Pragya Darshan प्रज्ञा दर्शन https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj <p>Pragya Darshan प्रज्ञा दर्शन is a research based multidisciplinary journal published by the Democrat Professors' Association of Nepal, University Campus Unit, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal. The aims of this journal is to publish research based articles of different disciplines like science and technology, managements, arts and education, medicine, enegineering, agricultural and forestry.</p> en-US pragyadarshan2@gmail.com (Prof. Dr. Chet Raj Bhatta) sioux.cumming@ubiquitypress.com (Sioux Cumming) Thu, 02 Nov 2023 11:44:26 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.6 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 An Overview of the Development of Nursing Education as University Education in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59614 <p>Nursing is a practice based discipline or noble profession includes the prevention &amp; protection of illness or injury, care of disease, promotion and optimization of health &amp; abilities, alleviation and rehabilitation from suffering including advocacy in the care of individuals, families, communities, and populations. This review article intended to assess the development of nursing education in Nepal. Total 50 related article or literature were reviewed through searching electronic database specially in Pub Med, Research gate, Google Scholar, Google etc. and save the data by creating the library via Zoster software. The more relevant articles were selected, critically analyzed, cited them appropriately and also added in reference. During the reviewed of the article it was found that the Nursing education was formally started in Nepal 2013 BS from Proficiency Certificate Level (PCL) of Nursing with the initiation of government. With the different developmental phases, it was upgraded from ANM, PCL, Bachelor (PBBN, BN, BNS, B.Sc. Nursing, BMS), Master nursing including PhD in Nursing till 2068 BS in Nepal. Initially started from government level than move to Tribhuvan University since 1972AD, nevertheless more than 6 Universities including CTEVT were involved to produce different level Nursing human resource in Nepal presently.</p> Manisa Koirala Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59614 Thu, 02 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Editorial https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59545 <p>Not available.</p> Chet Raj Bhatta Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59545 Thu, 02 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Anion Exchange Membrane Functionalized by Phenol-formaldehyde Resins: Functional Group, Morphology, and Absorption Analysis https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59612 <p>We have developed a straightforward and uncomplicated technique for creating alkaline exchange membranes (AEMs) that possess both high alkaline durability and improved ionic conductivity. This method provides an appealing alternative to conventional approaches, notably by eliminating the need for the use of the carcinogenic reagent chloromethyl methyl ether, typically employed in AEM preparation. Examination of the membranes via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals a consistently smooth surface. Augmenting the ion-exchange material's weight percentage in the casting solution results in enhanced water content, ion exchange capacity, and electrical conductivity. Importantly, our approach entirely circumvents the use of the hazardous chloromethy l methyl ether reagent, commonly associated with AEM preparation. TGA for thermal stability and chemical stability, conductivity with impedance data, and electrochemical tests are going on. The outcomes of this study present an appealing alternative to traditional methods for AEM synthesis.</p> D. Parajuli, N. Murali, K. Samatha, N. L. Sahu, B. R. Sharma Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59612 Thu, 02 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Structural Properties of Graphene https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59615 <p>Graphene, a flat monolayer of carbon atoms tightly packed into a two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb lattice with six carbon atoms, are of two types due to their bonding. Due to its structural uniqueness, properties of the grapheme is found to be very different and important in application point of view. Hence, the authors have studied the structural properties as co-ordination number, coordinates, distances of nearest atoms from 1st to 5th, analytically using two dimensional coordinate system taking one atom of a unit cell at the origin. Furthermore, packing fraction is also calculated, as the property is very important to study absorption/adsorption of different atoms into the sheet of it.</p> Sanju Shrestha, Shanti Thapa, Bed Prasad Pandey Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59615 Thu, 02 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Facile Extraction of Natural Hydroxyapatite (HA) from Biowaste and Its Characterizations https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59617 <p>Natural Hydroxyapatite (HA) with chemical formula Ca<sub>10</sub>(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>6</sub>(OH)<sub>2</sub> is a major mineral storage form of calcium and phosphorous in bone and it has been applied in many fields. In the present study, HA was extracted from biowaste; namely the buffalo bone by alkaline hydrolysis process followed by calcination at 900°C with holding time 6 hrs. in muffle furnace. The isolated material was analyzed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) etc. The SEM image suggested the isolated material had rod shaped and agglomerated. FTIR study indicated the phosphate and hydroxide were the major functional groups along with carbonate present in it. Further, XRD analysis inferred that the isolated material was only HA phased. The specific surface area of the isolated HA was determined by methylene blue adsorption method and it was found to be 141.12 m<sup>2</sup> /g and pH point of zero charge (pHPZC) of the extracted biomaterial was determined to be 6.8 by pH the drift method. Thus the pure HA powder was synthesized by an environmentally friendly, cost effective method and may be applicable in many fields including waste water treatment and biomedicine etc.</p> Kshama Parajuli, Nicodemus Panchen, Savya Gautam Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59617 Thu, 02 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 बुद्धको ज्ञानले के दिन्छ – सम्प्रदाय, धर्म, वा जीवनपद्धति ? https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59628 <p>यो लेख बौद्ध परम्परा सम्बन्धि एक कार्यशाला गोष्ठीमा सहभागी हुँदा प्रशिक्षकले प्रस्तुत गरिएका विचार तथा उच्चारित पाण्डुलिपि तथा लेखका आधारमा तयार पारिएको हो। यो लेखको उद्देश्य हामीले पाए र वुझेजति पाठकलाई बुझाउने तथा बुझाइमा फरक परको भए सुझाव तथा सल्लाह लिई परिष्कुत लेख तयार पार्नु नै हो । यसमा बुद्ध धर्मको परिचय, गौतम बुद्धको पवित्र जन्मस्थलः लुम्बिनी, बौद्ध धर्मका सम्प्रदायहरूः हियान/हिनयान वा थेरवाद, महायान वज्रयानमहायानको उपशाखा, नाथ परम्परा अवलोकितेश्वर, थेरवाद र महायानबीचको भिन्नता, चौथो अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय बौद्ध सम्मेलन (१५–२१ नोभेम्बर १९५६) काठमाडा,ैभारतका संविधान निर्माता बाबा साहेव डा. भिमराव अम्बेडकरको नेपाल भ्रमण, नेपालमा थेरवाद र छलफल सहितको निष्कर्श निकालिएको छ । प्राप्त लेख तथा पाण्डुलिपिका अनुसार बुद्ध लुम्बिनिमै जन्मे पनि समग्र नेपालमा यसको प्रभाव पछि मात्र परेको देखिन्छ । नेपालमा सनातनी हिन्दू पछि बुद्ध धर्मको प्रचार बढेसँगै बुद्धको महापरिनिर्माण पछि मात्रै हिन्दूहरुनै महायानी बज्रायानी भएको र प्रवजित भएको देखिन्छ । अहिले पनि अधिकांश नेपाली बौद्धहरु सनातनि तथा प्रकृति पूजा निकट सांसारिक जीवन पद्धति अंगालेको देखिन्छ । यस धर्मका अनुसार जसले ज्ञान प्राप्तिपछि अरूलाई पनि बाँड्छन्, तिनिहरुलाई बुद्ध भनिन्छ, ज्ञान प्राप्त गर्छन् तर अरूलाई बाँडदैनन् भने तिनिहरुलाई प्रत्येकबुद्ध तथा ज्ञान प्राप्त गरेर पूर्णतया उपयोग गर्छन् भने तिनिहरुलाई अर्हत भनिन्छ । यसैका आधारमा पहिलोलाई हिनायान, दोश्रोलाई महायान तथा तेश्रोलाई बज्रयानी भनिएको छ । बज्रयानी भित्रै अवलोकितेश्वर तथा नाथ परम्परा रहेको पनि दाबि गरिन्छ जो शिव भगवानसँग नजिक मानिन्छन् । नेपालमा हिनायान राणाकालको अन्त्यतिर मात्रै चर्चाका आयो । त्यसपछिका सरकार तथा पश्चिमाहरुले हिनायान वा थेरबादलाई प्राथमिकतामा राखेको देखिन्छ । नेपालमा सनातनि पूर्वीय सभ्यतामा दोश्रो शताब्दीतिरबाट थपिएको यो यानी सभ्यतालाई जोगाई नेपाललाई सनातनी हिन्दू तथा बौद्घ सभ्यताको केन्द्र बनाउनु पर्ने देखिन्छ । समग्रमा बुद्धको ज्ञानलाई धर्म, सम्प्रदायमा मात्र सिमित नराखि जिवनपद्धतिमैढाल्न महायानी परम्परालाई अगाडि बढाउनु पर्ने देखिन्छ ।</p> दिपेन्द्र Dipendra पराजुली Parajuli, विन्दु Bindu पौडेल Poudel Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59628 Thu, 02 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Phenomenology: Application for the exploration of the live experiences of participants and historical text https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59547 <p>Phenomenological research tries to describe and interpret meanings of experiences to a certain degree in-depth about the historical and sacred scripture and tried to explore the live experience of people about the phenomenon. There are mainly two types of phenomenology such as heuristic transcendental phenomenology and hermeneutic phenomenology. The heuristic transcendental phenomenology was used first by Husserl as descriptive or psychological or empirical phenomenology and it was developed as heuristic transcendental phenomenology. In heuristic transcendental phenomenology, Suspension or Reduction, Bracketing (epoche) is used to place researchers' preconceptions about the phenomenon at the edge of the writing. The hermeneutic phenomenology is used to understand the meaning of historical scripture such as Veda, Kuran, Bahagvat Geeta, Ramayan and other old scripture through the learning cycle being reflective and critical. So phenomenology works as the philosophy and qualitative research design to guide the whole research process.</p> Kamal Prasad Koirala Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59547 Thu, 02 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Emergence of the Nepali Nation-State: A Stepping Stone to Modernity https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59548 <p>The present qualitative study examines Prithvi Narayan Shah’s Dibya Upadesh in the light of relevant historical details and thereby makes a claim that his venture of unification led to the rise of nascent nation-state, which became Nepal’s stepping stone to modernity. In connection to the ideas related to nation-state, capitalism and modernity, this study engages with the ideas of Anthony Giddens, Benedict Anderson, Ernest Renan, Mark Leichty, Mahesh Chandra Regmi, among others.</p> Bal Bahadur Thapa Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59548 Thu, 02 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge regarding of Iron Deficiency Anemia among Adolescent Girls of Chitwan https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59549 <p>Growth spurts and menarche in adolescent Girls increase iron requirements. Iron deficiency anemia, one of the common nutritional deficiency condition of adolescent girls, is related to poor dietary intake and lack of iron supplementation puts them into the high risk group. The objective of this study is to find out the “Knowledge regarding Iron Deficiency Anemia among Adolescent girls. Descriptive cross-sectional study design was used for the study. Among the 5 government school of this Municipality, three were selected by simple random method and among those schools probability proportional sampling was used for the selection of the adolescent girls of the schools. Data were collected from 156 adolescent school girls through self-administered structured questionnaire developed by researcher and analysis was done using SPSS version 20. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used for the analysis. This study revealed that more than half (53.2%) of the adolescents girls had low knowledge regarding iron deficiency anemia and remaining had just moderate knowledge. There was significant association between age (p=0.03), education (p= 0.001) and father’s occupation (p=0.004) with level of knowledge on iron deficiency anemia. The study concludes that adolescent girls have low knowledge regarding iron deficiency anemia, so school administration need to plan and organize anemia preventive campaign and provide information, education and communication (IEC) materials and screening services related to anemia.</p> Sirjana Poudel, Ganga Panta Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59549 Thu, 02 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impacting Factors of Road Traffic Accidents in Kathmandu Valley https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59555 <p>The major objective of the study is to investigate the relationship and impact of over speed, negligence, and poor vehicle conditions on road traffic accidents in Nepal. The study targeted drivers of two-wheeled and four-wheeled vehicles as a population. 100 respondents were selected through a simple random sampling technique based on the police report list during the last 5 years of Kathmandu Valley. Primary data was the source of information and was collected using a well-structured, five-point Likert scale survey. Cronbach's Alpha coefficients were used to examine the internal consistency of the factors and an independent sample t-test was adopted to analyze differences in road traffic accidents, over speed, overload, and poor vehicle condition in terms of gender. Mean, standard deviation, variance, and correlation were adopted to analyze the data systematically to derive the findings. The study found a relationship between speed and negligence in road traffic accidents in Kathmandu Valley. However, a strong relationship exists between poor vehicle conditions road traffic accidents. The study also found that gender has no impact on overload, poor vehicle conditions, and road traffic accidents, except negligence. The future researcher can study the impact of other independent variables on road traffic accidents targeting drivers of two-wheelers and four-wheelers with a large sample size in a broad area.</p> Raju Bhai Manandhar, Jagat Timilsina Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59555 Thu, 02 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the Perceptions of Female PhD Scholars on Selecting a Supervisor: A Narrative Inquiry https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59595 <p>This narrative inquiry explored the experiences of PhD students in their relationships with their supervisors. The study identified three themes that emerged from the data analysis. The first theme highlights the importance of compatibility between the supervisor and student. Participants emphasized the need to find a supervisor who shares similar research interests, communication styles, and personality traits. They also discussed the negative consequences of not having a compatible relationship with their supervisor, including decreased motivation, lack of support, and difficulties with communication. The second theme focuses on the role of support from the supervisor. Participants emphasized the importance of having a supportive supervisor who is available and responsive, and who provides guidance and mentorship throughout the PhD process. They also discussed the negative consequences of not having a supportive supervisor, including feelings of isolation and frustration, and difficulties in completing their PhD. The third theme highlights the influence of power dynamics on the student-supervisor relationship. Participants discussed the potential for power imbalances in the supervisor-supervisee relationship, and the impact of these imbalances on their research experiences. The study highlights the importance of compatibility, support, and power dynamics in the student-supervisor relationship for successful outcomes in PhD programs.</p> Sharmila Pokharel Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59595 Thu, 02 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 भाषा योजनाको उद्देश्य, कार्य र आवश्यकता https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59596 <p>भाषाको विकास, संरक्षण, संवर्धन र स्तर निर्धारणका सम्बन्धमा भाषा नीति अनुसार आधिकारिक रूपमा तय गरिने कार्यान्वयनको खाकालाई भाषा योजना भनिन्छ । यस्तो योजना कार्यमूलक र प्रायोगिक खालको हुनु पर्दछ । जसले भाषिक नीतिमा अघि सारिएका विषयलाई कार्यान्वयनको बाटोमा लैजाने गर्दछ । भाषा योजना मूलतः भाषाको शुद्धीकरण, पुनरुत्थान, सुधार, मानकीकरण, विस्तार, कोशको आधुनिकीकरण, पारिभाषिक शब्दावलीको प्रयोग, शैलीगत सरलीकरण, अन्तरभाषिक सञ्चार तथा सहायक कोडको निर्माण गर्ने उद्देश्यले तयार पारिएको हुन्छ । भाषा योजनाले मूलतः भाषिक व्यवस्थापन, भाषाको संरक्षण, विकास र संवर्धन, भाषिक जीवन्तता तथा सामाजिक सद्भाव र राष्ट्रियताको भावको जागरण आदि कार्य गर्ने गर्दछ । यसरी भाषालाई विस्तार गर्ने, भाषिक जीवन्तता कायम गर्ने, राष्ट्रिय अखण्डता कायम गर्ने, भाषालाई देश विदेशसम्म प्रचारप्रसार गर्ने आदि कार्य गर्ने भएकाले एक भाषिक वा बहुभाषिक मुलुकका लागि भाषा योजनाको निर्माण र कार्यान्वयन आवश्यक मानिन्छ । तर नेपालको सन्दर्भमा हेर्दा प्रभावकारी भाषा योजनाको निर्माण र कार्यान्वयनमा अग्रसर भएको अवस्था पाइँदैन । यिनै सन्दर्भमा यस लेखमा भाषा योजनाको परिचय दिई यसका उद्देश्य, कार्य तथा आवश्यकतालाई निरूपण गर्ने प्रयास गरिएको छ । गुणात्मक ढाँचामा संरचित यस लेखमा आवश्यक सामग्रीको सङ्कलन पुस्तकालय पद्धतिबाट विभिन्न सन्दर्भकृतिका सहायताले गरिएको छ भने तिनको सङ्गठन र प्रस्तुतीकरणका लागि वर्णनात्मक र व्याख्यात्मक विधि अपनाइएको छ ।</p> शिव प्रसाद Shiva Prasad तिमल्सेना Timalsena Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59596 Thu, 02 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Reflection on Humanity in Crises: Consumption and World War in Nepali Literature https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59598 <p>Humanity has undergone multiple crises across time and place along with the evolution of organized human settlement. Generally, human assumptions are supposed to take a rational course of action in society as we carry out various transactions in our quotidian life. However, fissures emerge as errors in human imagination about polity and organized society in the form of wars, leading to larger scale unresolved issues. On the other hand, human beings also face natural microorganisms like bacteria or virus leading to global crises. Humanity has confronted such tension, resulting from such disasters. Such concerns of crises have turned into the subject of contemplation for Nepali literary geniuses in the 1960s. This paper concentrates on two major literary texts from the time: Parijat’s Shirishko Phool (1964) and B. P. Koirala’s Narendra Dai (1970). Textually analyzing the data, this paper examines the mode of reflection on human crises in Nepali literature by analyzing the impacts of consumption as pandemic in Koirala and the World War as the cause of human misery in Parijat. In fact, Koirala’s novella stands as a literary response to pandemic of consumption in his time. This study places Koirala first in the chronology, for his novella, Narendra Dai covers the time span beginning from the end of the World War I (1918) to the great earthquake (1934) in Nepal. Furthermore, Parijat’s Shirishko Phool primarily presents Nepali social world after the World War II. The critical conditions have resulted in miserable state of life at the time. Human beings suffer in both conditions; still, they display high courage and sense of moral integrity to fight against the critical situations in their life.</p> Komal Prasad Phuyal Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59598 Thu, 02 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Generalized Anxiety Disorder Among University Students Due To COVID-19 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59600 <p>Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is a common but urgent mental health problem during disease outbreaks. With the outbreak of COVID-19’s second wave, educational institutions were closed, and the students had to remain confined to online teaching[1]learning, which might create many psychological problems. This study assesses the prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder among university youth students due to COVID-19. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among 176 (response rate: 76.5%) university students studying at the Central Department of Education. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7) questionnaire was used to assess anxiety disorder. Students were selected using a simple random sampling technique and sent the questionnaire link created in the Kobo toolbox to them requesting voluntary participation. The collected responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression to find the GAD prevalence and associated factors. A study found that 47.7% of university students had generalized anxiety disorder due to COVID-19. Older participants had a lower likelihood of anxiety disorder compared to those under 30 (OR 0.267). Buddhists had higher odds than Hindus (OR 5.237), and students in Bagmati and Lumbini Provinces had higher odds than those in Koshi Province (OR 8.116 and OR 6.086, respectively). Students not infected with COVID-19 had higher odds of anxiety disorder than infected students (OR 7.564), and those not vaccinated had higher odds than those vaccinated (OR 2.883). Taken together, age, religion, province of residence, COVID-19 vaccination status, and perceived risk due to COVID-19 played a role in determining the prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder among students.</p> Pitambar Acharya, Sudip Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59600 Thu, 02 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Mythic of Newar Arts, Literature, Tales, Oral Histories and Rituals in Patan and Kritipur: Cultural Study https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59602 <p>Mythic realities in Newar arts and cultural representations of the socio-cultural activities noted in the folklores, tales, practices and performances in Patan and Kirtipur are mysteries. Ritual activities like Lakhe Dances, Jatras and other rituals are related with the historical events, facts and imaginary-mysterious beliefs. Myth is an excavating tool for meaning making of the artistic, cultural and historical sayings noted in the tales that can catch out the themes observing the coverage of crafts in applying the artistic and literary techniques. Newar Arts, Newa Dance, Dhime Dance, Lakhe Dance and other magical activities and rituals of Patan and Kirtipur are culturally connected with mythic realities of folklores. The cultural study helps to study the arts, culture and literature and myth making in creating the meanings through library and internet-based resources and it is also prepared on the basis of field visit reports and therefore this study applies both the qualitative and quantitative approaches. Objective of this article is to expose the mythical images and it analyzes present events in field-based method studying the human emotions, feelings and their cultural practices. It also investigates on the subjects of religious activities, socio-cultural practices and cultural representations of the past reality and present changes in a different way. This article presents a brief sketch of a new perspective on cultural orientation to mythical world as myth and mystery reflecting on the past activities and creating the meanings in the present. Cultural study is one of the tools to excavate Patan and Kirtipur’s history and so in this article Stuart Hall’s ideas are applicable.</p> Mani Bhadra Gautam Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59602 Thu, 02 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Unraveling the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Mn1Pd n-1, Mn 2Pd n-2 and Pd n(n=13) clusters https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59603 <p>This work presents a systematic study of the geometric, electronic and magnetic properties of Pd clusters pristine and mono- and bi[1]doped with Mn: Pd<sub>n</sub>, Pd<sub>n−1</sub>M<sub>n</sub>, Pd<sub>n−2</sub>Mn<sub>2</sub> where n ≤13. We have used the density functional formalism with the spin polarized generalized gradient approximation. From the variety of possible structures with thirteen atoms, we found the icosahedral configuration to be the most stable as compared to the hexagonal, cub-octahedral and buckled bi-planar. The change in magnetic behavior of Pd clusters after doping with Mn has been observed. This communication is an attempt to understand that behaviour.</p> G. C. Kaphle, N. P. Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59603 Thu, 02 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Civil Society in Community Development of Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59606 <p>This study is based on the role of civil society in community development in Nepal. It is mainly prepared by using secondary sources. Data is obtained through articles/newspapers/clubs of the organization. The role of civil society in training and skill development, group formation and mobilization is assessed to be satisfactory. In the areas of health and hygiene, education, drinking water, transport and communication too, the role is likely to improve in the coming days. The relationship between groups and individuals in the community has appeared to be good. Most civil societies agree on good relationships between groups and individuals. The main problems of civil society are issues of the sustainability of their activities and political bias. Organizations depend on donor funds and activities as they propose; so there is duplication of programs and activities in the community. The activities are very short and do not have a fixed duration required by the community; it is due to the dependence of the donor for the fund. Civil society is the main subject and agent of community development. It knows the cultural, social, political and geographical situation. The process of social mobilization and mobilization of resources is the pioneering path of civil development. Group training and mobilization are found to be very good in the community. Therefore, this study shows a great need for civil society in community development. The function of civil society is very respectable. People want to expand their activities but the civil society cannot expand because of lack of funds. The ground of honor developed by civil societies in terms group formation, social mobilization, resource mobilization, and saving habits in groups is remarkable. Civil society (CS) in Nepal has played an important role in the economic and political transformation of the country over the past three decades. As Nepal changes into a three-tier federal government system, the environment in which civil society organizations (CSOs) operate is also changing.</p> Umesh Pd. Acharya Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59606 Thu, 02 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Brief Introduction to Gurukul Education https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59609 <p>This paper presents gurukul system of education as the main concern in the quality of human beings. Education is the only means of civilizing ourselves to maintain high qualities of integrity, devotion, sincerity and an ethical and moral purpose in our national life. The goal of our national education should be to supply a constant stream of knowledge, character, fearless open minded, truthful, and patriotic people, who will become the basic material, for building up the nation. Gurukul Style of Education system is a 5000-year old Hindu tradition of transmitting higher knowledge and enlightenment to the students by yogic powers by the guru with an aim to develop the latent yogic powers of the child and build him up into a moral and spiritual power.</p> Toya Nath Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pdmdj/article/view/59609 Thu, 02 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000