Pragya Darshan प्रज्ञा दर्शन <p>Pragya Darshan प्रज्ञा दर्शन is a research based multidisciplinary journal published by the Democrat Professors' Association of Nepal, University Campus Unit, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal. The aims of this journal is to publish research based articles of different disciplines like science and technology, managements, arts and education, medicine, enegineering, agricultural and forestry.</p> en-US (Prof. Dr. Chet Raj Bhatta) (Sioux Cumming) Wed, 15 Feb 2023 10:37:06 +0000 OJS 60 Rational Assessment of Physico-Chemical Parameters of Agricultural Soil from Selected Places of Banepa, Nepal <p>Physico-chemical parameters are among the basic attributes for the study of soil as they play a critical role in the assessment of soil health. In the present study, an attempt was made to study the physicochemical parameters in soil samples collected from six places of Banepa (Sinagal, Budole, Janagal, Chandeswori, Nayabasti, and Dhaneswor). The soil characterization was carried out for parameters like moisture content (%), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), chloride (Cl<sup>-</sup>), sulphate (SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup>), and phosphate (PO<sub>4</sub><sup>3-</sup>) ions. Chloride and sulphate were analyzed by argentometric titration and gravimetric method. The molybdenum blue method was employed for analysis of phosphate. In the present study, the pH of different soil samples ranged from 4.02-6.46 indicating a strongly to slightly acidic nature. EC values ranged from 0.05-0.45 mS/cm which showed that all soil samples were non-saline. The concentration of Cl<sup>-</sup>, SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup> and PO<sub>4</sub><sup>3-</sup> were in the range of 10142-16904 ppm, 1440-3907 ppm, and 1.8-3.8 ppm, respectively. Analysis of these parameters helps to determine the nature, fertility status of soil which is important for agricultural chemists for plant growth and soil management. Such studies provide the necessary information required to maintain optimum fertility year after year.</p> Isha Khadka, Sanju Jyawali, Dasu Ram Paudel Copyright (c) 2023 © DEPAN, TU Unit, Kirtipur Wed, 15 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Teacher Education and Issues of Professional Development for Quality and Creativity of Teachers <p>This article aims to show some of the necessary viewpoints needed in teacher education programme and teachers themselves to promote quality and creativity of teachers. Teachers should be known as the main backbone of a country. It is known that all vertebrate animals or creatures are stronger physically than the non-vertebrates. In the same way, without teachers with high quality a community cannot develop effectively. If communities are developed effectively, it means, a country is developed in a prosperous way. To develop a country today, teachers need to think of teacher education as professional development and in the same way, a country needs to manage. Our ancient teachers have transformed primitive life into the condition as we see today. Teachers should develop strong confidence within themselves to teach. Teachers should have quality and creativity in teaching and so should be the goal of teacher education. Teaching is the type of profession which should be universally acknowledged. A teacher would be like a spiritual being in the past and the same quality should be maintained at present, for framing the knowledge in students so that the students will be responsible to frame the shape of development of a country. For such type of situation, teacher education should be constructed for teachers' professional development relating to increase their critical thinking skills. If a teacher is perfect in all respects, the students will learn properly. Teacher education must not be thought simply as a process of only obtaining a job, but it should be looked in a broader sense with the philosophy of the universe and the nature as well as a teacher as a source of providing the truth. Only a teacher with quality can provide the facts. For this capacity, professional development and creativity are necessary skills. The methodology of this study is based on document analysis and experience of the author.</p> Janardan Paudel Copyright (c) 2023 © DEPAN, TU Unit, Kirtipur Wed, 15 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Teaching Learning Activities in Gurukul <p>The school understands that the teaching and learning of the students cannot be covered in the classroom and only by the curriculum. That is why the school has linked teaching and learning with the community and society. Every year, the school has been imparting various community-centered teaching and learning to the children in a way that integrates them with society. The methodology used for this study is related to interview, focus group discussions and observations to collect the information. The aim of this paper is to find out teaching learning activities which are used in Gurukul. The finding of this research article is that although teachers try to use the student centered methods, they use the teacher centered approaches mostly while teaching learning process.</p> Toya Nath Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 © DEPAN, TU Unit, Kirtipur Wed, 15 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 समकालीन विमर्श के विभिन्न आयाम <p>यह सदी विमर्शों की सदी है । यानि समाज की किसी भी समस्या पर चर्चा–परिचर्चा, संवाद, तर्क–वितर्क आदि । दूसरे शब्दों में कहा जाये तो जब व्यक्ति किसी समूह में किसी विषय पर चिन्तन अथचा चर्चा–परिचर्चा करता है तो उसे विमर्श कहा जाता है या जब कोई व्यक्ति किसी विषय को लेकर अकेले में गहन, चिन्तन, मनन करके किसी समूह में जाकर उस विषय पर अन्य व्यक्तियों से तर्क–वितर्क करता है तो उसे विमर्श कहते हैं ।संस्कृत, हिन्दी तथा अंग्रेजी शब्दकोशों में बहुत से विद्वानों द्वारा विमर्श शब्द को परिभाषित किया गया है । डॉ भोलानाथ के अनुसार विमर्श का अर्थ है–‘‘तबादला–ए–खयाल, परामर्श, मशविरा, राय–बात, विचार विनिमय, विचार विमर्श, सोच विचार।’’ ज्ञान शब्दकोश में विमर्श का तात्पर्य ‘विचार, विवेचन, परीक्षण, समीक्षा, तर्क, ज्ञान।’ आदि के रूप में अंकित किया गया है । मानक हिन्दी कोश में विमर्श का अर्थ इस प्रकार है –‘सोच विचार कर तथ्य या वास्तविकता का पता लगाना । किसी बात या विषय पर कुछ सोचना समझना । विचार करना । गुण–दोष आदि की आलोचना या मीमांसा करना (डेलिबरेशन)। जाँचना और परखना । किसी से परामर्श या सलाह करना आदि ।आज समाज का हर वह तबका जो अधिकारों से वंचित है उसने अपने हक, अधिकार और अपनी अस्मितागत पहचान के लिए निर्णायक लड़ाई छेड़ रखी है । ध्यान देने की बात यह है कि यह लड़ाई किसी के विरूद्ध नही, बल्कि अपने या अपने समुदाय के पक्ष में लड़ी जा रही है । इन लड़ाइयों के पीछे एक सुविचारित दर्शन कार्य कर रहा है । हिंदी साहित्य में समाज के ज्वलंत विषयों को कहानी, कविता, उपन्यास, आत्मकथा और अन्य विधाओं के माध्यम से समाज का ध्यान अपनी ओर खींचा जा रहा है । शोषित समाज के हक के लिए लेखन कार्य किया जा रहा है । विमर्श साहित्य वर्तमान समय में लगभग सभी विश्वविद्यालयों के हिंदी या अन्य भाषाओं के पाठ्यक्रम का हिस्सा है । प्रस्तुत आलेख में साहित्यिक विमर्श के आयामों पर चर्चा की गई है ।</p> श्वेता Sweta दीप्ति Diptee Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 15 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Cultural and Sexual Violence on Women: Reading Sidhwa’s Cracking India <p>The traumatic history of the partition violence of 1947-48 reveals the causes and consequences of religious conflict among Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims. People biased the social and socio-cultural activities of another religious group and practiced taking revenge against each-other’s religion that finally proved as a cause to divide the nation. The power exercise took side of the gender politics that victimized the women. Pain and suffering of women is emanating from the cases of abduction, seduction, rape and conversion of women of different ages including widows and teenagers from the sides of Hindu-Sikh on the one hand and Muslims on the other hand. Lack of cultural consciousness and the sexual violence, for instance, parading, mutilating, disfiguring, tattooing or branding and amputating the breasts knifing open the womb, raping and killing, of course, are shocking not only for its savagery, but for what it tells us about women as objects in the male constructed society as it is done from whatever the cultural community that belongs to. The violence suffered the people of each-other community but targeted the women more from both the communities as Sikhs seem much closer to the Hindu than the Muslims. A gender based revision of the history of partition of India foregrounds female victimhood and critiques the recovery and rehabilitation operation. Thus this study centers on feminist study with the theoretical support of Aparna Basu, Ritu Menon, Kamla Bhasin, and Urbashi Butalia.</p> Mani Bhadra Gautam Copyright (c) 2023 © DEPAN, TU Unit, Kirtipur Wed, 15 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Maoist Insurgency and Peace Process in Nepal <p>The Nepalese civil war, or People’s War, was the result of stalled peace negotiations between the democratic government and the paramilitary wing of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist). Nepal's first decade of democracy is considered turbulent due to frequent government changes, internal party battles and corruption. Politics continued to be dominated by the Brahmin and Chhetri castes with an underrepresentation of ethnic minorities and women. Nepal Communist Party Maoist said that the insurgency began to fight against the 250 years long monarchy, deeply rooted economic &amp; social discrimination &amp; prejudices, Feudal system and against all kinds of injustices &amp; inequalities prevalent in the society.</p> Ishwori Prasad Kandel Copyright (c) 2023 © DEPAN, TU Unit, Kirtipur Wed, 15 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Cohabitation: Conceptual Significance and Practical Inconsistency <p>Non-marital cohabitation is a rapidly rising universal phenomenon in this modern era. The post-modern or capitalist society, the concepts of relationships between man and woman particularly the way of thinking towards cohabitation or living relationship has seen a drastic change. The issue of cohabitation from a sociological perspective to comprehend the nature of such a shifting structure of marriage. In this context, to know the rise in rates of cohabitation and its different meanings and implications in related to the way of life in terms of personal and social relationships and consequences. It is more rational to rethink in these types of meanings and implications particularly in marriage systems. There is different social meaning and cultural significance between traditional marriage system and newly emerged cohabitation practice. This paper tries to analyze the conceptual debate and practical contradiction of cohabitation and conventional marriage system. Likewise, this study provides an analysis of causes and consequences of cohabitation in existing societies.</p> Mina Devi Uprety Copyright (c) 2023 © DEPAN, TU Unit, Kirtipur Wed, 15 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 समकालीन नेपाली कविताको संस्कृतिपरक अन्तर्विषयकता {Cultural Intersubjectivity of Contemporary Nepali Poetry} <p>प्रस्तुत अनुसन्धानात्मक लेख समकालीन नेपाली कविताको संस्कृतिपरक अन्तविर्षयकताको अध्ययनमा केन्द्रित भएर तयार पारिएको हो । यसरी अध्ययन गर्ने क्रममा समकालीन नेपाली कविताका रूपमा पछिल्लो समय प्रकाशित कवितासङ्ग्रहमा सङ्गृहीत प्रतिनिधिमूलक कवितालाई अध्ययनको आधार बनाइएको छ । नेपाली साहित्यका अन्य विधामा जस्तै समकालीन नेपाली कवितामा पनि अन्तर्विषयकताको प्रयोग भएको छ । साहित्यको विषयवस्तुभित्र साहित्येतर विषयहरू अन्तर्वस्तुका रूपमा प्रयोग हुनुलाई अन्तर्विषयकता भनिन्छ । विश्वसाहित्यमा सन्१९६० पछि उत्तरआधुनिक बहुलवादी सिद्धान्त र सांस्कृतिक अध्ययनको विकासका क्रममा अन्तर्विषयक समालोचनाको विकास भएको हो । साहित्यमा अन्तर्विषयकताको प्रयोग हुन थालेपछि यसप्रकारको साहित्यको अध्ययन–विश्लेषण गर्नका लागि अन्तर्विषयक समालोचनाको आरम्भ भएको हो । समकालीन नेपाली कवितामा संस्कृतिपरक अन्तर्विषयकताको प्रयोग केकसरी भएको छ ? भन्ने प्राज्ञिक जिज्ञासा समाधान गर्ने उद्देश्यले तयार पारिएको यस अनुसन्धानलेखमा संस्कृतिपरक अन्तर्विषयकताका अवधारणाको उपयोग गरिएको छ । समकालीन नेपाली कवितामा संस्कृतिपरक अन्तर्विषयकताका विभिन्न पक्षहरुको प्रयोग भए पनि यस अनुसन्धानात्मक आलेखमा परम्परागत संस्कृति, निर्मित संस्कृति र जातीय संस्कृति गरी संस्कृतिका तीनवटा पक्षलाई मात्र विश्लेषणको आधार बनाइएको छ । समकालीन नेपाली कवितामा संस्कृतिपरक अन्तर्विषयकता प्रभावकारी रूपमा आएको र यसले कवितालाई बहुआयामिक, बौद्धिक, गहन र स्तरीय बनाएको निष्कर्ष यस अनुसन्धानात्मक लेखमा निकालिएको छ ।</p> ज्ञानु Gyanu अधिकारी Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 15 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Population growth and Rural Development in the interface of Climate Change in Nepal: A review <p>The objective of this paper is to analyze the relationship between population change and rural development in connection with climate change in Nepal. Climate change has two directional relationship with climate change. Firstly, population growth and rural development act as anthropogenic factors for climate change. On the other hand, climate change and extremities impact population pyramid and damages the rural infrastructures. It is based on secondary data and published and unpublished literatures. The study reveals that there is a strong relationship between climate change, population change and rural development. Many rural people are migrated into the urban areas and young people are trying to shift in abroad for employment where climatic factors are increasingly push factors. Lack of skill oriented education entrepreneurship programs, agricultural extension program people are suffering from different problems. Self help program is needed into the rural areas. So government should rethink to implement the rural development program in Nepal. Poverty become the main sensitive issue of rural areas. Though the government has given emphasis on the rural development of Nepal, so the policy makers should do the research about the successful rural development program in Nepal.</p> Umesh Acharya Copyright (c) 2023 © DEPAN, TU Unit, Kirtipur Wed, 15 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 साठी वर्षमा हृदयाघात तथा कथादृष्टिकोणमा पाठकीय प्रतिक्रिया {Sixty Years on Heart Attack and Literary Response to Narrative Approaches} <p>प्रस्तुत लेख साठी वर्षमा हृदयाघात तथा कथादृष्टिकोणमा पाठकीय प्रतिक्रिया शीर्षकमा केन्द्रित छ । कथासङ्ग्रहमा पाठकका प्रतिक्रियालाई अंश स्वरूप दिइएकाले पाठकीय प्रतिक्रियालाई नै विश्लेषणको कोण बनाइएको हो । लेखका निम्ति प्राथमिक र द्वितीयक सामग्रीको स्रोत पुस्तकालय हो । सामग्रीलाई निगमनात्मक तथा आगमनात्मक विधि क्रमिक रूपले प्रयोग गरी विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । ध्रुवचन्द्र गौतमका कथामा विसङ्गत जीवनलाई चित्रण गर्ने अभीष्ट राखिएको हुन्छ । यस्तो विसङ्गति प्रस्तुतिमा श्यामव्यङ्ग्यलाई प्रभावोत्पादक तन्तुका रूपमा प्रयोग गरिएको छ । मानिसका दैनन्दिन भोगाइ, अनुभूति र परिवेशबाट आख्यान तत्त्व टिपेर सकारात्मक दिशाउन्मुख गराउन सम्बद्ध निकायलाई शिष्ट घोचपेच गर्नु गौतमको मुख्य प्रवृत्ति हो । यस प्रवृत्तिलाई प्रस्तुत कथासङ्ग्रहमा सामाविष्ट बाह्जना पाठकले केन्द्रीय आर्थी एकाइ पहिचान गरेका छन्। आर्थी पुननिर्माणका क्रममा पाठकहरू निर्माणात्मक र विनिर्माणात्मक कोणबाट प्रवेश गरेका छन्। दुवै कोणको प्रयोगबाट गौतम जीवनका यथार्थ परिवेशलाई स्वैरकल्पनाको आंशिक प्रयोग गरी श्यामव्यङ्ग्य चोटिलो रूपमा प्रस्तुत गर्ने कथाकार ठहर भएको छ ।</p> दीपकप्रसाद Dipakprasad ढकाल Dhakal Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 15 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Parental Guidance and Sharing of Information with Adolescents about Sexuality and Sexual Health: A review <p>Sexual health is a fundamental to the overall health and well-being of individuals and families. Puberty is the process of physical changes as well as emotional maturation and being capable of sexual reproduction. Positive or respectful approach to sexuality and sexual relationships as well as free from coercion; discrimination and violence optimize the possibility of having pleasurable and safe sexual experiences. Appropriate pubertal guidance, sharing of information and education to youth about experiencing changes not only fostering positive attitudes but also healthy practices related to pubertal changes. It also influence on social and economic development of individual, communities as well as countries. This article intended to explore about the guidance and sharing of information practices of adolescence’s parents about pubertal changes and sexual health through literature search.</p> Manisa Koirala Copyright (c) 2023 © DEPAN, TU Unit, Kirtipur Wed, 15 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Statistical Analysis of Rainfall Distribution in Biratnagar, Nepal: A case study <p>Rainfall is a key component in the construction of many engineering projects, including canals, bridges, culverts, and road drainage systems. The primary goal of this study is to ascertain the annual, monthly and seasonal fluctuations in rainfall in Biratnagar, Nepal over a period of 10 years (2010-2019). The mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, skewness, kurtosis, Precipitation Concentration Index (PCI), normal rainfall along with Mann-Kendall test were calculated to check the rainfall variations. The annual data showed the biggest varieties in rainfall, with an average annual rainfall of 1542.43 mm during a ten years period. Furthermore, an erratic monthly rainfall pattern was found by the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. However, the test value for each month was non-significant at the 5% level of significance. We also found that the rainfall is least in the winter and most during monsoon season. Based on these calculations, It is seen that the pattern of rainfall is inconsistent or unpredictable. However, present study will aid in the understanding of rainfall variations and trends, assisting in the management of water resources, ecosystems, irrigation, sustainable agricultural planning, engineering structural design, and other areas.</p> Uchit Chaudhary, Mausam Nembang Limbu, Gopi Chandra Kaphle Copyright (c) 2023 © DEPAN, TU Unit, Kirtipur Wed, 15 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Numerical Approach of Single-Junction InGaN Solar Cell Affected by Carrier Lifetime and Temperature <p>The PC1D simulation aand origin software were successfully used for the study of Carrier Lifetime and Temperature effect on InGaN Single-Junction Solar Cell. For the simulation, the total device area was 100 cm<sup>2</sup>, dielectric constant 13.1, band gap 1.35eV, intrinsic constant is 1×10<sup>10</sup> cm<sup>-3</sup>, doping concentration is 1×10<sup>17</sup> cm<sup>-3</sup>, electron number and hole number 1000 and 170 respectively, and the refractive index was 3.58. The optimized temperature and bulk recombination were 25°C and 1000μs respectively along with the efficiency of 18.258 % for both n and p - InGaN solar cell. Several graphs were plotted under the following conditions: a) bulk recombination time of p-InGaN and temperature are kept constant at 1000 μs and 25°C, the variation of bulk recombination time of n - type InGaN solar cell with base current and voltage, maximum current and voltage, and efficiency and maximum power were studied. b) bulk recombination time of n-InGaN and temperature are kept constant at 1000 μs and 25°C, the variation of bulk recombination time of p - type InGaN solar cell with base current and voltage, maximum current and voltage, and efficiency and maximum power were studied.</p> D. Parajuli, Viplav Bhandari, Devendra K.C., Ajita Thapaliya, Amrit Subedi, Amrit Dhakal, Sandip Dangi, Rabina Koirala, Manish Bhatta Copyright (c) 2023 © DEPAN, TU Unit, Kirtipur Wed, 15 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 History of Victimization, Behavioral and Emotional Problems among Juvenile Delinquents in Child Correction Homes <p>The juvenile justice system identifies youth in conflict with the law as different from the adult criminal population. The Correctional and re-integrative approach forms the basis of a good juvenile justice system. The rationale for such interventions remains to identify risk factors and protective factors for delinquency. History of victimization has been recognized as one of the risk factors for juvenile delinquency. In this context, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 160 adolescents (with a history of juvenile delinquency) residing in Child Correction Homes of Bhaktapur and Kaski districts to study the history of victimization its effect on behavioral and emotional problems. Nepalese versions of the Reduced Item Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ) and Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ) were used for the study. Of the participants (N=149), 93.96 % reported at least 1 victimization and 79.19% reported lifetime exposure to 3 or more different types of victimization. Total score in JVQ was a significant predictor for Hyperactivity, Emotional Problems, Peer Problems, and Total Difficulty Score of SDQ. These findings point toward the need to further study these aspects of delinquency in the Nepalese context.</p> Ashish Kafle, Sandesh Dhakal Copyright (c) 2023 © DEPAN, TU Unit, Kirtipur Wed, 15 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Demographic Effect on Engaged Learning Practice of Undergraduate Students <p>Student engagement is viewed as learners’ attention, interest, investment, and effort students expend in their work of learning. Studies and research in the field of education have revealed that students' engaged learning methods in science are increasingly focusing on aspects like behavioral, cognitive, and emotional engagement. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify engaged learning and demographic influences on such practices. The study was carried out with a sample of. A Likert scale-type questionnaire of 30 items was employed with 88 undergraduate students studying chemistry on two campuses of Kathmandu. Students were found to have better engagement in all dimensions of engagement. They showed higher behavioral engaged learning practice as compared to other two dimensions. No differences were established between behavioral engagement and gender, ethnicity, and religion. Similar findings were established for cognitive and emotional engagement practices. The implications of the findings were examined, including their value for future researchers in the same field of study, science teachers, and policymakers.</p> Indra Raj Upadhyaya Copyright (c) 2023 © DEPAN, TU Unit, Kirtipur Wed, 15 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Dowry Practice among Madheshi Community of Dhanusha District of Nepal Continuity and Change <p>Dowry system is a burning issue in the Nepalese and Indian society. In Nepal, dowry practice is more prevalent in the Tarai region in the border areas between Nepal and India. Dowry practice has been found mostly in higher caste and higher educated family of Madheshi people. Among them Yadav and Sah Caste has its higher and higher practices<strong>. </strong>They have been found to giving continuity of dowry to main social prestige and can't leave the social cultures that have strongly rooted in Madheshi community. It is difficult and bad situation of Tarai in regards of women violence that is directly and indirectly interlinked with dowry practice. So in this article I argued that practice of dowry is increasing day by day but the cases are in hidden way. Based on key informants this study highly demands for removing of this dowry practice from Tarai. It is needed of further research activity, effective formulation and implementation of government Laws &amp; Policies and to punish those who are directly and indirectly involved in giving and taking dowry. Thus way it is expected that the life of young married girls could be saved in the Tarai region of Nepal, particularly in my study area.</p> Leelawati Yadav Copyright (c) 2023 © DEPAN, TU Unit, Kirtipur Wed, 15 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000