diseases in pigs. Drenching against worm was adopted by few farmers and drugs like albendazole and fenbendazole were common. Vaccination against swine fever was also reported by the farmers and is in increasing trend as a preventive measure. According to farmers, demand for pigs is more than supply in the market and all the pigs are marketed and consumed within the district.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Serodiagnosis of Toxoplasmosis using Lateral Flow Chromatographic Immunoassay among Animals and Humans in Sunsari District of Nepal 2019-08-16T14:21:19+00:00 R.P. Sah Md H. Talukder A.K.M.A. Rahman <p>Toxoplasmosis is a cosmopolitan parasitic zoonosis, infecting human and other warm-blooded animals worldwide. This disease has economic importance in regard to animal reproduction, and it leads to abortions and neonatal complications in humans. This study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep, cattle, cats and human in Inaruwa and surrounding areas of Sunsari district, Nepal. Altogether 336 blood samples, of which 50 from sheep, 92 from cattle, 44 from cats and 150 from human were collected and tested immediately using lateral fl ow chromatographic immunoassay (Toxo IgG/IgM Combo Rapid test<sup>®</sup>). Associated biometric information such as age, sex, pregnancy status, occupation, association with cat was recorded and analyzed to determine the association of risk factors with the disease. Data were analyzed using R 3.2.2 (The R foundation for Statistical Computing, 2015). Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was detected 12.00% (95% CI: 4.53- 24.31%) in sheep, 8.70% (95% CI: 3.83- 16.42%) in cattle, 36.36% (95%CI: 22.41- 52.23%) in cats and 12.67% (95% CI: 7.80- 19.07%) in human. In case of human, 31 to 45 years age group were found more susceptible to toxoplasmosis (21.74%, OR: 6.4) in comparison to 21 to 30 years (10.0%) and up to 20 years (4.17%) age groups. Toxoplasmosis was found highly significantly associated with abortion (58.33%, OR= 15.4, P=0.0001) in human in the tested individuals. Regarding occupation, 20.83% butchers were seropositive followed by farmers (15.52%), housewives (10.0%) and diagnostic lab technicians (8.0%). Female and higher age group showed high prevalence of toxoplasmosis in all studied species. Therefore, this assay is a useful method for the serological screening of toxoplasmosis in different animals and humans. &nbsp;</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Survey on Good Hygiene Practices in Retail Meat Shops in Butwal Municipality, Nepal 2019-08-16T14:21:20+00:00 M. Upadhayaya B. Ghimire <p>Present study was conducted to assess good hygiene practices in retail meat shops for safe and wholesome meat production as well to understand different roles performed by delegated institutions in ensuring quality meat production. A descriptive survey design was used to answer questions concerning the current status of meat hygiene and sanitation practices in the retail meat shops in Butwal municipality. Meat handlers from the meat shops were interviewed through a structured questionnaire. A total of 190 retail meat shops were analyzed randomly to assess their meat hygiene knowledge. It was found that 93.68% of the meat handlers had no regular health check up, 38.42% of the butchers didn’t use protective clothes, 95.26% of meat shops had no evisceration facility, 77.37% of meat shops disposed their waste materials in open space nearby, 96.84% lack lariage facilities and 99.47% did not follow ante-mortem and post-mortem inspection. There was a knowledge gap about Slaughterhouse and Meat Inspection Act 1999 within 96.32% of the meat handlers. The study recommends implementation of Slaughterhouse and Meat Inspection Act 1999 which has been approved in 1999 by the GoN to promote hygiene practices and animal welfare thereby improving the quality standard of meat shops and finally the quality of meat.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Using Mapping, Global Positioning System (GPS) and Smart Phone Technology in Rabies Control Program in Kotagiri, Nilgiris District, India 2019-08-16T14:21:22+00:00 E. Pandey D.K. Singh R. Raut <p>In this study, we utilized a catch-vaccinate-release approach for dogs in a canine rabies vaccination program in Kotagiri municipality, India. Following vaccination, surveys on dog population and their vaccination status was undertaken. A bespoke smartphone ‘Mission Rabies’ application was developed to facilitate data entry and team management. This global positioning system (GPS) enabled application captured the location of all vaccinated dogs and dogs sighted on post-vaccination surveys. In areas where coverage was below 70%, catching teams were re-deployed to vaccinate additional dogs followed by repeat survey. Out of 248 dogs captured, only 210 dogs were vaccinated because of the previous vaccination history within a year, and refusal of owner due to their misconceptions. In survey, 147 dogs were sighted of which 77 were seen marked with paints indicating a vaccination coverage of 52.4%. The total estimated dog population was found to be 475. Our study demonstrated that mobile technology enabled efficient team management and real-time data entry and analysis. The vaccination approach outlined in this study can serve as a guideline for rapid vaccination of large numbers of dogs with a high coverage rate in free roaming dog populations in India in the future.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Welfare Status of Indigenous Cattle in Terai and Mid-Hill of Nepal 2019-08-16T14:21:23+00:00 K.P. Rana K. Kaphle G. Gautam <p>The aim of present study was to assess the status of welfare of indigenous cattle, based on certain animal-linked parameters: body condition (BCS), body hygiene (cleanliness), lameness, skin injuries, general condition, and flight distance. The study was ruled in eight herds (10 cows /herd) in Terai and Mid-hill region of Nepal from March to June 2014. Altogether 80 cattle kept in semi-intensive system were assessed using several indicators determined through specific methods. Out of 80 cattle, 2 (2.5%) had BCS between 1.5-2, considered as very thin cows; 49 (61.25%) had BCS between 2.25-2.75, considered as thin cows; 29 (36.25%) had BCS 3-3.75 considered as normal cows and no cows found with BCS more than 3.75 score; 69 (86.25%) had dung particles at their lower legs, 60 (75%) had dung particles at their flank region and 11(13.75%) had dung particles at their udder region; 4 (5%) were moderately lame, 27 (33.75%) had hairless spot on their different body parts(hock, knee joints, neck), 15 (18.75%) had swelling joints (knee joints); 10 (12.5%) showed fear at the observer’s approach. The general condition was good of all the assessed cows. The obtained results indicate that more than half of the assessed cows are thin and dirty which has a negative impact on their health and welfare. The main factors that affect the indigenous cattle welfare in Nepal are insufficiency of feeding, poor housing system, poor sanitation and hygiene maintenance, lack of treatment of injured/diseased cattle and somewhat poor human animal relationship.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Music on Animal Behavior: A Review 2019-08-16T14:21:24+00:00 S. Dhungana D.R. Khanal M. Sharma N. Bhattarai D.T. Tamang S. Wasti R.C. Acharya <p>Music is an expression of moods and emotions, which has a history of physical and emotional healings. It is thought to have both analgesic and anxiolytic properties. Various effects of music therapy on the physiology and psychology of human have been documented. The effect of music on physiology and behavior have been studied in animals too. Many of these studies claim that even animals are affected by the music. The potential benefits of music in animals might be through auditory enrichment which modifies the behavior of animals. The milking behavior and milk yield of farm animals including cattle and buffalo are affected by music. The objective of this study was to review the influence of music in animal behavior and discuss its usefulness for stress relief. The available literatures indicated that there is a variation among animals for music preference and their behavior is affected depending upon the animal species.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effects of Ketamine and Xylazine-Ketamine Combination in Clinical and Haemato-biochemical Parameters in Captive Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulatta) 2019-08-16T14:21:26+00:00 S.P. Kanu M.R. Alam N. Hoda K.P. Acharya <p>This study was carried to compare the effects of ketamine and xylazine-ketamine combination on clinical and haematobiochemical parameters in captive rhesus monkey. The animals were divided into two groups; one ketamine (K) group and other xylazine-ketamine (XK) group. In ketamine group (n=6) atropine sulphate and ketamine was used intramuscularly at the rate of 0.04 mg/kg body weight and 10 mg/ kg body weight respectively. In xylazine-ketamine group (n=3) xylazine and ketamine was used intramuscularly at the rate of 1 mg/kg body weight and 5 mg/kg body weight respectively. Blood samples were collected immediately after induction and 30 min after induction in both groups. Effects of anaesthetics on haematological and biochemical parameters such as TEC, TLC, Hb, PCV, DLC, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, HDL and LDL and clinical parameters such as rectal temperature, heart rate, respiration rate, muscle relaxation, jaw tone, pedal reflex, palpebral reflex and position of eye ball were studied. Rectal temperature was significantly lower (P&lt;0.01) in group XK than in group K. Heart rate was significantly higher (P&lt;0.01) in group K than in group XK. Respiratory rate was lower in group K than in group XK but it was nonsignificant (P&gt;0.05). Hb and PCV level was significantly lower (P&lt;0.05) in group XK than group K. TEC and TLC was higher in group K than in group XK but it was nonsignificant (P&gt;0.05). Neutrophil and Eosinophil was higher in group XK than in group K but it was nonsignificant (P&gt;0.05). Lymphocyte was lower in group XK than in group K but it was nonsignificant (P&gt;0.05). Monocyte was significantly lower (P&lt;0.05) in group XK than in group K. Serum cholesterol was higher in group XK than in group K but it was nonsignificant (P&gt;0.05). Serum triglyceride and LDL was significantly higher (P&lt;0.05) in group XK than in group K. HDL was lower in group XK than in group K but it was nonsignificant (P&gt;0.05). Smooth induction was found in group XK and duration of anaesthesia was longer in group XK whereas smooth recovery was found in group K but duration of anaesthesia was shorter. Muscle relaxation was excellent in group XK in comparison to group K. It can be suggested from the results of this study that for shorter duration of anaesthesia only ketamine can be used but for longer duration, xylazine-ketamine combination will be appropriate.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##