Nepalese Veterinary Journal <p>The Nepalese Veterinary Journal (NVJ) is an official journal of Nepal Veterinary Association (NVA). The journal is available in both print form and online. Efforts are underway to digitalize earlier volumes of the Nepalese Veterinary Journal and make it available online. The print form of the journal is available at the NVA and can be made available on request.</p> Nepal Veterinary Association en-US Nepalese Veterinary Journal 2091-0290 <p><strong>©</strong> Nepal Veterinary Association</p> Immunohistochemistry of Lymphocytes Subsets in Subclinical Experimental Paratuberculosis in Goats <p>&nbsp;The present experiment was carried out to find out the lymphocytes subsets reactions in experimentally induced subclinical paratuberculosis in goats. Twelve goats of 8-12 weeks age were infected with 4.23 x 10<sup>9</sup> Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis on 8 occasions. Seven goats were kept as in-contact controls and 4 as uninfected controls. Immunohitochemistry for detection of cellular reaction of CD2+, CD4+, CD8+, CD25+, MHC I and MHCII in the lymphocytes present in the intestine and lymph node revealed more reactive cells in the infected goats as compared with the in-contact and infected control goats.</p> U. M. Singh B. N. Tripathi O. P. Paliwal Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal Veterinary Association 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 36 1 7 10.3126/nvj.v36i0.27745 Epidemiology of Important Poultry Diseases in Nepal <p>&nbsp;Despite the rapidly growing poultry industry throughout Nepal, the periodic outbreaks of diseases and infections in poultry birds led to huge production loss. The aim of this study was to identify the top ten poultry diseases in Nepal and an analysis of their seasonal distributions. A cross-sectional study was performed to describe the distributions of major poultry diseases diagnosed from April 2018 to April 2019 at Central Veterinary Laboratory, Nepal. Out of 2358 observations recorded at the CVL registry at that period, only 2271 observations qualified for the final analysis. Among 2271, removing the missing values, only 1915 observations were used to describe bird characteristics such as median age and mean flock sizes. Descriptive analysis and graphical representation was performed in R studio (Version 1.0.143) and MS excel 2010 respectively. The top ten diseases identified with highest to lowest incidence were: colibacillosis 26% (584/2271), mycotoxicosis 13% (301/2271), ascites 10% (232/2271), complicated chronic respiratory disease (cCRD) 9% (196/2271), infectious bursal disease (IBD) 7% (155/2271), Newcastle disease (ND) 7% (148/2271), avian influenza (AI) 3% (76/2271), salmonellosis 2% (40/2271), infectious bronchitis 1% (33/2271), coccidiosis 1% (25/2271) and non-specific diseases accounts for 21% (481/2271). Cases of colibacillosis were predominant all year round. Mycotoxicosis was seen mostly during pre-monsoon and monsoon season. Ascites and IBD were common during spring and winter seasons. cCRD was most common during summer and winter months. AI kept changing the disease outbreak pattern but it was most common during spring and summer. The number of cases of Salmonella, IB and coccidiosis were not sufficient to provide the seasonal trend. Identification of common poultry disease and their seasonal distributions is useful in taking preventive measures such as vaccination and good management practices to minimize their incidence in the future.</p> T. R. Gompo U. Pokhrel B. R. Shah D. D. Bhatta Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal Veterinary Association 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 36 8 14 10.3126/nvj.v36i0.27746 Field Verification Trial of ND I-2 Vaccine in Nepal <p>&nbsp;A study was conducted to assess the overall performance of ND I-2 vaccine in Nepalese context to prevent Newcastle disease (ND) particularly in backyard chicken. The experimental studies were conducted at Animal Health Research Division (AHRD), NARC and field verification were carried out in different eco-zones of the country. Experiments were divided in three segments: evaluation of thermostability, longevity and field verification trial in backyard chickens. The ND I-2 vaccine was prepared at Central Biological Production Laboratory (CBPL), Tripureshwor. In thermostability evaluation antibody titer and mortality percentage showed that ND I-2 vaccine exposed up to 30°C for seven days was found effective in prevention of Newcastle Disease in village chickens. Evaluation of longevity of immunity showed that till 90 days there was protective immunity against ND and in field trials when vaccine delivered without maintaining cold chain, the vaccine gave protective immunity in mid hills and high hills region but not enough immunity in the terai region where the temperature was above 30° Celsius. This study clearly indicated that thermostable ND I-2 vaccine can be used without cold chain in high hills and mid hills in all seasons and only in winter season in the terai region of Nepal (temp. less than 30°C). In summer season, vaccination in the terai region could not give protective immunity (temp. more than 30°C) without maintaining cold chain.</p> M. P. Acharya S. K. Adhikari H. Awasthi A. Jha U. M. Singh Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal Veterinary Association 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 36 15 22 10.3126/nvj.v36i0.27748 Demonstration of Circulating Antibodies of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis in Cattle of Rupandehi District, Nepal <p>Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subspp. paratuberculosis, is a chronic intestinal infection of global importance in mainly domestic and wild ruminants. The main objective of the study was to find out the seroprevalence of Paratuberculosis in cattle of Rupandehi district. The research was conducted from October 2016 to December 2016. A total of 184 blood samples were collected from Jugular vein of cattle and tested by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The Paratuberculosis Indirect Screening Test Kit was developed by ID. Vet, France. Cattle with history of chronic diarrhoea and emaciation were taken as study population along with other cattle in close association with them. Overall seroprevalence in Rupandehi district was found to be 4.89%. No significant relation of paratuberculosis was found with age, breed, parity, body condition score and location. Higher prevalence was found in cattle of older age and low body condition score. The result of this study reports the presence of bovine paratuberculosis in cattle of Rupandehi district.</p> M. L. Sharma M. Prajapati Y. Panth Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal Veterinary Association 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 36 23 29 10.3126/nvj.v36i0.27749 Study on Status of Fish Diseases in Nepal <p>Fisheries play an important role in increasing the Nepalese economy as well as sustaining livelihood of some ethnic groups of our country. With the increased demand of fish, pisciculture have also increased to a great extend. Due to the rise in fish culture, there has been also rise in fish diseases. The study aims to investigate different parasitic, bacterial, fungal diseases in fish and to suggest treatment to control the diseases in four different fish farm of Nepal. A cross- sectional qualitative method was used to collect data from four selected fish farm (Kakani, Trishuli, Begnas, Mirmi) of Nepal. Infected fishes were transferred to the lab in oxygen filled plastic bags and further tested for bacterial, fungal and parasitic infection. The result of the study indicates that Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome was the most common bacterial-fungal disease that had a significant impact on common carp fish especially in Trishuli, Begnas and Mirmi. Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria spp was found to be a growing problem in rainbow trout farming (Kakani, Nuwakot) infecting intestine, liver, gut and skin causing yellow diarrhea and skin lesions. Trichodina was observed number one problematic parasitic in carp culture not only in government farm like Begnas and Mirmi, but also in commercial farms in most of the fishery areas of the country. Fin rot were more commonly reported during winter months affecting common carp, Silver carp, Bighead carp, Fingerling Fish causing fin erosion in them. Ascites in brood fishes (Trishuli) was noticed which may be due to bacterial infection and due to nutritional deficiency. Besides this, white spot in the gills (a protozoan parasitic disease) was perceived and to control it Neodox with Formalin (150ppm) was used and was found to be very effective. This study also identified some fish health management related problems in fish farms of Nepal such as lack of assistance, poor technical knowledge, and lack of suitable diagnostic laboratory and their proper use.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> S. P. Shrestha P. Bajracharya A Rayamajhi S. P. Shrestha Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal Veterinary Association 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 36 30 37 10.3126/nvj.v36i0.27750 Toxoplasmosis in Cats and Its Zoonotic Potential in and Around Bangladesh Agricultural University Campus <p>Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease, occurs in almost all warm blooded animals including human beings and is caused by a global protozoan intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. It is estimated that one third of the world human population have been infected by this parasite. This protozoan causes a significant public health problem in humans and imposes considerable economic losses and damages to livestock. The final host is cat, Feliscatus, accounts for all of these significant burdens. Hence the present study was designed to determine the prevalence rate of T. gondii infection in cats and also to analyze the associated factors that were potential for human beings and livestock as well in the period from September 2014 to August 2016. Altogether 254 faecal samples from cat and 390 water samples were collected from Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU) campus, farm and residential areas of BAU and were examined for presence of T. gondii oocysts at Department of Parasitology, BAU Mymensingh. The overall prevalence of T. gondii was 4.03% (26/644). Presence of T. gondii oocysts in faecal and water samples were 5.5% (14/254) and 3.08% (12/390), respectively. Adult cats had higher (6.7%) prevalence than young cats (3.8%). Summer season was found high prevalence (6.7%) of oocysts in cat faeces. Similarly drain water found higher positivity (6.67%) of oocysts. Therefore, this study concluded that the cats are contaminating the environment by shedding oocysts and then other animals can get the infection from grazing of contaminated grasses and drinking water. So eating undercooked goat, sheep and cattle meat; eating contaminated vegetables and drinking contaminated water are major sources for getting toxoplasmosis to human beings. Hence this disease has great zoonotic importance around BAU campus and therefore it is essential to create public awareness.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> R. P. Sah Md. H. Talukder A.K.M. Anisur Rahman Md B. Hossain Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal Veterinary Association 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 36 38 45 10.3126/nvj.v36i0.27751 Controlled Internal Drug Release (CIDR) Based Hormonal Protocols Effect upon Estrus Response and Pregnancy Outcome in Anestrous Cows <p>&nbsp;Controlled internal drug release (CIDR) based hormonal protocols CoSynch + CIDR, OvSynch + CIDR and CIDR + PGF2α were applied to 25 crossbred anestrous Holstein and Jersey cows to improve the fertility at the farm of National Cattle Research Programme, Rampur, Chitwan. All three protocols were found equally effective (P&gt;0.05) with 100% estrus expression rate, out of which, 80% (8/10), 85.7% (6/7) and 75% (6/8) had estrus expression with well cervix open at fixed time artificial insemination in CoSynch + CIDR, OvSynch + CIDR and CIDR + PGF2α protocols respectively and rest had estrus expression with partial cervix open. Statistically non-significant (P&gt;0.05) pregnancy outcome that is 14.3 % (1/7) in CIDR+PGF2α group and 12.5 % (1/8) in OvSynch group while none in CoSynch + CIDR group were pregnant following fixed time artificial insemination. Poor pregnancy outcome of the anestrous cows in all protocols might not only have hormonal problem but also could have various other reasons which was beyond the objective of this research findings. Hence, study concludes anestrous cows respond well to the CIDR based hormonal protocols to revive the estrus.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> A. K. Sah Y. R Pandeya L. R Pathak G. Gautam Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal Veterinary Association 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 36 46 52 10.3126/nvj.v36i0.27752 Study on Calf Morbidity and Mortality on Farm Condition with Special Emphasis on Colibacillosis <p>Diarrhoea in farm animals, especially in neonatal calves is one of the most challenging clinical syndromes encountered by practicing large animal’s veterinary practitioners throughout the world. Therefore looking into the complexity of early age calf diarrhea primarily due to E. coli, the present study was conducted in different dairy farm in Sylhet Sadar in order to determine the major cause and risk factor associated with calf morbidity and mortality due to colibacillosis. The main result revealed that out of 121 calves different ages were selected where calf manifesting the characteristics clinical sign of colibacillosis. From thirteen dairy farms in Sylhet sadar out of 121 samples 75 were observed affected with colibacillosis. The overall morbidity of calf colibacillosis was 61.98% and mortality were 00.00%. Data analysis showed that the calf colibacillosis in dairy farms due to many factors such as age was the only risk factor (calf factor) which was highly significantly (χ2 = 13.003, P-value = 0.000) washing of udder just before sucking milk to calf was statistically highly significant (χ2 = 7.373, P-value = 0.007) which means washing of udder just before sucking milk to calf lowers the calf morbidity due to colibacillosis. Milk replacer sanitation was statistically significant (χ2 = 6.5, P-value = 0.011) water supply to the calf was statistically significant (χ2 = 4.247, P-value = 0.039) which means hygienic water supply to calf lowers the calf morbidity due to colibacillosis. Proper drainage system (χ2 = 4.069, P-value = 0.044) and daily use of disinfectant in farm premises (χ2 = 6.163, P-value = 0.013). The mortality of calf due to colibacillosis was null because of proper treatment, knowledge of management of diseased calf and availability of veterinarians. Morbidity and mortality of calf colibacillosis in different dairy farm at Sylhet sadarUpazila were 61.98% and 0.00% respectively.</p> A. K. Singh Md. R. Islam R. K. Adhikari Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal Veterinary Association 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 36 53 59 10.3126/nvj.v36i0.27753 Prevalence of Helminths in Wild Asian Elephant and Indian Rhinoceros in Chitwan and Bardia National Park, Nepal <p>&nbsp;The Nepalese elephant (Elephas maximus maximus) and rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), are an important part of Nepal’s heritage, culture and wildlife conservation. Despite its importance, not much is known about the helminth parasites that affect elephant and rhinoceros. This study investigates the prevalence of helminth parasites in wild Asian Elephant and wild Indian Rhinoceros.A study was conducted from November 2011 to April 2012 to screen helminth parasites of wild asian elephant and wild Indian Rhinoceros at Chitwan and Bardia National Park of Nepal. Total of 80 samples, 40 each taken from the Wild Asian Elephants and Indian Rhinoceros. The study showed 88.75% overall prevalence of helminthes. The prevalence in Wild Asian Elephant and Indian Rhinoceros was 95% and 82.5% respectively. 97.37% and 72.73% infection were mixed infections in elephant and rhinoceros respectively.Among 38 positive samples of the elephant of CNP and BNP, 9 different types of helminth eggs were found. 15 (39.47%) were positive for Fasciola Spp. With 450 EPG count, 11 (28.95%) for Paramphistomum spp. with 600 EPG, 27 (71.05%) for Schistosoma spp. with 500 EPG, 3 (7.89%) for Dicrocoelium spp. with 900 EPG, 12 (30.16%) for Moniezia spp. with 433.3 EPG, 17 (44.74%) for Oesophagostomum spp. with 1025 EPG, 10 (26.31%) for Chabartia spp. with 1141.65 EPG, 17 (44.74) for Strongyloides spp. with 15558.335 EPG and 23 (60.53%) for Strongylus spp. with 1700 EPG.Similarly out of the 33 positive samples of Rhinoceros of CNP and BNP, 8 different types of helminth eggs were found. 11 (33.33%) were positive for Fasciola Spp. With 558.34 EPG, 10 (30.30%) for Paramphistomum spp. with 525 EPG, 7 (21.21%) for Schistosoma spp. with 475 EPG, 4 (12.12%) for Moniezia spp. with 650 EPG, 6 (18.18%) for Strongyloides spp. with 1466.67 EPG, 4 (12.12%) for Strongylus spp. with 1625 EPG, 9 (27.27%) for Toxocara spp. with 699.98 EPG and 20 (60.61%) for Trychostrongylus spp. with 1149.98 were found to be positive.</p> M. K. Shahi K. P. Gairhe Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal Veterinary Association 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 36 60 74 10.3126/nvj.v36i0.27755 Welfare Status and Type of Floor Associated with Hock Lesions in Dairy Cattle of University, Research and Private Farm of Chitwan District <p>This research is an investigation of the prevalence of, and factors associated with, hock lesions on dairy cattle of University, Research and Private farm of Chitwan district. Cemented floor (n = 141), Muddy floor (27), Floor with Mat (35) and brick paved floored animals (n = 33) were visited. Cows were scored for hock (tarsus) lesions on a 3 point scale combining the attributes ofhair loss, broken skin, and swelling. Type of farm (University, Research and Private) and type of floor measures were taken which were hypothesized to be risk factors for lesions. On university (AFU), research (NARC) and private farms the mean level prevalence of hock lesions was 1.827±0.384, 1.4±0.4905 and 1.465±0.68 respectively. On cemented floor, muddy floor, floor with rubber mat and brick paved floor, the mean prevalence of hock lesions was 1.63±0.489, 1.0165±0.577, 1.343±0.481 and 1.83±0.44 respectively. In conclusion muddy floor was associated with reduced hock lesions scoring compared to cemented, brick and rubber mat.</p> R. Jha Y. B. Gurung D. K. Singh Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal Veterinary Association 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 36 75 80 10.3126/nvj.v36i0.27756 Studies on Factors Affecting Pregnancy Rate after Treatment of Anestrus Buffaloes in Chitwan District <p>This study was designed to determine the effects of age, parity, feeding practice, body condition score (BCS), blood nutritional parameters, types of anoestrus, and length of anoestrus on pregnancy rate of anoestrus buffaloes after their treatment with ovsynch protocol followed by fixed time artificial insemination. Blood samples were collected on the day ovsynch protocol and analyzed. The mean values of the nutritional parameters between different groups were compared by Students t test and pregnancy rate was compared by Fisher’s exact test or Chi-square test. The overall pregnancy rate in buffaloes was 28.6%, when checked on day 41 and 64.3% on day 102 of FTAI. Blood glucose, cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus level was found to be significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) in pregnant than in non-pregnant buffaloes. Pregnancy rate was higher in silent estrus buffaloes. Buffaloes with BCS ≥3 had higher pregnancy rate than those with BCS &lt; 3. Similarly, pregnancy rate was higher in lactating than in non lactating buffaloes. While young buffaloes of age &lt;10 year responded better than old buffaloes of age ≥10 year. Buffaloes which were free from gastrointestinal parasitic infection had higher pregnancy rate. In conclusion, ovsynch protocol produces a good pregnancy in anoestrus buffaloes; however state of true anoestrus, older age and poor BCS with poor nutritional management adversely affect the pregnancy outcome. The role of blood nutritional parameters requires further clarification.&nbsp;</p> N. Chapagain B. Devkota G. Gautam S. K. Sah Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal Veterinary Association 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 36 81 92 10.3126/nvj.v36i0.27758 Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Bovine Viral Diarrhea in Improved Cattle of Chitwan, Nawalpur and Rupandehi Districts of Nepal <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) in improved dairy cattle of Chitwan, Nawalpur and Rupandehi Districts of Nepal. Altogether 92 blood samples were aseptically collected from jugular vein of cattle and transferred to clot activator tube and transported to National Cattle Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan. This cross sectional study was carried out from Mangsir to Magh of 2075 B.S using purposive sampling Serum separation was done by centrifugation @3500 for 5 minutes. The serum was stored at -20°C till ELISA test was done. Serological analysis was done according to the protocol of BVD Ab ELISA kit. Data were analyzed using Ms excel and SPSS version 20.0.The seroprevalence of BVD Virus was found to be 7.76%. Provided that no history of vaccination against BVD in cattle was done in the study area, seropositive was due to natural infection. Geographic location as well as sampling method might have contributed to this result. The result indicated lower prevalence along with no statistical significance to breed and age risk factors undertaken during the research. However significant association was observed between abortion history and seropositivity. Hence, there is a need of further research to identify the disease burden and its impact in the agricultural gross domestic products (AGDP).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> A. Thapa M. P. Acharya R. Raut S. Rimal Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal Veterinary Association 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 36 93 97 10.3126/nvj.v36i0.27760 Taenia solium Prevalence in Nepal: A Retrospective Review <p>&nbsp;Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode parasite which causes cysticercosis in human and porcine cysticercosis in pigs. The infective stage of T. solium develops in pig while that of T. saginata develop in cattle and buffalo. The adult stages of T. solium are obligatory intestinal parasites for man. In humans the cysticercus larvae commonly encyst in the brain, causing neurocysticercosis. The disease was first described in pig by Aristophanes and Aristotle in 3rd century B.C. In Nepal, Taenia cysts were observed for first time in pork meat slaughtered in Kangeswari, Kathmandu more than 30 years ago. T. solium is the cause of 30% of epilepsy cases in many endemic areas where people and roaming pigs live in close proximity. More than 50 million of the world’s populations are infected worldwide and 50000 die from Neurocysticercosis yearly. In Nepal, the prevalence ranges from 0.002-0.1% in general population. Accurate diagnosis required detailed post mortem examination involving slicing of affected tissue to determine the viability of cysts. Cysticerci occur most commonly in striated muscles tissues and brain of pigs. The application of vaccination with TSOL18 recombinant vaccine along with oral medication of oxfendazole can reduces the transmission by pigs whereas use of niclosamide is found effective in humans. Hence the use of medication eventually reduces the incidence of neurocysticercosis in human and procine cysticercosis in pigs.</p> B. K C K. Kaphle Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal Veterinary Association 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 36 98 104 10.3126/nvj.v36i0.27761 Antibiogram Pattern of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus spp. Isolates from Broiler Chicken <p>&nbsp;This study was conducted on clinical cases of broiler chicken brought at National Avian Disease Investigation Laboratory (NADIL) and Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Agriculture and Forestry University during the period of December, 2018 to April, 2019. The study was aimed to find the antibiogram pattern of Escherichia coli, Salmonella species and Staphylococcus species. A total of 50 ill broiler liver samples were collected and inoculated in Nutrient Agar, XLD agar Mac-Conkey agar, EMB Agar and Mannitol Salt Agar and incubated for 24 hours at 370C. During microbiological examination, prevalence of E.coli was 36 %, Salmonella species was 2% and Staphylococcus species was 8% where as mixed infection was 40%. Antibiogram profile for E. coli isolates were sensitive to Amikacin (88.89%) followed by Colistin (66.67%), Ciprofloxacin (50%), Levofloxacin (42.10%) and Gentamycin (27.78%) while Ceftriaxone (11.11%) and Tetracycline (11.11%) was recorded as least sensitive, for Salmonella species isolates were highly sensitive to Amikacin (100%) and other remaining antibiotics; Ceftriaxone , Gentamicin, Levofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Colistin and Tetracycline were observed to be resistant and for Staphylococcus spp. isolates were sensitive to Amikacin (75%) followed by Gentamicin (25%) , Levofloxacin (25%), and Ciprofloxacin (25%) while Tetracycline and Colistin were resistant. In the conclusion, it is strongly recommended to decrease the unethical use of antibiotics to minimize the development of resistance strain of microbes in the future.</p> S. Khanal M. Kandel M. P. Shah Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal Veterinary Association 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 36 105 110 10.3126/nvj.v36i0.27763 Pregnancy Diagnosis with Progesterone ELISA Kit in Farm Animals, Its Accuracy and Application <p>&nbsp;Pregnancy is a special condition where a female lodges one or more young ones within her uterus. It is maintained by various endocrine physiology and metabolic changes between maternal and fetal circumstances. Space dine secreted by corpus luteum increases extraordinarily throughout the pregnancy, estrogen increases rapidly during first trimester and prolonged lifespan of corpus luteum and small quantity of estrogen prevents prostaglandins pulsatic secretion. We reviewed available literature to evaluate the accuracy of progesterone ELISA test kit in pregnancy diagnosis in farm animals. We found varying accuracy in global and Nepalese context but found that this is an important tool for early pregnancy diagnosis and infertility monitoringwith high accuracy which contributes to increase economic efficiency of a farm. This kit has been used for qualitative and quantitative study of progesterone to understand the reproductive status of animals. Therefore, its use is increasing in globally and in Nepal. This kit has been used at various breeding centers, and livestock service centers of Nepal. However, wider level use is still difficult due to lack of infrastructuresand subsistence farming.</p> Sambriddhi Nepal Deepak Subedi Krishna Kaphle Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal Veterinary Association 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 36 111 117 10.3126/nvj.v36i0.27764 Factors Leading to Early Embryonic Death <p>&nbsp;Early embryonic death is defined as the loss of embryo or conceptus which occurs between fertilization and 15 days post insemination. Early embryonic death leads to reproductive failure in animals resulting in reduced pregnancy rates, slower genetic improvement and substantial impact on farm profitability. Early embryonic death is an eloquent limiting factor for the completion of pregnancy in animals (Inskeep and Dailey, 2005). Incidence of embryonic losses is usually higher than perinatal losses. Notably, fetal development may or may not have affected by maternal infections during pregnancy (Givens and Marley, 2008). Early embryonic death occurs before the fetal calcification. Complete resorption of the embryo is usually seen during early embryonic death (Wrathall, 1975). Embryonic or fetal death leads to resorption, mummification, maceration or abortion. Gestational age, cause of death, and source of progesterone for pregnancy maintenance are the factors that impacts the outcome of the embryonic or fetal death (Givens and Marley, 2008). Most often, early embryonic death, post implantation is due to the uterine environment rather than fetal development (Clark et al., 1986). Dead embryos, between the time of implantation and calcification, are also resorbed. If the entire litter is lost, the dam will return to service at an irregular interval, usually 5 to 10 days post pregnancy loss (Wrathall, 1975) and pregnancy is continued if even a single number of embryo remains (Christianson, 1992). In a farm or within a particular litter, more than one type of embryo or fetal death can be found, but accurate classification is important for further better investigation (Christianson, 1992). Diagnosis is usually very difficult; as the agent or cause of embryonic death is no longer present while investigation is taking place. So, it is important to be aware of variety of causes of embryonic death that helps to rule out the particular problems that can be diagnosed and treated (Christianson, 1992). Proper history such as vaccination status, feed changes, housing, environmental temperature and so forth should be&nbsp;taken, that helps to narrow down the potential list of problems to consider and root cause can be found.</p> B. R. Shah Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal Veterinary Association 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 36 118 125 10.3126/nvj.v36i0.27765 Bacterial Assessment of Ready to Eat Sweet (Burfi) Sold in Different Sweet Houses in Narayangadh, Chitwan: A Pilot Study <p>As a sweet product, burfi is highly esteemed by Nepalese consumer and kept in high priority from the time immemorial. However, the milk and milk products borne outbreaks account for 2 to 6 % of bacterial foodborne outbreaks in several countries. Hence, with an objective to determine the bacterial load of the commercial sweet (burfi) sold in Bharatpur metropolitan city 1, Narayangadh, Chitwan, a cross-sectional study was conducted. Ten sample of ready to eat sweet (Burfi) along with the packaging material were collected purposively from different sweet shops of Bharatpur metropolitan on January 2019. The preparation of samples was done as per Food Microbiology Protocols (2001) and the aerobic colony count (ACC) was determined by spread plate technique using plate count agar. It was found that the aerobic plate count of burfi sample ranges from 9.1×10<sup>9</sup> to 1.5×10<sup>10</sup> CFU/g with an average of 1.2×10<sup>10</sup> CFU/g, which is higher than the permissible Standard Plate Count according to Indian Standards Institution (ISI) specification. In conclusion, the high bacterial count in Burfi samples from different sweet shops indicates insufficient hygienic condition duration handling and unhygienic conditions of storage. This may give rise to public health hazard.</p> H. B. Basnet M. Deubanjar Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal Veterinary Association 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 36 126 129 10.3126/nvj.v36i0.27766 Prevalence of Dirofilaria and Hemato-biochemical Effect in Street Dogs of Kathmandu Valley and Siddharthanagar Municipality, Bhairahawa, Nepal <p>&nbsp;A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of dirofilariosis in street dogs of Kathmandu valley and Siddharthanagar, Rupandehi from January 2019 to March 2019. .Blood sample from 155 dogs of Kathmandu Valley and 150 from Siddharthanagar municipality were collected and examined by Wet Smear, Modified Knott Technique and Buffy Coat methods. PCV value and biochemical parameters were analyzed. Data were analyzed to determine the Prevalence of Dirofilaria and correlation of infections with age, sex and biochemical parameters. The prevalence in Kathmandu valley was 0% (0/156) while the prevalence in Siddharthanagar was 19.33%., while the prevalence in direct smear, buffy coat and modified Knott technique were found to be 16%, 16% and 19.33% respectively. The prevalence were significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher in old age and higher in 3-5 years of age i.e. 51.70%..Prevalence was higher in female (21.70%) than male (17.3%).AST and ALT were significantly (p&lt;0.05) increased in infected dogs. Total protein, ALP, BUN, Creatinine level were elevated in the infected dogs.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> S. Rimal A. Adhikari K. Khadka B. Thapa R. Acharya Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal Veterinary Association 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 36 130 136 10.3126/nvj.v36i0.27767 Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens (Cobb 500) Feed on Different Level of Organic Acids Inclusion in Diet at Parwanipur <p>&nbsp;An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of different level of organic acids on productive traits, carcass yields and body parts (Thigh, Back, Neck, wings and Breast) of broiler chicken. This experiment was conducted at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Parwanipur, Bara for 41 days to test the effect of organic acids inclusion in broiler feed and its effect on growth performance and carcass study. Altogether 225 day old Cobb-500 broiler birds were procured from Shivam Hatchery, Birgung and divided into 5 treatments with 3 replications (15 birds in each replication) by using completely randomized design. Concentrate feed was purchased from Posak Feed industry, Birgung. Control group (T1) was feed without organic acid inclusion and whereas T2, T3, T4 and T5 groups were fed concentrate mixture mixed with different combination of organic acids @ 400ml/ per 100 kg feed, respectively. Experimental birds were provided adlib amount of grower feed (B1) for 21 days and that after finisher feed (B3) for 20 days and had easily access to drinking water. Feed intake was recorded daily and body weight gain was measured in 7 days interval. Experiment revealed that highest weight gain was observed in T2 (2.6 kg) followed by T3 (2.5) where combination of organic acids were formic acid 65% + propionic acid 35% and formic acid 65% and citric acid 35%, respectively, however, it was not significant among diet groups. From every treatment group each birds were selected for carcass and body parts study. The study showed significant difference (P&lt;0.5) in carcass quantity and body parts of the birds between the treatment groups. The dressing percentage of T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 were 68.96%, 67.87%, 70.38%, 69.88% and 69.67% respectively. Experiment suggested that further study should be carried out to precise the appropriate level of organic acids inclusion and higher cost benefit ratio.</p> A. K. Jha Md. H. Azad Md.S. N. Ali P. Alam N. Sheikh H. Ali K. Ansari Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal Veterinary Association 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 36 137 147 10.3126/nvj.v36i0.27773 Inclusion of Different Level of Khesari for Promotion in Broiler <p>An experiment was conducted at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Parwanipur, Bara for 38 days to test the effect of Khesari leaves inclusion in broiler feed and its effect on growth performance. Altogether 135 day-olds Cobb-500 broiler birds were procured from Shivam Hatchery, Birgung and divided into 3 treatments with 3 replications (15 birds in each replication) by using completely randomized design. Concentrate feed was purchased from Posak Feed industry, Birgung. Control group (T1) was fed without inclusion of Khesari leaves and whereas T2 and T3 groups were fed 5% and 10 % Khesari leaves added feed respectively. Diet replaced with 5 % and 10 % Khesari leaves were offered from 14th day of trial to T2 and T3 broilers group respectively. Experimental birds were provided adlib amount of grower feed (B1) for 21 days and that after finisher feed (B3) for 21 days and had easily access to drinking water. Feed intake was recorded daily and body weight gain was measured in 7 days interval. Experiment revealed that highest weight gain was observed in T3 (2.55 kg) followed by T1 (2.48) where inclusion of 10 % Khesari leaves and normal feed respectively, which was also significant among diet groups. Similarly, highest cumulative feed intake was also observed for T3 (4.23 kg) followed by T1 (3.90 kg) which was also significant among diet groups. Experiment suggested that further study should be carried out to precise the appropriate level of organic acids inclusion and higher cost benefit ratio.</p> Md. H. Azad M. R. Tiwari N. R. Poudel B. M. Shah B. K. J.C G. P. Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal Veterinary Association 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 36 148 156 10.3126/nvj.v36i0.27774 Monitoring of Serological Status in Response to PPR Vaccination in the Goat Population of Parbat, Baglung and Myagdi District of Nepal <p>&nbsp;Peste des Petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious trans-boundary animal disease associated with 100% morbidity and 80-90% mortality in goat herds. The study was carried out to assess the immune status against PPRV in unvaccinated and post vaccinated flock as well as immune response as it relates to age, sex and breed using a homologous tissue culture PPR vaccine produced by National Vaccine Production Laboratory, Kathmandu, Nepal. A total 276 blood samples were randomly collected from different regions of Parbat, Baglung and Myagdi districts with a population of 0.0189 million goats. Out of these, 214 goats were vaccinated one month earlier and 62 were unvaccinated. PPR antibody was detected by using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) (ID Screen, PPR competition test kit, IDvet France). Of the unvaccinated goats, 25.8% (16/62) were sero-positive suggesting prior exposure to PPRV. In the vaccinated goats, 75.2% (161/214) were sero-positive and 2.8% (6/214) animals were doubtful, suggesting a significant proportion failed to respond to vaccination. The competition percentage (S/N%±SD) of post-immunization (49.19±32.19) were significantly (p&lt;0.01) lower in comparison to the respective unvaccinated mean titre (75.76±35.51). There is no significant effect of age, sex or breed on the antibody titre value in PPR vaccinated animals. The sero-prevalence of PPR in unvaccinated animals suggested that these flocks are in high susceptibility to PPR outbreak and needs an implementation of control measures to reduce economic losses. Vaccination will increase the proportion of animals with a protective antibody level, however more investigation needs to be done to determine why almost one-quarter of animals failed to seroconvert to vaccination. Further detailed study is needed to find out the risk factors responsible for low prevalence of antibody against PPRV in the immunized flock.</p> B. Regmi I. Dhakal M. K. Shah K. R. Pande Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal Veterinary Association 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 36 157 162 10.3126/nvj.v36i0.27775 Helminth Parasites of Pigs and Development of Suitable Strategy for Its Control <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;">The study aimed to formulate the suitable development strategies to control helminthiasis in pig by understanding the nature of the epidemiological pattern that is yet to exploit to further enhance its productivity. A longitudinal study was done to find the general prevalence pattern of helminth parasites from June/ July 2017 to May/June 2018 in the research farm of Swine and Avian Research Program, Khumaltar. A total of 50 animals of different age groups were considered for the study and they were deprived of antihelminthic treatment throughout the study period. The fecal samples were collected at 3-4 months interval and EPG was done as per the standard protocol. Three different groups of antihelminthic were used including a control group as different treatments and they were assigned as T1- Pyrantel pamoate, T2- Benzimidazoles, T-3 Imidazothiazole, and T-4 Control. The EPG was done for at least 3-week post-treatment. The result of this study showed the significant effect of the season (p&lt;0.05) as a high prevalence of roundworms especially Ascaris (60%) and Strongylus (40%) during June/ July with more than 30 cases. However, a slight increase in parasitic prevalence was seen in September/October and Jan/Feb too. Similarly, all the antihelminthics used were 100% effective (p&gt;0.05) against these roundworms. The female and young groups of animals showed remarkable symptoms of parasitic infections compared to the male ones. In conclusion, the different groups of drugs demonstrated very satisfactory performances in terms of the removal of parasites for good health of pigs and these should be given at 3-4 months interval as routine deworming schedule.</p> N. Baskota S. P. Shrestha Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal Veterinary Association 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 36 163 169 10.3126/nvj.v36i0.27776 Dog: A Friendly Pathway to Zoonoses <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;Canis lupus familaris (Dog); a companion animal or even considered man’s best friend is believed to have been living in harmony with humans since thousands of years. Recent discovery in Chauvet cave in France: foot print of 8-year-old boy alongside the paw print is believed to have been dated back to Paleolithic period. Reports even suggest that pet owners are less prone to high cholesterol and high blood pressure than the non-pet owners. However, dogs are also the major reservoir of various zoonotic infections. Several bacterial, viral or protozoal diseases that occur in human are transmitted from the dogs. Such diseases are known as zoonotic diseases. These diseases can be transmitted by simple contact with the infected dogs or by infected urine or feces, saliva or aerosols. Viral infections such as rabies and noro virus, bacterial infection such as pasteurellosis, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, leptospirosis and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections and protozoal infections like ancylostomiasis, toxocariasis and Dipylidium caninum infection are the most common zoonotic infections. This paper focuses on these diseases including information on signs and symptoms, mode of transmission and prevention of these diseases. As much as these infections are concerned, knowledge boosting of the pet owners regarding zoonotic disease along with proper hygiene and good sanitation practices could considerably decline the rate of zoonoses transmission and consequences.</p> A. Pathak K. Kaphle Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal Veterinary Association 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 36 170 177 10.3126/nvj.v36i0.27777 Impact of Climate Change on Livestock Production <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;">Climate change is one of the global challenges of this century. There is increase in large number of climate related events. Livestock sector has also been affected by changing climate due to which there is increased loss of livestock assets and several other indirect losses. Some of the effects of climate change in livestock include thermal and cold stress, increased diseases incidences and decrease in the feed, fodder and water availability. This results in decreased animal production and productivity. he paper mainly reviews the impacts of climate change on livestock production.</p> A. Koirala P. Bhandari Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal Veterinary Association 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 36 178 183 10.3126/nvj.v36i0.27778 Editorial Vol.36 <p>Not available.</p> Narayan Prasad Ghimire Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal Veterinary Association 2019-12-01 2019-12-01 36 10.3126/nvj.v36i0.27744