Prithvi Academic Journal 2024-05-13T10:15:19+00:00 Dr. Min Pun Open Journal Systems <p><em>Prithvi Academic Journal</em> <em>(PAJ)</em> is a peer-reviewed, open access multidisciplinary journal and aims to publish research articles on all areas and disciplines including but not limited to: humanities, social sciences, management, education, law and sciences. Published annually by Centre for Research and Innovation (CRI) under Prithvi Narayan Campus, Pokhara, the journal encourages national and international researchers and scholars to share their research experience with students and faculty of the institution and the global audience.</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons Licence"></a><br>Articles in the Prithvi Academic Journal are licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> <p>Please visit this link&nbsp;<a title="PAJ" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a> to get more information about this journal.&nbsp;</p> List of Reviewers 2024 2024-05-13T09:06:06+00:00 Editorial Team <p>No abstract</p> 2024-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Facts & Figures 2024 2024-05-13T09:10:32+00:00 Editorial Team <p>No abstract</p> 2024-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Introduction Pathways of Invasive Alien Plants in the Lake Cluster of Pokhara Valley, Nepal 2024-05-11T10:37:40+00:00 Hom N Pathak Dinesh R Bhuju Bharat B Shrestha <p>The Lake Cluster of the Pokhara Valley (LCPV), a Ramsar site, has been invaded by several invasive alien plant species (IAPS), yet the introduction pathways of these species remain unknown. In this paper, the possible introduction pathways and invasion history of five wetland IAPS of the LCPV have been identified and reported for analysis. Direct field observations were combined with data obtained from the questionnaire survey with the local residents to identify introduction pathways and invasion history. Among five invasive alien plants, <em>Pontederia crassipes</em> and <em>Pistia stratiotes</em> were introduced as ornamental plants that escaped to wetlands and established their populations during 1980s and 1990s respectively. Similarly, <em>Ipomoea carnea</em> subsp <em>fistulosa</em> was introduced during the 1990s for fencing and soil bioengineering purposes. It is highly likely that <em>Leersia hexandra</em> and <em>Alternanthera philoxeroides</em> were introduced accidentally as none of the local residents interviewed could explain the purpose of their introduction. The local residents have noticed the occurrence of <em>L. hexandra</em> for &gt;50 years while <em>A. philoxeroides</em> might have reached to the LCPV sometime between 2015 and 2020. The results suggest the wetland IAPS have been introduced to the LCPV both intentionally as well as accidentally, and that the prioritizing pathway management can prevent their future introductions.</p> 2024-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Phytochemical Screening, Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activities of Green Tea Available in Nepal 2024-05-11T11:05:58+00:00 Surya Kant Kalauni Jeetendra Karki Menaka Sharma Lekha Nath Khanal <p>Green tea has gained popularity among consumers in recent years due to its several health benefits. It exhibits antioxidant properties, antidiabetic effects, and helpful to reduce cholesterol, stress, and anxiety. This study aims to identify the phytochemicals and assess the antioxidant and antidiabetic capacity of methanol extracts of green tea common in Nepal. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods. The antioxidant capacity was assessed using the 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging technique, while the starch-iodine method was employed to measure the α-amylase inhibition capability.&nbsp; Phytochemical screening showed the abundance of alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, and carbohydrates in the tea. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 54.20 ± 1.41mg GAE/g and 91.0.50 mg QE/g respectively. The tea extract was found to show significant antioxidant and α-amylase inhibition capacities with half-maximal concentration (IC<sub>50</sub>) values of 53.79 ± 3.93 and 66.47 ± 1.94 <em>μ</em>g/mL respectively. The outcomes of this study ratify the advantages of green tea in the management of various health issues associated to free radicals and hyperglycemia.</p> 2024-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Identification of Secondary Metabolites from Actinomycetes Isolated from the Hilly Region of Nepal 2024-05-11T11:18:49+00:00 Bijaya Bahadur Thapa Sajan Shakya Nita Shrestha Ram Prabodh Yadav Khaga Raj Sharma Akkal Dev Mishra Ram Chandra Basnyat Niranjan Parajuli <p>Actinomycetes are a unique class of Gram-positive bacteria with a fungus-like filamentous mycelium. They are often called ‘antibiotics factories’ because they can produce many potent secondary metabolites. At present, multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens are the main problem for humans and animals and to overcome this problem, more potent antibiotics are urgently required. Fortunately, Nepal has great geographical and climatic diversity serving as a home for various actinomycetes. This study identified several actinomycetes using morphological and biochemical assays from seven soil samples collected from different elevations in Nepal. The primary objective of this study was to screen the potent metabolites-producing actinomycetes. For this purpose, antimicrobial assays of seven isolates were carried out against <em>Escherichia coli </em>ATCC 25922,<em> Salmonella typhi </em>ATCC 14028, <em>Shigella sonnei </em>ATCC 25931<em>, </em>and <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>ATCC 43300. The sample BT36 demonstrated the highest zone of inhibition against the tested microorganisms among others. Similarly, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of all isolates were carried out. Among them, the MIC of samples BT36, PT7, and AB1 were found to be&nbsp;1.952 mg/mL, 0.012 mg/mL, and 0.029 mg/mL, respectively.&nbsp; Ethyl acetate extracts of resulting potent isolates PT7 and AB1 were subjected to mass spectrometric analysis. A total of 22 bioactive compounds were annotated from liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectroscopy (LC-HRMS), including epopromycin A, myxopyronin B, gilvocarcin HE, and okilactomycin A. It is concluded that this study will be useful in setting up a strategy to isolate useful secondary metabolites from soil microbes from the hilly region of Nepal.</p> 2024-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Environmental Justice Education in Nepal: Policies and Practices 2024-05-11T12:05:32+00:00 Sushil Sharma Mohan Paudel Ashik Singh Lizzi Milligan Ganesh Bahadur Singh <p>Environmental justice is fundamental to education and policy, ensuring clean environments and sustainable development. The curriculum and constitution of Nepal focus on this, addressing global gaps and encouraging comprehensive wellbeing measures for educational resilience. This paper analyzes how environmental justice is reflected through equitable treatment and meaningful participation of all people in the creation, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regardless of their race, culture, education, and socioeconomic status. To analyze how environmental justice has been enforced in educational policies, interviews were conducted with five policymakers who have long experience in policymaking in the educational sector. The findings revealed that indigenous knowledge, cultural thought, and belief in environmental justice areas were considered major issues in education policies and practices. This study emphasizes the interconnectedness of local and global environmental issues and the need to bridge the gap. The integration of environmental justice in the national curriculum framework highlights the role of local expertise, indigenous knowledge, and practical application. The study recognizes the significance of environmental consciousness, sustainable development, and equal access to education. This study acknowledges constitutional provisions in Nepal supporting environmentally friendly and sustainable development. It emphasizes the importance of environmental education, equitable treatment, and compensation for environmental injustices to safeguard the environment for future generations.</p> 2024-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Indigenous Environmental Consciousness and Life Interconnections: The Aesthetics of Tamang Songs by Tamba 2024-05-11T13:49:10+00:00 Kumari Lama <p>The indigenous communities remain in close, harmonious, and respectful relationship with nature. They acknowledge nature as nourishing mother and a source of energy that gives life to each and every being on earth. The Tamang, one of the indigenous communities of Nepal, shares intricately closer ties with nature. They worship nature and wish to remain under the ever oozing blessing of mother earth. The popular folk narratives and myths among the Tamangs illustrate immense respect and appreciation of nature, which are mostly sung by <em>Tamba</em>, the spokesperson of Tamang community. This paper examines eco-consciousness of Tamang community in the selected songs of Tamba, which are taken from Shantabir Lama (Pakhrin)’s book <em>Tamba kaiten whai rimthim</em> [Ancestral custom and songs of the Tamangs] (2014). The paper focuses on analyzing Tamangs’ perception of nature and significance of their indigenous knowledge in terms of nature-human harmonious bonding. The paper uses textual analysis to examine the selected songs of <em>Tamba</em>, incorporating the concept of Tamang knowledge and aesthetics to shed light on eco-consciousness of the Tamangs of Nepal.</p> 2024-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Student Assessment in Formal Education: Nepali Community School Teachers’ Perspectives 2024-05-11T13:54:51+00:00 Mohan Singh Saud Samjhana Aryal Jib Lal Sapkota <p>The present secondary level English curriculum of Grade 9 and 10 in Nepal has made the provision of 25 marks internal assessment system as part of summative evaluation. In this context, this study examines the existing internal assessment practices adopted by the English language teachers in the Secondary Education Examination of the community schools in Nepal. Employing the qualitative phenomenological research design, five secondary level English language teachers were selected purposively as research participants. Semi-structured interviews and participant observation were used as tools for collecting data. The data were analyzed inductively as content analysis using the internal assessment criteria of participation, listening, speaking, and score from terminal examinations as determined by the curriculum as part of summative evaluation. The result was interpreted through the perspective of Vygotsky’s (1978) zone of proximal development and the theory of scaffolding in relation to the assessment for learning, assessment as learning, and assessment of learning. The prominence of assessment of learning as the dominant practice has resulted in the marginalization of the other two purposes of assessment. The findings of the study highlight the need for a more balanced approach that encompasses assessment for learning and assessment as learning, ensuring a comprehensive and holistic evaluation of students’ progress and development.</p> 2024-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Entrepreneurial Content in the Industrial Design Curriculum in Southwest Nigeria: Textile Design Techniques and Trends 2024-05-11T14:04:38+00:00 Oluwatoyin Funke Akinnibosun Adebayo Abiodun Adeloye Olugbenga Benjamin Emidun <p>This paper explored the incorporation of entrepreneurial content in the industrial design curriculum in universities in Southwest Nigeria, with a specific focus on textile design. Acknowledging the landscape of the global textile industry and the cultural significance of textiles in Southwest Nigeria, the study examined the existing industrial design curriculum, highlighting the level of consideration given to entrepreneurship in the development of the curriculum.&nbsp; The study adopted the content analysis approach to investigate the entrepreneurial content of textile design in the industrial design curriculum. The industrial design curriculum of the Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) was selected because FUTA is the only university offering the industrial design curriculum in the region. The curriculum was analyzed across all levels, the entrepreneurial courses were highlighted based on the course synopsis while other courses were classified as general courses. The study revealed that entrepreneurship was given good consideration during the development of the curriculum. It was therefore recommended that the curriculum be updated regularly to ensure it remains relevant and meets the entrepreneurial needs of the students.</p> 2024-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Midday Meal Programs in Institutional and Community Schools of Nepal: A Comparative Analysis of Students’ Meal Choices 2024-05-11T14:13:10+00:00 Krishna Prasad Tripathi <p>Midday meals play a crucial role in satisfying and motivating students during teaching-learning activities, ensuring that they receive their basic education rights. As food and nutrition are fundamental for every living being, and since students spend a significant portion of their day in school, they require snacks to sustain their energy levels. The study aimed to recognize modalities related to parents' education and evaluate school physical facilities associated with midday meals in institutional and community schools. The research, conducted with the participation of school principals and fifth-grade students, revealed significant disparities in providing midday meals and the quality of school facilities. The study employed an explanatory sequential design. Ten headteachers and 240 students were the samples for this research. The interview schedule and observing rating scale were used as data collection tools. The study explored how parents' education levels influence their choices regarding where to enroll their children. It also discovered that parents with lower qualifications prefer community schools, while those with graduate qualifications lean towards institutional schools. Additionally, snack consumption habits differ between institutional and community schools, reflecting potential socio-economic influences. It was found that over half of students in institutional schools brought homemade lunches, while community schools offered meals in canteens. The findings underscore the need for targeted interventions to enhance school facilities, particularly addressing identified shortcomings to ensure the well-being and safety of students participating in the midday meal program.</p> 2024-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Service Quality and Students’ Satisfaction in Higher Education Institutions: Nepali Students’ Experiences and Perceptions 2024-05-11T14:19:59+00:00 Santosh Adhikari <p>Service quality in higher education has become a topic of growing interest in recent years. As a competition among higher education institutions around the world has increased, there has been a growing focus on providing high-quality services to students in order to attract and retain them. Thus, it is required to evaluate their satisfaction on the basis of service quality provided by higher education institutions. This study examines students’ satisfaction on service quality of Prithvi Narayan Campus (PNC), Pokhara. Thus, the main objective of the study is to analyse the major influencing factors of non-academic aspects of service quality, to measure the relationship of non-academic aspects of service quality with students’ satisfaction, and to analyse the impact of non-academic aspects on students’ satisfaction on service quality. Using the multi-phase sampling technique, both descriptive and inferential statistic was used to meet the objectives of this study. The overall students’ satisfaction towards the service quality provided by PNC is more than average. The study concludes that there is a low degree of positive correlation between non-academic aspects of service quality and students’ satisfaction. For non-academic aspects of service quality, only extra-curricular activities show a statistically significant impact on students’ satisfaction.</p> 2024-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Balancing Personal and Professional Life: A Study of Experiences and Perceptions of Divorced People 2024-05-11T14:30:17+00:00 Mohan Bhandari Ghanashyam Tiwari <p>This study intends to evaluate the emotional and psychological aspects of divorce, with a special emphasis on the delicate interplay between their personal and professional lives. Purposive sampling was utilized in conjunction with semi-structured interviews under the constructivist-interpretive technique. During the interviews, all procedures were carried out with the participants' informed consent with strong ethical norms to protect confidentiality. Member verification and consistent data analysis were used to maintain credibility. The data obtained from the interview were thematically analyzed to detect reoccurring patterns throughout the narratives. The study found that gender and culture have an impact on individual experiences, but mindfulness, meditation, and therapy are essential for overcoming the emotional difficulties associated with divorce. Personalized coping strategies, encouraging workplaces, therapeutic interventions, and a more thorough comprehension of gender and culture-specific variables are essential. These findings have significant implications for therapists assisting, businesses developing compassionate workplaces, governments concerned about the emotional well-being of their constituents, and divorcees seeking support. The study investigates the firsthand encounters of individuals managing the balance between work and professional life amidst divorce, providing crucial perspectives for practitioners assisting individuals and similar circumstances.</p> 2024-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Rhetoric of the Body in BP Koirala’s Life Narratives 2024-05-11T14:38:47+00:00 Mahendra Bhusal <p>This paper examines the rhetorical significance of representing body in BP Koirala’s life narrative published in the form of an interview taken between 1979 to 1981. Using Kenneth Burke’s rhetoric of identification and Michel Foucault’s notion of body as the theoretical framework, the paper explores the motif of the narrator behind representing his body through his narrative among the contemporary intended audience. Koirala identifies with the public by means of the rhetoric of his body narrative. His motif behind the narrative is to showcase his national ethos through the pains and torments he had sustained in his body and to identify with the ethos of the general public thereby evoking civic national ethos. The study reveals that body can work as a powerful instrument in writing the life narrative that evokes the author’s sense of shared ethos.</p> 2024-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Metaphors and the Politics of Nationhood in Bhutto’s If I Am Assassinated 2024-05-11T14:46:04+00:00 Yog Raj Lamichhane <p>This paper examines the conceptual metaphors used in Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto’s autobiographical writing<em> If </em><em>I Am Assassinated</em>. This autobiographical testament is the response from the death cell of the Rawalpindi District Jail to the allegations of the military regime in the form of the White Paper which is perceived as an authoritative report by an organization. The legal cum political response was smuggled from the jail and published in India shortly before his execution. The qualitative study concentrates mainly on the nature and function of the conceptual metaphors in this dominantly political discourse. To address this issue, the concepts of conceptual metaphor developed by Lakoff and Johnsen (2003) has been used as theoretical base. Finally, the identification and interpretation of the metaphors have established that the trauma conveyed through conceptual metaphors affects the politics of nationhood. Particularly, such metaphors present Bhutto as a supra-subaltern character in Pakistani politics who fights to the end for democracy and nationalism.</p> 2024-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Women’s Participation in Local Governments of Nepal: Assessing Local Elections of 2017 and 2022 2024-05-11T14:51:34+00:00 Krishna Prasad Timilsina <p>The Federal Republic of Nepal was established after the second people's movement in 2006. The movement was for more political rights after the 1990 political change in the country. As a result, through the incorporation of inclusive principles into Nepal's constitution, women's representation has been mandated across all sectors of the state, including at the local level. This paper aims to examine the legal provisions and practices concerning gender-balanced seat allocation in key municipal positions, such as chief and deputy chief, chairperson and vice-chairperson, in which at least one occupant must be female. It seeks to understand the reasons behind the political parties nominating women candidates for these positions and whether they are considered reservations for women. Using primary field visits and secondary sources, descriptive analytical and content analysis methods were used to make conclusions about the representation of deputy chief and deputy chairperson in the local elections of 2017 and 2022. The study shows that inclusion is emphasised in Nepal's constitution and other legislation, which require women to be represented in all fields. In the 2017 and 2022 local elections, women held 92% and 74% of the deputy positions, respectively. However, neither politically nor constitutionally, the office of deputy chief is solely reserved for women. The analysis sheds light on the motivations behind political parties nominating women candidates for these positions and explores whether they are perceived as reservations for women.</p> 2024-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Towards a Discourse Move Analysis of Research Article Abstracts in Nepali Journals: A Cross-Disciplinary Study 2024-05-11T14:57:23+00:00 Pitambar Paudel <p>An abstract is an important component of a research article to attract the readers’ attention and provide a concise, informative, and accurate summary of the paper. Many academic manuscripts are usually rejected due to ineffective abstracts. This study aims to investigate and analyse the discourse moves in research article abstracts in the journals published in Nepal. To achieve this objective, 120 article abstracts from journals of eight different domains were selected, and the contents were analysed using Bitchener’s (2018) framework. The results showed that all the abstracts followed the broad categories of introduction, purpose, methods, products, and conclusion, but there were differences in frequency of occurrence using the parameters specified under each category. The findings of the study showed that discourse moves were frequently used by the majority of journals for writing the context and background, authors' motivations for the research, research gaps, goals of the research, research approach and design, data sources and analysis processes, findings, and contributions of the findings to related fields. Finally, the study concluded that the findings of the study can be significant for designing field-specific academic writing courses that lead the authors to standardize their writing and prevent the article from being rejected.</p> 2024-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024