Prithvi Academic Journal 2023-05-15T08:57:24+00:00 Dr. Min Pun Open Journal Systems <p><em>Prithvi Academic Journal</em> <em>(PAJ)</em> is a peer-reviewed, open access multidisciplinary journal and aims to publish research articles on all areas and disciplines including but not limited to: humanities, social sciences, management, education, law and sciences. Published annually by Centre for Research and Innovation (CRI) under Prithvi Narayan Campus, Pokhara, the journal encourages national and international researchers and scholars to share their research experience with students and faculty of the institution and the global audience.</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons Licence"></a><br>Articles in the Prithvi Academic Journal are licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> <p>Please visit this link&nbsp;<a title="PAJ" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a> to get more information about this journal.&nbsp;</p> Melting Curve of Cobalt using Molecular Dynamics Simulation 2023-05-01T15:00:26+00:00 Aabiskar Bhusal Kapil Adhikari <p>Molecular dynamics simulation is used to estimate the melting point of cobalt using the embedded atomic model (EAM) potential by heat until melting, void, hysteresis and interface methods. For instance, the estimated melting temperature are 2102 K, 1944.15 K, 1731 K and 1725±25 K using these methods, respectively. Then, the melting points at different pressures are calculated. A graph depicting the variation of melting point with pressure is drawn and compared with the available simulation and experimental results. The melting point at a low-pressure range is similar to the previous diamond anvil cell experiments. Besides, using the Simon equation, we calculated the melting slope at 0 GPa pressure of 36 K/GPa for one phase and 40 K/GPa for two-phase methods.</p> 2023-05-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Authors and Centre for Research and Innovation (CRI) Determination of Ammonia Level and Its Protein Conversion in the Water of Biofloc Fish Farming Technology 2023-05-01T15:39:42+00:00 Rishi Ram Ghimire Anjila Ghimire Dilip Karki Durga Basyal Krishna Bahadur Rai <p>The biofloc system is a wastewater treatment technology and is used for fish farming by creating the artificial environment. Biofloc Technology (BFT) can enhance the water quality in aquaculture that introduces natural nutrient recycling characteristics with the induction of appropriate Carbon/Nitrogen (C/N) ratio. This study aimed to estimate the effect of BFT implementation on the water quality and production performance of common carp fishes using different concentration of carbon and to attempt a treatment of excess ammonia. The experiment was performed in four tanks (T1, T2, T3 and T4) containing the 10000 liter of water and 5000 shrimps on each tank that has a five weeks’ experimental treatment by adding the carbon as (25%, 30%, 35%, 40% and 45% of sugar) according to its feeding diet from sugar in the interval of one week. The ammonia level before and after the treatment with respect to the percentage of carbon from sugar addition on BFT signifies that the 40% of carbon (C:N ratio of 20:1) and 45% of carbon (C:N ratio of 23:1) have a better performance on the ammonia treatment than 25%, 30% and 35% of carbon. The change in the water's color from green to brownish indicates the protein conversion of ammonia, which informs that the water becomes higher in quality after treatment than it was before for the biofloc fish farming system. It also provides an information about the nitrification process that takes place when the water is treated with carbon derived from sugar. The findings of this study have important implications for the improvement of biofloc fish farming systems.</p> 2023-05-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Authors and Centre for Research and Innovation (CRI) An Assessment of Mineral Contents in Fruits 2023-05-02T15:34:53+00:00 Thaneshwar Subedi <p>Fruits are the important sources of minerals. The objective of this study is to determine the amount of ash, iron, calcium, magnesium and chloride in selected fruit samples: banana, grape, litchi, mango, papaya, pineapple, pomegranate and watermelon. A minimum value of ash content was 0.36 % for watermelon and maximum value was 1.705 for banana. The order of fruits with increasing percentage of iron is: watermelon (61.773002 ×10<sup>–5 </sup>%), and litchi, mango, grape, banana, pomegranate, papaya and pineapple (101.488695×10<sup>–5 </sup>%). A maximum amount of calcium (Ca) was found in the ash solution of fresh papaya (0.0375536%) and minimum amount of Ca was observed in banana (0.0037573%). The results showed that the mineral magnesium (Mg) was ranged from 0.0055316719% (for mango) to 0.031140771% (for papaya) with increasing order: mango, grapes, pineapple, water, pomegranate, litchi, banana and papaya. The experimentally recorded value of chloride as analyzed by argentometric titration using Mohr's method was observed in the order: grape (0.02127 %) &lt; watermelon &lt; papaya &lt; mango &lt; litchi &lt; pineapple &lt; banana &lt; pomegranate (0.1790225 %). The observed results of this study showed that the mineral contents in ash solution of fruit samples are comparable to each other and with the reported values of various authors. The research outcomes will be beneficial for related researchers, fruit consumers and producers.</p> 2023-05-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Authors and Centre for Research and Innovation (CRI) The Production of African Print Fabric Designs: A User-Centric Design Approach 2023-05-02T15:51:51+00:00 Adebayo Abiodun Adeloye Tolulope Lawrence Akinbogun Sunday Roberts Ogunduyile <p>African print fabric is a major textile item in Africa because of its high economic value. This study focused on the production of African print fabrics that are user-centered. The textile industry in Nigeria is presently in a comatose state and there is a need to develop a design model for producing textile designs that will meet the specific needs of the target consumers. The practice-led and survey research designs were adopted for the study. The study population comprised the users of African print fabrics in Southwest Nigeria. Since the users of the fabrics are infinite, the Cochran formula was used to calculate the sample size for the study. 384 users were sampled using the open-ended questionnaires and opinion sampling for data collection. The data were analyzed using the simple descriptive statistical tools such as frequency and percentage. The study revealed that the African print fabric users across different age groups have specific preferences for African print fabrics. It was therefore recommended that the textile designers focus on producing the user-centered African print fabrics that meet the specific needs of consumers.</p> 2023-05-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Authors and Centre for Research and Innovation (CRI) Socio-Economic Transformation and Occupational Shift in Nepal: Explorations in Generational Analysis 2023-05-03T13:06:14+00:00 Badri Aryal <p>Studies in the global context show a variation in the occupational relationships in between father-son, father-daughter, mother-son and mother-daughter. However, such studies in Nepal are insufficient. This paper describes the socio-demographic features of people in between successive generations, and their occupational relationships, typically of father and son. A semi-structured questionnaire schedule was used to collect information from a total of 385 father son pairs during June to September 2018 in Gajuri Rural Municipality of Bagmati Province, Dhading District, Nepal. Information was collected from those fathers whose eldest son got married by the time of interview. The findings from bivariate analysis revealed that along with the changes of several socio-economic variables in the rural households in Nepal, there is both continuity and change in the parental occupations in between the father and son. Among various characteristics of father, the level of education and monthly income, in the case of son’s characteristics, the level of education and migration; and in the case of household characteristics, the caste/ethnicities and residential locations were related with the father-son occupational change. Hence, these findings indicate that the rural society in Nepal is undergoing socio-economic transformations; there is both continuity and change of fathers’ occupation by the son.</p> 2023-05-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Authors and Centre for Research and Innovation (CRI) An Association between the Mosquito Nets and the Wealth Status: Public Health Promotion Planning and Intervention 2023-05-03T13:15:22+00:00 Devaraj Acharya Ramesh Adhikari Gary L. Kreps Bishnu Prasad Wagle Sushil Sharma <p>The Government of Nepal (GoN) has approved the Malaria Strategic Plan with the aim of 'Malaria free Nepal by 2025'. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with the mosquito bed nets and its determinants of the ownership with reference to the households' wealth status in Nepal. The study used the secondary data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2016. The households' characteristics were considered independent variables and ownership of the mosquito nets as the dependent variable. We used IBM SPSS Statistics 22 to analyse the data. The data showed that three fourths of the total households had such nets, where 80 percent were urban households as compared to 68 percent rural households, 95 percent from the Terai region of Nepal as compared to 34 percent from the mountain region, 91 percent were of middle income, as compared to 39 percent the poorest wealth status of households, 84 percent of households that had TV as compared to 66 percent of the households with no TV used the nets. The poorest households were 52 percent less likely to own the nets as compared to the richest households (a OR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.39-0.60, p&lt;0.001). The wealth status of households, residence setting in terms of urban or rural area, and eco-belt migration history of the households, and households having radio and TV were significant predictors for the nets ownership. Special attention was paid by the government and policymakers to the poorest families, rural households, households in the mountain region of Nepal, and households having no radio and TV to meet the national target of the government plan with the use of public health promotion planning and intervention.</p> 2023-05-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Authors and Centre for Research and Innovation (CRI) Affective Commitment Among University Faculty Members in Nepal: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach 2023-05-03T13:29:55+00:00 Nirajan Bam <p>Although organizational commitment has received a substantial research attention, it has not been well examined in the higher education sector; in particular, the university faculty members’ affective commitment has not been extensively investigated yet. Thus, this study investigated an association between affective commitment and predictors: recognition, resources, training and development, perceived union support and pay satisfaction in the context of higher education system of Nepal. Data were collected through a survey from 312 management faculty members of Nepali universities and analyzed by using structural equation modeling. The findings confirmed that resources, training and development, and recognition were positively related, and perceived union support was negatively associated to affective commitment. Contrary to the expectation, pay satisfaction was not significant. The findings of this study also provide a salient reference background for the university management and policy makers to understand the importance of training and development, reward and compensation, resources, and union activities and their relevance for affective organizational commitment and job performance.</p> 2023-05-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Authors and Centre for Research and Innovation (CRI) The Influence of Cyberculture on Lifestyle: A Case of New Media Users 2023-05-05T15:46:17+00:00 Ganga Ram Paudyal <p>Computers and the Internet have brought significant changes in our daily activities. They bring people together throughout the world, influencing the lifestyle of people, and creating a new culture of sharing information. This culture is known as cyberculture. The objective of this study is to identify the impact of using computers and the Internet on people’s everyday life. Innovation in technology and new media has transformed the world into the digital age equipped with new tools and skills. The use of the internet has made us the first generation of artificial intelligence (AI) overcoming the limitation of time and distance. This study explores the changes brought about by information technologies on the lifestyle of the people of Pokhara Metropolis and the challenges they have faced. In this study, a quantitative research design has been adopted, using a descriptive-analytical method for the analysis of data collected from 52 respondents. The overall results indicated that participants have mixed views about influences as they have faced both opportunities and challenges in their lives while using media on daily basis. This study helps us understand the role of cyberculture in the process of fostering a sense of change in everyday life. It further helps the government to formulate digital policies and implement them among people.</p> 2023-05-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Authors and Centre for Research and Innovation (CRI) Strengthening Multiparty Democracy in Nepal: An Assessment of Parliamentary Elections since 1951 2023-05-05T14:12:23+00:00 Girdhari Dahal <p>Based on the secondary data, using qualitative descriptive methods, the study aims to examine the evolution of Nepal's parliamentary system and its actual practice. In the nation's first general election held in 1959, in accordance with the parliamentary system practice, the Nepali Congress won two-thirds of the vote. Similar to this, the left coalition, which includes the Nepal Communist Party (UML) and Nepal Communist Party (Maoist Centre), received nearly two-thirds of the electorate's votes in 2017. Both of those two-thirds governments were unable to function for a full term. Both internal and external factors contributed to the incapacity to work continuously for the entire time period. The findings of the study show that political parties were unable to sustain democratic norms, beliefs, customs and culture because the public opinions expressed by the Nepali people could not be properly translated into political stability and long-lasting peace. In this study, this issue regarding the overall functioning of the political system has been raised because even Nepal's majority rule is not able to remain in the government for a whole term. The study also argues that the parliamentary democratic system is not a “dirty” game, but our political leaders are the dirty players. The study concludes that that Nepal's parliamentary system requires a modification and Nepali political parties should follow democratic norms and values.</p> 2023-05-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Authors and Centre for Research and Innovation (CRI) Preserving and Promoting Indigenous Languages of Ethnic Minorities in Bangladesh: A Strategic Planning Framework 2023-05-05T14:21:33+00:00 Farhadur Reza Muhammad Ullah <p>Bangladesh is a country with multi-ethnic communities. The majority of the population is Bengali-speaking Bengalese. Around fifty indigenous communities are the rest of the population who have other indigenous languages. Because of the narrow scope, any languages in such conditions have a chance of extinction. For a vibrant and harmonious multi-ethnic society, linguistic and cultural diversities require respect and recognition. Besides, these languages possess epistemic values and are considered sources of primitive knowledge. The government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh has taken an affirmative initiative to preserve indigenous language and culture. To meet this goal, preservation and promotion of indigenous languages is imperative. By Article 23(A) of its constitution, its education policy of 2010 and its law ‘Small Ethnic Groups Cultural Institutes Act of 2010’ indigenous language rights are restored. Following the government decision, the National Curriculum and Textbook Board publishes primary school textbooks in five indigenous languages. But these are not enough to keep all the indigenous languages alive. Many more actions are necessary to facilitate the constitutional declaration of indigenous language development like publishing textbooks in more indigenous languages, indigenous language teachers’ training and other initiatives. This paper attempts to fill the gap between initiatives taken by the government and the actual necessity of full-fledged affirmative action as it is necessary as the source of the indigenous knowledge. It primarily depends on the literature, official documents and interviews of the respected stakeholders. The outcome of this study is important for the national integration of the countries like Bangladesh that possess a multi-ethnic, pluralistic society.</p> 2023-05-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Authors and Centre for Research and Innovation (CRI) Ivan Minaev’s Sketches of Ceylon and India: A Russian Perspective on Nepal 2023-05-05T14:36:20+00:00 Damiano Rebecchini <p>Ivan Minaev (1840-1890) was one of the first great Russian Indologists and students of Buddhism. Between 1874 and 1886, he made three long journeys in which he visited Ceylon, India, Burma and Nepal. Thanks to his profound knowledge of the classic (Sanskrit and Pali) and modern languages of the Indian subcontinent, he had the opportunity not only to read ancient works, but also to meet government and elite figures as well as the people. This paper focuses in particular on Minaev's depiction of Nepal in a series of travel notes such as <em>Ocherki Tsejlona i Indii</em> (Eng. trans. <em>Sketches of Ceylon and India</em>, 1878) and in a number of essays. Aware of the military and ideological clash between England and Russia that was taking place in Central and South Asia, Minaev took an original stance towards the British colonial domination: he supported the need for the Russian government to imitate the British Empire in building important infrastructures (roads, bridges, railways), but, with regard to Nepal, he emphasises the importance of respecting the appalling richness, variety and originality of its languages, religious rites, legends and songs, which are preserved in a much uncontaminated form here than in India.</p> 2023-05-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Authors and Centre for Research and Innovation (CRI) The Language of Translation as an Ironic Strategy in R.K. Narayan’s Novels 2023-05-05T14:44:03+00:00 Alessandro Vescovi <p>Early practitioners of the novel in India could not count on a publishing industry, nor on any vast readership, and could only hope to be published overseas. However, writing for an international readership required some compromise between Indian forms and beliefs on the one hand, and the publishers’ expectations on the other. This dilemma asserted itself primarily with the language: what kind of English, if at all, should an Indian novelist employ? Furthermore, what kind of <em>Weltanschauung</em> could he rely upon to build the ethical framework of the novel? While Raja Rao chose for his <em>Kanthapura</em> a highly stylised English, which does not mimic any spoken variety, Narayan elected a simpler style, apparently unproblematic, but likewise non-mimetic. Both strategies are devised to be accepted by a global English readership, which would remain oblivious to the underlying “translation effect” and the Hindu world picture. With reference to his most renowned novel <em>The Guide</em>, this paper argues that the author was consciously moving in a space shared between India and the West. He offered a hilarious mirror of Indian life to South Asian readers while pretending to be speaking to an international audience like a kind of entertaining native informant. His widely appreciated ironical detachment can be interpreted in two ways: on the one hand, it looks like a modernist device à la Chekov; on the other, it mirrors the detachment of the ascetic who has come to recognise the futility of Maya’s world. Writing is therefore a form of <em>Leela</em>, an earthly version of the divine play, which a wise author and reader cannot take too seriously.</p> 2023-05-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Authors and Centre for Research and Innovation (CRI) Critiquing the Postcolonial Nigeria in the Narratives of Ben Okri 2023-05-05T14:50:40+00:00 Khum Prasad Sharma <p>The paper explores identity politics in the narratives of Ben Okri as they depict the Yoruba African myth. This study looks into the conditions of the culturally oppressed Africans in general and postcolonial Nigeria in particular that reframes the official version of colonial history. Myth offers reinterpretation and rethinking of the official colonial history in reclaiming the identity of the culturally excluded people with a variety of voices in response to the fictitious narrative. In line with this idea, I argue that the backdrop of postcolonial everyday life in Nigeria offers a chance to frame the topic of places more effectively. In order to comprehend and resolve the historical paradoxes and mysteries that are expressed in myth, magic and dreams, Thus, I analyze Okri’s book from the postcolonial perspective, considering sociopolitical and historical realities. In fact, Okri combines politics and the idea of history together, using his idea of an "inviolate" African consciousness as to show the foundation of how history dominates all other aspects. To justify my argument, this paper aims to examine how Okri reassesses history and encodes African consciousness in contrast to Western epistemology. Using African myths as a third eye in Okri’s novel, the paper also seeks to understand how Okri reimagines postcolonial potentials for his own Nigeria and, by extension, for the entire African continent.</p> 2023-05-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Authors and Centre for Research and Innovation (CRI) Retelling Fragmented Histories: Partition in Short Stories 2023-05-05T14:58:47+00:00 Arzuman Ara <p>Partition of India in 1947 has been one of the major events in the history of South Asia that has played a crucial role in shaping the three nations of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. A number of narratives on the background of partition have given rise to the sub-genre of partition narratives in which the authors reflect and reconstruct the pain, suffering, loss and alternative histories of the events of partition. The authors, in their effort, give a voice to the victims and critique the political players. Partition in the Bengal and Assam border is represented in a number of writings. In this article, an attempt is made to give a glimpse of the partition narratives written in Bangla through three short stories from Debes Ray’s <em>Raktamanir </em><em>Haare</em> [<em>In the Garland of Blood Beads</em>] published by Sahitya Akademy. The stories are the poignant snapshots of the events of partition in the Bengal border. The stories show the life of suffering of people caused by partition and also upheld the resilient spirit of life.</p> 2023-05-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Authors and Centre for Research and Innovation (CRI) List of Reviewers 2023 2023-05-05T15:07:36+00:00 Editorial Board <p>No Abstract.</p> 2023-05-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Authors and Centre for Research and Innovation (CRI) Facts and Figures 2023 2023-05-05T15:09:42+00:00 Editorial Board <p>No abstract.</p> 2023-05-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Authors and Centre for Research and Innovation (CRI)