https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ocemjmtss/issue/feed OCEM Journal of Management, Technology & Social Sciences 2024-01-30T09:41:22+00:00 Assoc. Prof. Rabindra Ghimire editor.jocem@oxfordcollege.edu.np Open Journal Systems <p>The OCEM Journal of Management, Technology &amp; Social Sciences is published by the Oxford College of Engineering &amp; Management (affiliated to Pokhara University), Research Department, Gaindakot-2, Nawalpur, Nepal. The journal evaluates the research methods of each article for validity and accepts articles solely based on the research. Likewise, by not restricting papers to a narrow discipline OCEM journal facilitates the discovery of the connexions between papers whether within or between disciplines.</p> https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ocemjmtss/article/view/62203 Embracing Open Access: The Role of OCEM Journal of Management, Technology & Social Sciences in Advancing Scientific Publication 2024-01-25T06:54:05+00:00 Rabindra Ghimire rabindrag.pu@gmail.com <p>The OCEM Journal of Management, Technology, and Social Sciences introduces a comprehensive model for journal editorial pages to augment scholarly publications' overall quality and impact. This model incorporates essential elements, including the composition of the editorial board, review processes, communication strategies, and fostering engagement with authors and readers. Embracing a systematic approach, the model strives to optimize editorial pages, catering to both traditional and online journal formats. The references to established literature and scholarly works are meticulously included, offering a robust foundation for the outlined framework to substantiate the proposed model. This section provides a brief overview of the journal, setting the stage <br>for the valuable content and discussions that follow.<br>The OCEM Journal of Management, Technology &amp; Social Sciences is a multidisciplinary, peer-reviewed journal that provides a platform for the integration of management, technology, and social sciences. The journal is committed to publishing high-impact research articles that contribute to the advancement of these fields. With a focus on fostering engagement and communication, the journal's comprehensive model for journal editorial pages aims to enhance the quality and relevance of scholarly publications. This structured abstract serves as a guide for authors, highlighting the journal's emphasis on rigorous review processes, diverse content, and a systematic approach to scholarly exchange.</p> 2024-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ocemjmtss/article/view/62208 Factors Influencing Undergraduate Students’ Motivation for Junk Food 2024-01-25T08:29:16+00:00 Sapana Pathak linksapana123@gmail.com Ashish Baral linksapana123@gmail.com Basanta Prasad Adhikari adhikaribasantaprasad@gmail.com <p>Consuming junk food is linked to several health problems, including obesity, diabetes, heart disease and cancer. The objective of this study was to examine the undergraduate students’ motivation for junk food. This study applied a quantitative research design to examine undergraduate students’ motivation towards junk food choices and the resulting contentment. A survey instrument was employed to collect comprehensive data on factors influencing student’s motivation, using a descriptive statistical analysis method. A representative sample of two hundred participants was selected through a simple random sampling technique. The results of this research indicate a positive association between prioritizing healthy and quality food and convenience food that tends to challenge a healthy diet and undergraduate students’ motivation for junk foods. The results further show a negative association between guardians’ influence, easy access to junk food, college regulations, attractive adds, health impact, the decision to buy junk food and motivation of undergraduate students on junk foods. The implications of this study would benefit policymakers, researchers, academicians, college leaders, teachers and faculty members of educational institutions to understand the current trends of undergraduate student on junk food consumption. Furthermore, the results add new literature on the motivation of junk foods among undergraduate students in the Neplese context. Future research is expected to examine the influencing factors to consume junk food in detail and large scale research.</p> 2024-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ocemjmtss/article/view/62221 Unveiling Motivational Factors Driving Nepali Students to Pursue Higher Education Abroad 2024-01-25T16:07:24+00:00 Ekta Baral baralekata@gmail.com Basanta Prasad Adhikari adhikaribasantaprasad@gmail.com Reena Gurung baralekata@gmail.com <p>Students pursuing foreign degrees are an increasing trend and this trend is a debatable phenomenon in Nepal; Nepali undergraduates prefer foreign degrees over Nepali ones. This article examined the significant factors influencing for Nepali undergraduates to decide on seeking foreign degrees. This study applied a quantitative research approach along with the survey to view the social reality and collect data from one hundred and forty-six participants planning to go abroad for their higher studies. The survey questionnaire was used as a data collection tool and a simple random sampling method was used for this study. Principal Component Analysis was used for dimension reduction and then binary logistic regression was applied to find the association the factor driving Nepali students seeking foreign degree and their motivation. The findings indicate a positive association between broader career options and Nepalese Bachelor level students pursuing foreign degrees. But the results indicate no association between comprehensive education, progressive curriculum, prospects and growth, social influence, diverse and unique exposure, and degree relevancy and their motivation. The study’s findings imply that considering the motivational factors identified, adopting a holistic approach to higher education in Nepal could provide better support for Nepali students seeking for abroad study. This approach would foster their personal and professional development and contribute significantly to Nepal’s overall progress and advancement.</p> 2024-01-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Authors and OCEM Journal of Management, Technology & Social Sciences https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ocemjmtss/article/view/62222 What Motivates People to Use Digital Transactions? The Dynamics of Subjective Norms, Perceived Behavior Control, Trust and Attitude 2024-01-25T16:25:07+00:00 Pradeep Acharya pradeep.acharya197@gmail.com Omkar Poudel omkar60475@gmail.com Daya Ram Simkhada dayasimkhada@gmail.com <p>The advancement of financial technologies has led customers to use digital transactions more and more with the passage of time. With this issue, the share of physical transactions based on cash and coins is decreasing, and more and more people are moving away from traditional payment methods to digital transaction methods. Thus, this study tends to foreground the factors impacting customer’s intention to use digital transactions. This research foregrounds on grasp the control of subjective norms, trust, behavior control, and attitude on the customer’s digital transaction intention. The population of the study was made up of customers and people using electronic transactions on a daily basis. The study adopted a quantitative approach, for which four hundred and four responses were collected through the online questionnaire, and the responses were analyzed using PLS-SEM model approach with Smart PLS 4.0. The exploration of the data concludes that there is a critical positive relation between attitude, perceived behavior control, and usage intention, whereas no significant relation among subjective norms, trust, and usage intention for digital transactions. The implications of this study would benefit to the businessmen, customers, industrialists and organizational leaders to understand the motivation of customers in the trend of digital transaction.</p> 2024-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ocemjmtss/article/view/62223 Exploring the Intersection of Multicultural Society and Chicken Tikka Masala in the U.K. 2024-01-25T16:33:18+00:00 Binod Baral binod.baral@doco.com Basanta Prasad Adhikari adhikaribasantaprasad@gmail.com <p>Chicken Tikka Masala is the national food of the U.K., which is considered to enhance as improving multicultural society in the U.K. This research explores the influence of national food (Chicken Tikka Masala) on multicultural society in the U.K. through a quantitative study involving two hundred and five participants, surveyed online. Factors reduction method was applied to group similar variables to produce principal components. Using principal component analysis and binary logistic regression, the research identifies a positive association between CTM’s cultural fusion and its contribution to a harmonious culinary fusion, positively impacting multicultural society in the U.K. However, no significant association is found between harmonious culinary fusion by CTM and its impact on multicultural society. The study highlights a noteworthy correlation between the expression and celebration of cultural backgrounds and the positive impact of CTM on enhancing multicultural society. Additionally, there is an association between cultural exchange, culinary creativity, and CTM’s impact on fostering multicultural society. Furthermore, the research underscores the significance of CTM in enriching multicultural society in the U.K., emphasizing the intricate association between food, culture, and societal harmony. The study highlights the need for a thoughtful cultural appreciation and preservation approach in the centre of culinary and cultural evolution. Overall, the examination of the intersection between multicultural society and Chicken Tikka Masala provides valuable insights into the cultural, social, economic, and identity-related dimensions of this widely celebrated dish, illustrating its power to bridge divides, create economic opportunities, and contribute to the cultural highlights of the nation.</p> 2024-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ocemjmtss/article/view/62225 Effect of Remittance on Rural Livelihood Among the Household Members of the Annapurna Rural Municipality, Kaski 2024-01-25T16:38:11+00:00 Mohan Prasad Sapkota mohansapkota24@gmail.com Dipak Sapkota mohansapkota24@gmail.com Gaurav Adhikari mohansapkota24@gmail.com Monika Sharma sociologistmonikasharma@gmail.com <p>The major portion of the Nepalese economy is based on agriculture. The country’s rural areas are home to almost 80% of the inhabitants, who are engaged in agriculture. People are compelled or forced to migrate due to a variety of reasons including poverty, desperation, unfair resource distribution, and a lack of opportunity. This study’s major goal is to determine how remittances affect the socio-economic aspects of households both before and after they receive remittances. The Bhadaure, Tamagi village at Ward number 4 of the Annapurna Rural Municipality is the place where the current study was carried out. Only 50 respondents out of 200 migrants working abroad were chosen at random as a sample of the study. The research method was a case study design, the quantitative data were collected using structured questionnaire where SPSS version 20 was used for data analysis. The objective of the study was to identify the impacts of remittances on the expenditure of migrant households and compare the position of remittance holders before and after receiving remittances. The findings of the study highlight the positive impact of remittance on the living standards of households. Many households were able to construct RCC buildings and buy land in which they were previously unable to construct due to financial constraints. There was also an improvement in household assets, electronic goods, and services after receiving remittances. Moreover, the results show that the health conditions of households had improved after receiving remittances. The findings indicate that remittance has a significant impact on the socioeconomic development of the study area, contributing to the improvement of the living standards and well-being of the households. Despite this, the government must ensure protection against labor exploitation and formulate appropriate policies for Nepalese laborers.</p> 2024-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ocemjmtss/article/view/62226 The Impact of the Induction Programme on New Teachers’ Retention Intention in Chitwan District Nepal 2024-01-25T16:45:37+00:00 Basanta Prasad Adhikari adhikaribasantaprasad@gmail.com Nilam Adhakari Rajak adhikaribasantaprasad@gmail.com <p>This study aimed to examine the impact of the key components of the induction programme on new teacher retention intention in Nepal. Specifically, it examined new teachers’ opinions, views, perceptions, and experiences of the induction programme’s key components and how they are related to gender and new teacher retention intention in the profession. This study used an integrated mixed methods approach with the simple random sampling method as a sampling strategy. In total, 250 new teachers were randomly selected from 15 private and 15 public schools in Chitwan district, Nepal. The response rate of the survey questionnaire was 84%. Eleven new teachers in total were selected to take part in the semi-structured interviews who also already participated in the survey study. The quantitative survey instrument was a self-administered Likert-type questionnaire which was developed based on the previous studies addressing the key components of the induction programme. Principal component analysis (PCA), Student’s t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Binary Logistic Regression analysis were used to analyze quantitative data, and the inductive content analysis method was applied to interpret the qualitative interview data. The results showed that 72% of new teachers stated their retention intention in the profession, and 28% stated their turnover intention, which is less than the international attrition rate of 30-50 %. The quantitative results further indicated that highly task-oriented school principal management behaviour, collegial support to increase content knowledge, high expectations of teacher performance, and emphasis on effective teaching skills have a negative association with new teachers’ retention intention in the profession. Conversely, collegial support for instructional skills, recognizing and comfortable working atmosphere, and well-working observation mechanisms have a positive association with new teachers’ retention intention in the profession. The qualitative results supported the quantitative results’ low mean values, indicating new teachers’ dissatisfaction with Nepalese induction support programme. Overall, the qualitative data contributes to a more comprehensive and nuanced understanding of the association between the perceptions of new teachers regarding the key components of the induction programme and their retention intention in the profession and validates the interpretations of the quantitative results. The findings of this study would be beneficial to school leaders, policymakers, and practitioners in finding appropriate solutions to the problem of new teacher attrition.</p> 2024-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ocemjmtss/article/view/62227 The Impact of Depression on Undergraduate Students’ Educational Performance: A Case of Nawalparasi and Chitwan Districts 2024-01-25T16:51:49+00:00 Manshi Poudel manshipoudel65@gmail.com Basanta Prasad Adhikari adhikaribasantaprasad@gmail.com <p>Depression is a growing concern among college students, including Nepalese students. Identifying its origin holds the potential to enhance mental health assistance and strategies, fostering a more supportive academic atmosphere. This research investigated the impact of depression on the academic performance of undergraduates. Employing a quantitative research approach, the survey questionnaire was used as the primary tool for data collection, and descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. The sample consisted of two hundred and one (N = 201) undergraduates selected from Oxford College of Engineering and Management, selected through random sampling to ensure representativeness. The results of this study show a positive association between academic stress and the impact of depression on undergraduate students’ educational performance. Further the results show a negative association between financial pressure and family relationship problems and the impact of depression on undergraduate students’ educational performance. However the result shows no association between the social isolation and the impact of depression on educational performance. This study’s implications would offer benefits to policymakers, teachers, parents, colleges, and universities alike in understanding the current issue of depression in undergraduate students’ performance. This study is limited to specific area, so we can’t strongly suggest to generalize the current results in other similar cases.</p> 2024-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ocemjmtss/article/view/62228 Impact of GDP and Inflation on Stock Market Performance in Nepal and Sri Lanka: A Comparative study of NEPSE and CSE index 2024-01-25T16:58:31+00:00 Satyendra Kushwaha satyendrakushwaha141@gmail.com Sarad Chandra Kafle sarad.kafle49@gmail.com <p>The stock market is a complex phenomena that can be influenced by a myriad of factors. However, gross domestic product and inflation rate are considered two most critical variables affecting the stock market’s performance. This research aims to investigate the impact of GDP and inflation on the volatility of stock exchange performance of Nepal and Sri Lanka by employing the Least Square Regression Approach. Both countries are situated in South Asia and boast agrarian-based economies. Additionally, they are renowned for their rich cultural heritage, ancient civilizations, and historical sites. As a result, this research is centred on investigating the unique aspects of these two nations. Time series data of closing stock of every fiscal year from 1997 to 2021 was collected from authentic online sources and analyzed with the help SPSS Version 20. The findings of this study indicate a significant influence of GDP and inflation on stock index of both countries (p-value &lt; 0.05). The analysis further indicates that the microeconomic variables accounted for 78.7% and 91.9% of the stock index variation for Nepal and Sri Lanka, respectively. Furthermore, the study finds a strong positive correlation between GDP and stock index of both countries, while inflation exhibits a weak negative correlation with the NEPSE index and a moderate negative correlation with the CSE index. Despite the focus on only two independent macroeconomic variables, this research highlights their significant impact on stock market performance. Policymakers and investors can leverage these findings to make informed decisions while navigating the complexities of the stock market.</p> 2024-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ocemjmtss/article/view/62229 An Educational Study Focused on the Application of Mixed Method Approach as a Research Method 2024-01-25T17:03:50+00:00 Ramesh Adhikari adhikaryramesh2020@gmail.com Tatwa Prasad Timsina tatwa.timsina@gmail.com <p>This paper introduces and analyses a mixed-methods approach and further analyses the strengths and limitations of the convergent parallel design in the educational research studies. Our study serves a valuable purpose in clear patterns, trends, and statistical association relevant to the impact of independent variables on dependent variables throughout the course of the study. Concurrently, this research design facilitates a holistic comprehension of the research problem by enabling a complicated examination from various perspectives. The analysis of this paper is based on books, articles, dissertations, and online papers where different research methods are applied in different studies. The analysis highlights that qualitative and quantitative data are collected simultaneously and independently in a convergent parallel mixed methods design. It is followed by integrating and comparing the two data types during the analysis and interpretation phase. The analysis further highlights that a quantitative survey could be administered to a larger population sample to collect numerical data based on the research questions and other relevant variables. The analysis also suggests that once the data collection is completed, the author should independently conduct separate analyses for the quantitative and qualitative data. The analysis signifies that quantitative analysis can cover descriptive statistics, inferential tests, and binary logistic regression analysis to analyze the quantitative data and identify significant associations between the independent and dependent variables. The qualitative data analysis method is content analysis to identify codes, key codes, subcategories, and main categories within the qualitative data. The analysis shows that during the integration phase, a comparative analysis has to be conducted between the quantitative and qualitative findings to identify convergence, divergence, and contrast points between the two data sets. The results highlight that a triangulation approach supports establishing a cohesive analysis, which involves exploring the interconnections and mutual reinforcement between the qualitative and quantitative outcomes in the same format with more clarity. The analysis of this integrated analytical effort is subsequently incorporated into the discussion section. The analysis further indicates that the convergent parallel design is one of the mixed methods designs. In this section, the author’s responsibility lies in elucidating the consequences and interpretations drawn from the integrated results, encompassing theoretical foundations and practical implications.</p> 2024-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ocemjmtss/article/view/62230 Performance Analysis of Semi-Automatic Solar Panel Cleaning System 2024-01-25T17:10:09+00:00 Samir Raj Bhandari bhandari.samirraj@gmail.com Aasish Chhetri bhandari.samirraj@gmail.com Anil Rai bhandari.samirraj@gmail.com Madan Rawal bhandari.samirraj@gmail.com Rabin Deub bhandari.samirraj@gmail.com <p>Solar energy has been one of the most promising energy sources since the 1990s. However, the efficiency of solar panels is reduced due to dust accumulation over modules, which blocks the incident light from the sun. The efficiency of a solar panel depends on various factors, such as the quality of the solar cells, the design of the panel, the temperature and intensity of the sunlight, and the presence of any shading or obstructions. High-efficiency solar panels can produce more electricity from the same amount of sunlight, resulting in higher energy production and cost savings over the system’s lifetime. The study used a semi-automatic cleaning mechanism, which is one of the recent developments made on automated cleaning systems of solar photovoltaic modules. Aims of this study is to improve the efficiency of solar panels by designing and implementing a semi-automatic dust-cleaning mechanism. This study found that the experimental model shows improved efficiency by about 7 percent. The study’s findings are consistent with previous research that emphasizes the importance of regular cleaning of solar panels to improve their efficiency and reliability. This research has important implications for improving the efficiency and reliability of solar energy systems. Solar panel owners can improve the profitability and sustainability of their system, leading to more widespread adoption of solar energy by optimizing the cleaning process and reducing maintenance costs.</p> 2024-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ocemjmtss/article/view/62231 Content Dimensions in Academic Decision-Making: Exploring Threats and Opportunities among Oxford College Undergraduates 2024-01-25T17:16:57+00:00 Hari Prasad Bhandari hari_ocem@hotmail.com <p>This study explores the critical role of information in shaping decision-making processes within the academic sphere, with a specific emphasis on the content dimensions of information. It endeavors to comprehensively examine the threats and opportunities inherent in the content dimensions of information and their impact on academic decision-making. This research adopted a random sampling approach, resulting in the inclusion of two hundred and twenty participants drawn from the student cohorts enrolled in the Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) and Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA) programmes at the esteemed Oxford College of Engineering and Management. Data collection was executed through meticulously designed questionnaires, and the subsequent analysis of the acquired data was conducted using descriptive statistical tools. The findings of this research reveal a substantial prevalence of office automation systems and Management Information Systems (MIS) in the resource of tools employed by students during their academic decision-making processes. Furthermore, this research investigation has unearthed noteworthy gender-based distinctions within the content dimensions, elucidating variations in the perceived accuracy and relevance of information among the study’s respondents. Additionally, this research has scrutinized the diverse perspectives surrounding improved learning outcomes and enhanced understanding, specifically concerning opportunities associated with the content dimensions of information. The collective results of this study underscore a consensus among the student body at Oxford College of Engineering and Management. A significant majority of respondents have expressed agreement, and in many cases, strong agreement, regarding the paramount importance of both threats and opportunities inherent in the content dimensions of information within the context of academic decision-making processes. These findings contribute to a deeper understanding of the intricate dynamics at play in the academic realm, shedding light on the multifaceted nature of information’s influence on decision-making processes in this specific educational context.</p> 2024-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ocemjmtss/article/view/62232 Assessing New Product Development Trends and Practices in Manufacturing and Service-Oriented Organizations in Chitwan District, Nepal 2024-01-25T17:20:30+00:00 Samir Raj Bhandari samirraj@gmail.com <p>This comprehensive descriptive research explores deeply into the intricate domain of new product development within Nepal’s Chitwan district, examining its complicated process, stages, evolving trends, and consequential implications. With a robust participant pool of Four hundred and Four (N=404) individuals spanning diverse manufacturing and service-oriented entities, the study provides a panoramic view of the subject matter. The findings reveal a substantial consensus (85.9%) among respondents, declaring the significance of stages, trends, and strategies in new product development, underscoring their pervasive acknowledgement across the district. However, a notable subset (25%) displays partial implementation, particularly regarding concept development and testing, reflecting challenges in translating design phases into seamless product launches and market integration. Yet, a considerable segment (80.6%) displays alignment with product life cycles, new product development stages, trends, and strategies, signalling adaptability and steadfast commitment among Chitwan’s enterprises. With an average knowledge score of 5.38 out of 8, the research augments the requirements of theoretical knowledge to the decision makers. These insights resonate especially in urban settings, elucidating the interplay between new product development trends and their far-reaching implications for business competitiveness, consumer experiences, and societal advancement.</p> 2024-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ocemjmtss/article/view/62233 Investigating the Factors Influencing Women’s Entrepreneurship in Nawalparasi District, Nepal 2024-01-25T17:25:31+00:00 Susmita Gurung suzanapiya7@gmail.com Suzana Piya suzanapiya7@gmail.com Ananda Adhikari suzanapiya7@gmail.com <p>Entrepreneurship, a dynamic concept developing innovation, risk-taking, and creativity, finds diverse expressions in today’s complicated business landscape. One unavoidable fact is women’s entrepreneurship, gaining momentum as a critical theme in contemporary women entrepreneurship discourse. This research focuses on the critical dimensions and factors influencing women’s entrepreneurial pursuits, specifically within the context of Nawalparasi District. Applying a quantitative research approach and survey study through a Google Forms questionnaire, we collected data from a sample population of one hundred fifty (N = 150) women entrepreneurs in Nawalparasi via a simple random sampling method. Principal Component Analysis was applied for factor reduction and then Binary Logistic Regression was used to find the impact of different influencing factors on women entrepreneurship. The findings indicate significant associations between different influencing factors and women’s entrepreneurship in Gaidakot, Nawalparasi. The results further show that limited access to finance, inherent sociocultural norms, gaps in education and training, regulatory constraints, and disparities in technological access were crucial factors. The findings hold substantial implications for policymakers, researchers, teachers, students, and advocates for gender equality, serving as a catalyst to motivate and empower women entrepreneurs in Nawalparasi. By addressing the above mentioned factors, our research contributes to fostering a more inclusive and supportive entrepreneurial ecosystem, thereby advancing both economic development and gender equity in the region.</p> 2024-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ocemjmtss/article/view/62234 Trends of Fast Food Intake among Female College Students in Banke District 2024-01-25T17:32:20+00:00 Bhagawoti Sharma bhagawoti39kafle@gmail.com Thalindra Prasad Pangeni bhagawoti39kafle@gmail.com <p>Fast food, characterized by its quick preparation and low nutritional value, often contains high levels of fat, salt, sugar, and calories. This study aims to examine the correlation between the socio-demographic attributes of female college students and their fast food consumption patterns. Employing a cross-sectional research design, a total of two hundred and eighty-six (N= 286) respondents were selected through a random sampling process from four distinct colleges located in the Banke district. The findings of the study reveal that a significant majority of 83.6% of the respondents engage in fast food consumption, with 38.5% opting for solid food choices and 70.3% preferring liquid fast food options. Furthermore, 70.3% of the respondents exhibit a preference for packaged fast foods. In terms of timing, 45.1% consume fast food during the afternoon, with the least number of respondents consumed fast food during the night. In relation to frequency, 28% of the participants report consuming fast food 2 to 3 times daily, while a smaller percentage indulge in fast food consumption twice a day. Notably, this research establishes a noteworthy association between age, religion, and the educational backgrounds of respondents’ fathers and mothers with their fast food consumption habits. In contrast, the study does not find a significant association between various types of fast food consumption and the caste of the sampled students. Consequently, it underscores the importance of raising awareness about the potential health risks associated with fast food consumption, emphasizing the need for targeted initiatives to reduce the prevalence of such dietary choices among college students.</p> 2024-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/ocemjmtss/article/view/62235 Motivation for Joining the Open and Distance Learning Mode Program: Student’s Perspectives 2024-01-25T17:38:11+00:00 Bishnu Maya Joshi joshibishnu92@gmail.com Umesh Acharya joshibishnu92@gmail.com Padma Koirala padma40511@gmail.com <p>The adoption of Open and Distance Learning (ODL) has gained considerable attraction as a transformative educational approach, offering unparalleled flexibility and accessibility to learners while accommodating a multitude of diverse commitments. In the context of Nepal, ODL presents itself as a powerful method to mitigate the persistent challenges of educational access and exclusivity. This research underscores to focus into the intricacies of motivation that drive students to enroll in ODL programs within the hallowed precincts of the Faculty of Education (FOE) at Tribhuvan University (TU). This study carefully examines the factors influencing students' motivation to choose ODL programs, providing insights for improving program design and support. The study applied a quantitative approach, collecting data through a structured Google Forms questionnaire and analyzing results using statistical tools. The study revealed key motivations for ODL enrollment, including a strong preference for independent online learning and recognition of ODL’s career and academic benefits. However, the results highlight lower perceptions of interaction within ODL classes. Findings further show that gender and caste/ ethnicity significantly affect motivation, reflecting disparities in access. On the other hand, demographics like provinces, religion, study programs, device used, employment status, and training involvement have limited impact on motivation. The results hold substantial significance in the discourse on ODL in Nepal’s education landscape. This research calls upon educational institutions to address interaction concerns and adapt strategies to diverse demographic motivations for effective ODL program delivery.</p> 2024-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024