Pragyaratna प्रज्ञारत्न https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna <p>Pragyaratna प्रज्ञारत्न is published by TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus, Tahachal, Nepal. Pragyaratna is an academic forum for the publication of articles in different streams of education including but not limited to: Nepali, English, Maths, Science, ICT, Health, Political science, History, Population and Economics.</p> en-US katwalgk@gmail.com (Asso. Prof. Govinda Katwal) sioux.cumming@ubiquitypress.com (Sioux Cumming) Fri, 03 Nov 2023 10:28:12 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.6 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Unveiling Students’ Perceptions of Effective Physics Instruction https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59266 <p>The main aim of this study was to explore secondary school students' perceptions of successful physics education and learning. The researchers employed a descriptive survey approach to attain this goal. A total of 55 tenth-grade students from two public schools in the Kathmandu and Lalitpur districts participated in the study. The researcher constructed a structured Likert-type questionnaire with a 4 -point scale as the instrument for collecting data. The reliability coefficient was calculated using Cronbach alpha and, following the instrument’s validation, was revealed to be 0.84. The researcher used forms for questionnaires, and to assure 100 percent return, the questionnaires were then collected. The data was evaluated by the researchers by computing the mean, doing frequency distribution analysis, and determining the percentage of student replies for each item. In addition, the findings were compiled and gathered in order to answer the study question. The majority of students have a weak foundation in physics, according to some findings.</p> Bishnu Kumar Dahal Copyright (c) 2023 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59266 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Farmer Awareness of Using Pesticides in Vegetables and Effects on Human Health https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59267 <p>Nowadays pesticides are perceived essential for agriculture and are used extensively throughout the world. It is used for repelling, destroying or controlling pests. The objective of the study was to analyze the farmer awareness in pesticide use and its effects on health in Panchakhal Municipality. Descriptive study design and quantitative data were used. Non-probability purposive sampling method was used to select respondents. 38 farmers were selected as respondents during seven days. Interview schedule were used to collect data. The finding of the study showed that around seventy five percent male were involved to spray pesticides in commercialize vegetables. Among them, most of were young. More than fifty percent farmers were educated but they had no knowledge about proper handling of pesticides. Almost people were involved in agriculture sectors in the study area. Almost farmers used chemical pesticides in their vegetables farms to kill pests in order to increase production. Most pesticides purchasing places were agro-vet and nearby shop. Nobody took advice from agriculture office or JTA. Most of farmers had harvested vegetables just next day after spraying pesticide. Around ninety percent farmer had not taken any types of training for safe handling of pesticides as well as didn’t use personal protective equipment (PPE) properly. Farmers, who had taken basic training, almost had no health hazards. Most of them had no knowledge about proper management of empty bottles or packets of pesticides. A few percent farmers gave attention on proper personal hygiene after applying pesticides. Pesticides handling practices were not satisfactory and different health issues were reported.</p> Bishnumani Kafle Copyright (c) 2023 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59267 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Application of Human Urine in Vegetable Production in a School Garden: A Participatory Action Research https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59268 <p>Urine separation toilets are a possible route for achieving maximum recovery and recycling urine nutrients. However, using fresh urine as agricultural fertilizer is problematic and controversial concerning hygiene, storage, distribution, and supply. The intervention of this study was implemented at a public high school in Nepal. This study explores the applicability of urine diversion toilets in the school setting to improve organic vegetable production from the school's Eco-garden and the status of improving sanitation. A urine diversion toilet was constructed, and hardware and software-based participatory interventions were undertaken in the schools' Eco-garden. It was found that the urine diversion toilet is useful in preventing surface water from being polluted and improving students' sanitation and hygiene behavior. When cultivating vegetables using human urine fertilizer and animal fertilizer in different plots of the same area, it is found that human urine as fertilizer increases by 40% more production of the vegetables in comparison with using animal fertilizer. It is concluded that urine-fertilized plots have more vegetables with nutrients than animal fertilizer. Human urine application could be effectively used as a nutrient fertilizer, a new area of scientific research in the research frontier.</p> Govinda Prasad Devkota Copyright (c) 2023 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59268 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Child Labour in Thamel's Hospitality Industry: A Study on Causes and Effects https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59269 <p>The main objective of the study was to draw out the economic condition of the family along with the causes of child labour and its impact on health education. The purposing sampling method was taken to select the respondent.135 respondents were selected by convenient sampling methods. The low educational status of child labour was the major problem. The health condition of the labour was weak due to unhealthy working environment. Out of 135 respondents, 40 (29.62%) respondents were suffering from different kinds of disease. The respondents were found to be lacking of proper educational status. All of them were found to have studied below SEE level. Children's work is very harmful, hazardous, or is in other ways exploitative can create, exacerbate, or perpetuate an intergenerational cycle of poverty, malnutrition and social disadvantage.</p> Ishwor Prasad Neupane Copyright (c) 2023 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59269 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Uncovering Ethnomathematics and Indigenous Epistemology: A Study of Chundara Culture https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59270 <p>The primary aim of this paper is to delve into the realm of ethnomathematical concepts and indigenous epistemology of Chundaras culture. To accomplish this, I employed a methodology that included in-depth interviews and participant observations conducted at various stages of the process, focusing on professionals selected for the study. My analysis encompassed a comprehensive exploration of the Chundaras' daily routines, their workplaces, their actions, methods, and the outcomes they produced, with particular attention to uncovering the hidden mathematical knowledge woven into various aspects of their lives. The study revealed that the Chundaras' approach to teaching and learning was marked by participatory and cooperative methods, where they acquired knowledge with the guidance of their parents. This aligns with Vygotsky's perspective, which views learning as a social activity through which shared mathematical understandings are collectively constructed. However, it became evident that the conventional pedagogy followed in schools stood in stark contrast to the indigenous knowledge of the Chundaras, appearing distant and disconnected from their unique ways of knowing and learning.</p> Jaya Bishnu Pradhan Copyright (c) 2023 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59270 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Construction of Educational Objectives: An Analysis from Blooms Perspectives https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59271 <p>The purpose of this study was to create educational objectives based on different levels of the cognitive domain of Bloom's taxonomy. Moreover, it aimed to identify the action verbs related to science education at the secondary level for bachelor-level students. To achieve this, a qualitative research methodology was used with 15 students selected through a purposive sampling procedure from campus A. In-depth interview guidelines and focus group discussions were prepared and validated by subject experts and colleagues. Seven students participated in the interview, and two FGDs were conducted using the research tools. The field data was coded and analyzed thematically. The study investigates the difficulties of Bloom's Taxonomy and its application in modern education and cognitive science. It also identifies the action verbs and their possible specific and behavioral objectives in science education. Each level of cognitive domain emphasizes its significance in curriculum building, instructional strategies, and assessing cognitive growth in science education. The research investigates the changing applications of Bloom's Taxonomy that should be used in today's technologically driven educational context.</p> Krishna Maya Devkota, Narayan Prasad Timilsena Copyright (c) 2023 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59271 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Fostering Engaged Pedagogical Innovation for Meaningful Learning: A Literature Review https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59272 <p>Teaching and learning of mathematics become unpractical and meaningless while students are treated as passive beings and teachers are treated as the knowledge transformers. In this paper, I have explored some key ideas regarding meaningful pedagogical approaches in teaching mathematics based on the in-depth study and critical analysis of the efforts of various authors together with my reflective ideas. Students’ performance in mathematics appears deficient, largely due to the limited implementation of pedagogical approaches that cater to their interests and establish meaningful connections to their daily lives in the classroom. Furthermore, instead of applying engaged pedagogical approaches; disengaged and decontextualized pedagogical approaches seem in daily practice. As the result, mathematics is not becoming as the subject of the interest of most of the student. This paper is intended to explore the different techniques of teaching and learning of mathematics effectively to foster active involvement of the learners. Moreover, through this study, I have critically analysed and reflected the contributions of many authors regarding enabling pedagogical approaches demonstrated by them to reach in final conclusion. From my critical self-reflection with reference to many authors, I have concluded that there are some pedagogies that inspire students to engage in learning mathematics.</p> Ram Raja Thakuri Copyright (c) 2023 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59272 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Perceptions of Students Toward Physics Learning Strategies at the Secondary Level https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59274 <p>The study aimed to find out the perception of students towards physics learning strategies and to analyze perceptions of the student’s learning strategies. The research design is quantitative in nature and follow survey design with random sampling methods to take the perceptions of 500 students for the sample size was selected 75 students from five government school towards physics learning strategies. Data was collected by using paper based closed ended, which utilized a Likert scale format. Descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation were used for the analysis of data. The study revealed that students generally exhibited a positive attitude towards learning physics and showed a preference for social interaction, group study, ICT based learning, logic resonance, collaborative learning, note taking, and note making, problem solving, laboratory method and feedback from teachers. While the use of lecture method and rote learning strategies, students gave a negative response. The study emphasized the importance of considering students' opinions and preferences when designing and implementing effective learning strategies. It suggested that teachers and educators prioritize the use of collaborative learning, laboratory methods, feedback and problem solving strategies in physics classes. A physics lab is required to effectively understand the material for students towards visualizing concepts in physics were positive from the statements that visualizing concepts helps students remember and understand physics easily and quickly. This study also highlighted the need for further research to explore the integration of these effective learning strategies into physics instruction in order to enhance student learning outcomes.</p> Sandeep Dawadi Copyright (c) 2023 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59274 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Menstruation Hygiene Practices Among Girl Students in Kathmandu Valley https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59275 <p>The study, titled "Menstruation hygiene practices among higher-level girls students," explores the natural process of menstruation in the female reproductive system occurring monthly. Governed by hormonal changes, menstruation is a pivotal facet of the menstrual cycle, and fertility and associated with physical and emotional symptoms like cramps, mood swings, and fatigue. Proper menstrual hygiene practices are vital for women's health during this period. Inadequate water, sanitation, hygiene facilities, limited education, and deficient menstrual hygiene management make girls perceive menstruation as embarrassing and uncomfortable. In Nepal, many teenage girls lack education about menstruation, adversely affecting their health. The study aims to assess menstruation hygiene practices among higher-level female students before and during menstruation. Using quantitative and descriptive methods, the research selected 250 students through simple random sampling from 650 enrolled on two constituent campuses. These campuses were chosen via convenience sampling from 22 within the Kathmandu Valley. Ethical considerations were followed, ensuring confidentiality and obtaining oral consent from participants. The findings underline the significance of comprehensive menstrual health education and the sway of cultural beliefs on menstruation experiences. Encouraging open discussions, dispelling myths, ensuring access to accurate information, and cultivating supportive environments are essential for enhancing menstrual health and overall well-being.</p> Shanta Upadhya, Anup Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59275 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Reading: An Active Language Learning Skill https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59276 <p>This article presents on some perspectives on reading. It considers reading as a robust resource and skill for learning. Reading is one of the major avenues of communication. It has occupied a good space at the Nepalese educational system. This is a review article where an in-depth information and insight has been reviewed. The techniques that are used in this study are document review and theoretical knowledge. Relevant literature is reviewed to make the study conceptually and theoretically reliable and authentic. The study shows that to read is to lead. The desire to write comes from reading. It demands both passion and compassion to be a voracious reader. It is not only receptive but an active, communicative and interactive skill. It leads to understanding, communication, capacity building, critical thinking, testing and assessment. It is the means by which every age is linked to every other. It makes possible reader’s capacity for time binding, the ability to perceive himself or herself in the historic process and the fluid universe around him or her. Teaching reading is a humanizing process. Reading involves skills and thinking. It affects the entire personality. Through reading the learner can view ever-widening horizons and explore ever-new areas in the world of things, people and events. The key to learning, therefore, is the cultivation not only of the ability to read, but also of the love of reading.</p> Shiv Ram Pandey Copyright (c) 2023 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59276 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Use of Mobile/Smart Phones and Students' Mathematics Learning: A Case of Basic Schools in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59277 <p>This study is mainly focused on the students' mobile using habit and its impact on teaching and learning mathematics. The study method was survey with 119 students of public and institutional schools in the Chandragiri Municipality of Kathmandu. Questionnaire is use for identifying the access and use of mobile for learning and achievement test for measuring the students' achievement as tools for the study. The study found that 89.9% students had access of smartphones at their home including personal as well as their own. The utilization of mobile smart phone is the genuine concern for the proper utilization for learning. The results indicated that, the use of mobile in planned learning for a specified time enhanced the mathematics performance of students. Adversely, those students who engaged on mobile/smart phones higher in hours and not using mobile for learning purpose decreased their achievement in mathematics. Gender difference observed in using mobile that boys used mobile more hours than the girls. Further, entertainment type of application/programme such as music videos, song were the favorite program for girls whereas games related programme was the favorite programme for boys in the use of mobile/smart phones. Two hours/day was found the standard time to use mobile/smart phones for better performance in mathematics.</p> Shree Prasad Ghimire Copyright (c) 2023 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59277 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Teaching Practices for Engaged Mathematics Learning with ICT Tools: An Educator’s Perspectives https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59279 <p>Teaching practice is a training course for the students of Faculty of Education at Tribhuvan University, Nepal. To make teaching practice realistic, practical, skillful, and meaningful, a collaborative approach and information communication technology (ICT) tools play a significant role in mathematics classrooms. In this context, this research study explores the context of student teachers' teaching practice to use engagement learning approaches integrated with ICT tools in the mathematics classroom. Bruner's theory of learning and Kearsley and Shneiderman's engagement theory have been used as theoretical referents of this study. The methodology section comprises class observation of student teachers and an interview session with the head teacher, class teacher, student teacher, and each boy and girl student. The results reveal that an engagement learning strategy enhances interest and confidence among student groups, which is linked to knowledge, strengthening and skill growth for producing qualified human resources in mathematics. This research motivates students, mathematics teachers, and teacher educators.</p> Tara Paudel Copyright (c) 2023 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59279 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Married Women’s Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Regarding Uterine Prolapse in Morang District of Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59280 <p>Uterine prolapse is a common health problem, particularly among adults and old women in Nepal. This study aims to assess the level of knowledge on uterine prolapse among currently married women aged 15 to 49 years and assess their attitude and practice. Researchers used a descriptive research approach in this study. Participants were selected from simple random sampling, and the study area was selected from purposive sampling. There were 140 respondents aged 15 to 49 years currently married women. If there are two respondents in a single family, then the researcher has picked only one respondent for the interview. Semi-structured interview schedules have been used as a tool for the study. Research has identified various factors for uterine prolapse like age at first marriage, place of delivery, and history of abortion. Nearly one in two women had average knowledge of uterine prolapse, and one in four women had never heard of uterine prolapse. There are good practices (90 percent) for getting health facilities for uterine prolapse checkups. However, many of them are unaware of the Kegel exercise. Very few women (one in ten women) had a positive attitude towards uterine prolapse. To promote knowledge, attitudes, and practices of uterine prolapse, health promotion programs should target women from all caste/ethnic groups, age groups, and education levels, including urban and rural communities.</p> Thuma Kumari Paudel, Govinda Prasad Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59280 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Science Learning Strategies at Secondary Level Schools in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59281 <p>This study explores the strategies for teaching and learning science at secondary-level public schools in Nepal. A descriptive quantitative research design was adopted and non-random convenient sampling techniques were adopted in this study. An observation form and a closed-ended survey questionnaire were used for the data collection. It was found that the majority of science teachers used lecture and demonstration methods and 55% of teacher select the teaching methods on the basis of the subject matters rather than the student’s interest and classroom environment. Only 2 schools out of 11 were conduct science exhibition program and students enjoyed to participation science exhibition. Also, students used internet websites and applications including YouTube, and Facebook for learning. It is recommended that the use of student-centered approaches while teaching and learning science at secondary public schools in Nepal will have positive impact.</p> Tika Ram Gautam, Kamal Prasad Acharya Copyright (c) 2023 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59281 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the Socioeconomic Factors and Causes of In-Migration: A Study on Rainas Municipality, Lamjung District https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59284 <p>The main causes of migration of that place were for higher education and employment. Migrant people left their home mainly in search of employment. The proportion of dependent migrants was higher than proportion of migrants involved in economic activity. The main objective of the study is to find out the situation, nature and causes of migration and explore the patterns of remittance from migration. The migrants were mostly students and unemployed adult population for searching jobs. The highest migration by ethnic Caste groups were Brahman and Dalits. The highest caste-wise remittance entered Dalits and Gurung and the highest amount of remittance was used for buying land in this place.</p> Tantrika Raj Khanal Copyright (c) 2023 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59284 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Affective Mediation of Mother Tongue in Grade 9 ELT Classes in Kathmandu https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59285 <p>The use of mother tongue (MT) in a target language (TL) class has become a contentious issue for a long time. This paper examines the use of students’ MT in TL classes, focusing on Grade 9 English language teaching (ELT) in community schools of Kathmandu. Community school English teachers’ experiences of using students’ MT for affective mediation were explored through written ‘lived-experience descriptions’ (LEDs) and phenomenological interviews with three purposively selected teachers. Using ATLAS.ti, the collected information was analyzed from a sociocultural viewpoint, emphasizing the affective mediational function of MT in second language (L2) learning. The study reveals how teachers use students’ MT for counseling, attention-grabbing, fostering interest, and making classroom activities enjoyable. The pedagogical implication is that incorporating students' mother tongue for counseling, attention-grabbing, fostering interest, and creating enjoyable classroom activities, particularly when students share a common mother tongue with their teacher and show less interest in learning English, has significant potential for inspiring and guiding students effectively.</p> Uma Nath Sharma Copyright (c) 2023 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59285 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Mathematics Teachers' Perception Towards Educational Technology Integration: Mahendra Ratna Campus Tahachal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59286 <p>Integrating educational technology in mathematics education has emerged as a transformative force revolutionizing traditional teaching/ learning(T/L) practices. Understanding mathematics teachers' perceptions regarding technology integration is vital in fostering successful adoption and implementation in their T/L practice. Utilizing a structured questionnaire with Likert-scale items, the study gathered data on teachers' perceptions of technology's effectiveness and its impact on student learning outcomes. The findings revealed highly positive perceptions among mathematics teachers, with mean scores ranging from 3.73 to 4.33 and statistically significant p-values (p &lt; 0.05). Moreover, the study found no significant differences in various perceptions based on gender, academic level, teaching experience, or level of teaching. The results emphasize the potential benefits of incorporating educational technology in mathematics education and provide valuable insights for stakeholders seeking to enhance mathematics learning experiences at Mahendra Ratna Campus and beyond.</p> Umesh Acharya Copyright (c) 2023 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59286 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Enhancing Economics Education Through Digital Resources and Online Learning https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59287 <p>The integration of technology into education has reshaped traditional teaching methods, especially in the field of economics education. Digital resources and online learning platforms offer novel ways to enhance the learning experience, bridging the gap between theoretical concepts and real-world applications. This systematic review critically examines the impact of technology on economics pedagogy, aiming to uncover both the potential benefits and challenges. However, challenges related to accessibility, equitable technology access, instructor presence, and effective pedagogical strategies persist. Through a meticulous screening, 17 relevant and high-quality research articles were selected from a pool of 358. These articles offer diverse perspectives, exploring e-learning effectiveness, engagement through simulations, flipped classroom approaches, student motivation, digital literacy, and accessibility. Collectively, the studies highlight the potential of digital resources to enhance engagement, learning outcomes, and accessibility while acknowledging the challenges posed by technology disparities and pedagogical design. Ultimately, this systematic review emphasizes the importance of embracing technology in economics education and equipping learners with the skills necessary to navigate the complex economic landscape of the 21st century. Educators, researchers, and policymakers can draw valuable insights from this review to create effective and inclusive technology-enhanced learning environments for economics students.</p> Bishnu Maya Joshi, Padma Koirala Copyright (c) 2023 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59287 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Mathematics Achievement of Grade Eight Students in Lalitpur District https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59288 <p>This study delves into the mathematics achievement of grade eight students of Godavari Nagar Palika in the Lalitpur district. Using a sample of 147 students currently enrolled in grade eight in the schools within the Nagara Palika, the research sought to elucidate the potential correlations between mathematical achievement and variables such as gender, age, ethnicity, religion, school type (private vs. public), parental marital status, and previous math scores. While most variables exhibited no significant influence on mathematics achievement, ethnicity emerged as a variable with notable impact. The study underscores the importance of understanding cultural and ethnic influences on academic performance, with potential implications for curriculum development and teaching methodologies in diverse settings. Variables including gender, age, and school type, showed no significant correlation with mathematical achievement at the p&lt;0.05 level. However, ethnicity displayed a significant difference in students' mathematical performance. The research accentuates the importance of considering ethnic backgrounds when evaluating mathematical achievement, indicating a potential avenue for more tailored educational strategies in Lalitpur. Findings suggest educators should be cognizant of cultural and ethnic factors when devising teaching strategies, especially in areas with diverse student populations like Lalitpur.</p> Sharada Pahari Copyright (c) 2023 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59288 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Learning Difficulties of Mathematics at Primary Level https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59289 <p>The aim of this study was to identify the causes of difficulties in learning mathematics for students at the primary level. For this purpose, I selected a primary school in Ru Ru 04 of Gulmi District. I selected four students studying in Lamakharka Jhamadi primary school at grade five by applying purposive sampling. I used phenomenology within qualitative research design. I triangulated the collected data from students, teachers, and the parents of respective students. From this study, I found that language differences, parent’s carelessness, low economic status, an unfavorable school environment, and a lack of practice at home are the main causes of learning difficulties for students in mathematics.</p> Yagya Prasad Gnawali Copyright (c) 2023 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59289 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Challenges Facing Women in School Leadership Positions: At Community Schools in Lalitpur Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59290 <p>Women's leadership in education, particularly in the role of women head teachers, plays a pivotal role in advocating for women's rights and fostering inclusive development. However, women in school leadership positions encounter substantial obstacles stemming from cultural, economic, and social factors. This study's primary objective is to delve into the perceptions and experiences of women headteachers concerning the multifaceted challenges they confront while leading community schools in the Lalitpur district of Nepal. To accomplish this, in-depth interviews will be conducted with three women head teachers representing different community schools. Despite the evolving landscape, Nepal still grapples with the prevailing perception of women as second-class citizens. Furthermore, state laws have not entirely rectified these societal disparities, particularly within educational leadership roles. In many instances, women in school leadership positions do not receive the encouragement they deserve, and they often face bias, where they are seen as inferior to their male counterparts. The complex challenges and disparities faced by women in educational leadership underscore the need for further research to comprehensively understand the issue, given the potential diversity of perspectives within Nepalese society.</p> Durga Devi Ghimire Copyright (c) 2023 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59290 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 उच्च शिक्षाको शिक्षण र प्रश्नपत्रका माध्यमले शिद्यार्थीमा पारेको प्रभाव https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59669 <p>Available with fulltext.&nbsp;</p> अञ्जली Anjali अधिकारी Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59669 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 ‘म त बन्दी भएको छु’ कविता सङ्ग्रहमा यथार्थता https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59696 <p>‘म त बन्दी भएको छु’ कविता सङ्ग्रहमा यथार्थताको खोजी गर्नु नै यस लेखको विषय हो । उक्त कविता सङ्ग्रहभित्र अभिव्यक्त यथार्थ पक्षको पहिचान गरी विश्लेषण गर्नु यस लेखको उद्देश्य हो । पुस्तकालय कार्यका आधारमा पुस्तक पठन विधिको प्रयोग गरी सङ्कलन गरिएका यथार्थताको पक्षलाई पाठ विश्लेषण विधिका आधारमा विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । कविता सङ्ग्रहलाई प्राथमिक स्रोतका रूपमा अपनाई लेखमा अपनाइएका विभिन्न विद्वानका लेख, टिप्पणी तथा पूर्वकार्यलाई द्वितीयक सामग्रीका रूपमा अपनाइएको छ । यथार्थताको अध्ययन गर्ने क्रममा कवितामा व्यक्त समाज, राजनीतिक व्यवस्था, अर्थव्यवस्था, संस्कार, संस्कृतिलाई प्राथमिकतामा राखिएको छ । कवितामा व्यक्त विषयवस्तु गरिबी, अभाव, पीडा, विसङ्गति, व्यङ्ग्य, समसामयिक दृष्टिकोण, आशावादी जीवनदृष्टिजस्ता स्वर स्वाभाविक रूपमा अभिव्यक्त भएका छन् । यथार्थमा काव्य सङ्ग्रहले देश, जनता, जाति, संस्कृति, सभ्यता र सांस्कारिक पक्षलाई केन्द्र बनाएर अगाडि बढेकोले राष्ट्रिय भाव काव्यमा स्वतः समेटिएको छ । गुणात्मक पद्धतिका माध्यमबाट कविता सङ्ग्रहलाई प्राथमिक स्रोतको सामग्रीका रूपमा उपयोग गरिएको छ । कवितामा यथार्थताको खोजी गरिएकाले प्रस्तुत लेखको पठन र अन्तर्पठनबाट सरोकारवाला पाठक तथा यथार्थताको अध्ययन गर्ने जो कोही अध्येतालाई प्रस्तुत लेख उपयोगी रहेको छ ।</p> गणेशराज Ganeshraj अधिकारी Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59696 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 विद्यालय शिक्षामा राज्यको लगानी र शैक्षिक उपलब्धिहरुको संरचनागत विश्लेषण https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59697 <p>विश्वभर शिक्षामा क्रमिक सुधार हुँदै जाने क्रममा आधुनिक युगको सुरुवात हुन थाल्यो । नेपालमा परम्परागत रुपमा गुरुकुलबाट सुरुवात भएको हिन्दु वैदिक शिक्षाबाट नै शिक्षाको विकास र सुधार सुरु भएको इतिहास भेटिए तापनि धेरै लामो समयसम्म राज्यले आफ्नो दायित्व लिएको भेटिदैन । वि.सं. १९१० मा दरबार स्कुलको स्थापनासँग आधुनिक शिक्षा प्रणालीको सुरुवात भए पनि वि.सं. २००७ को राजनैतिक परिर्वतनसम्म पुग्दा साक्षरता २ प्रतिशत मात्र रह्यो । संवैधानिक रूपमा नै शिक्षामा लगानी गर्न प्रोत्साहित गरे अनुरूप नेपालको संघीय बजेटको ठुलो हिस्सा विद्यालय शिक्षा सुधारमा खर्च भएको छ । शिक्षामा भएको खर्चले शैक्षिक प्रतिफलसँग प्रत्यक्ष सम्बन्ध राख्छ । लगानी गर्दा निर्दिष्ट गरेका उद्देश्यहरू पूरा भएका छन्छैनन्भन्ने विषयको अध्ययननको थप आवश्यकता भएकोले यो अध्ययन गरिएको छ । छोटो समयावधिमा द्धितीय स्रोतबाट तथ्याङ्कहरू सङ्कलन गरेर परिमाणात्मक र वर्णनात्मक व्याख्या गरी पूरा गरिएको यो अध्ययनले विभिन्न प्रकाशन, लेख रचना तथा प्रकाशित अनुसन्धानलाई समेटेको छ ।अध्ययनले देखाएको नतिजाअनुसार विद्यालय शिक्षामा भएको थप लगानी तथा यसको व्यवस्थापन र परिचालनमा भएको सुधारले शिक्षा क्षेत्रको विकास एंवम्आधुनिकीकरण प्रक्रियामा धेरै संरचनागत सुधार भएर महत्वपूर्ण उपलब्धिहरु हाँसिल गर्न सकिने देखिएको छ । विद्यालय शिक्षामा गरिएको लगानीको वृद्धि र दीर्घकालीन रणनितिक योजनाहरुले गर्दा शैक्षिक उपलब्धि र देशको ग्राहस्थ उत्पादनमा शिक्षाको योगदान बढदै गएको तथ्याङ्कले देखाएको छ । वर्षेनी बढ्दै गएको साक्षरता प्रतिशतको दरलाई लगानीको उचित प्रतिफलको रुपमा समेत लिन सकिन्छ र विभिन्न शैक्षिक तथ्याङ्कहरुले सरकारले शिक्षा क्षेत्रमा थप गरेको लगानीको सकारात्मक प्रतिफल प्राप्त गदै गरेको अवस्थालाई चित्रित गरेका छन्। यद्यपि शिक्षा क्षेत्रमा भएको लगानीलाई समतामुलक,उपलब्धिमुलक बनाउन खर्च प्रणालीलाई थप पारदर्शी तथा नियमित अनुगमन र मूल्याङकनको व्यवस्था गरिनु जरूरी छ । यो अध्ययनले शिक्षा क्षेत्रको वर्तमान अवस्था र शैक्षिक क्षेत्र, विशेषत विद्यालय शिक्षामा विगतदेखि गरिएको लगानीको प्रतिफल सम्बन्धमा थप अध्ययन गर्न चाहानेलाई सहयोग पुग्नेछ । शैक्षिक नतिजा हेर्ने क्रममा प्रयोग भएका तथ्याङ्कहरूको संरचनागत विश्लेषण गरिएको यो अध्ययनले देखाएको नतिजा सबैका लागि थप उपयोगी हुन सक्ने देखिन्छ ।</p> गेहेन्द्रप्रसाद Gehendraprasad दाहाल Dahal Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59697 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 पाठ्यक्रम सम्बन्धी विभिन्न धारणाहरु तथा पाठ्यक्रम विशेषज्ञ https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59698 <p>संसार र व्यक्तिलाई हेर्ने दृष्टिकोणगत भिन्नताका कारण शिक्षा र पाठ्यक्रमका सन्दर्भमा पनि फरक फरक दृष्टिकोणहरुको विकास भएको पाइन्छ, जसको परिणामस्वरुप शिक्षाको लक्ष्य र विषयवस्तु, शिक्षण विधि आदिमा पनि फरक फरक दृष्टिकोणहरुको छायाँ देख्न सकिन्छ । पाठ्यक्रम निर्माताहरुले विभिन्न दृष्टिकोणहरुका साथै आप्mनो दृष्टिकोणलाई पनि मनन गरी पाठ्यक्रम सम्बन्धी निर्णयहरु लिनुपर्छ । पाठ्यक्रम निर्माणका क्रममा विभिन्न कुराहरुप्रति चनाखो हुनुपर्छ । यसका लागि पाठ्यक्रम कार्यकर्ताले विभिन्न प्रश्नहरुको खोजी गरी उत्तर प्राप्त गर्ने प्रयास गरेमा महत्वपूर्ण पक्षहरुप्रति ध्यान पु¥याउन सहज हुनुका साथै आधारभूत धारणा, सिद्धान्त र अनुसन्धान विधिहरु निर्धारण गर्न सहज हुन्छ । पाठ्यक्रम निर्माणका विभिन्न आधारहरु छन्, जसको जगमा पाठ्यक्रम ठडिएको हुन्छ । पाठ्यक्रमका प्रमुख श्रोतहरुमा दार्शनिक, सामाजिक, मनोवैज्ञानिक र ज्ञानलाई प्रमुख मानिन्छ ।</p> महेन्द्र Mahendra बस्नेत Basnet Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59698 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 अभिघातका दृष्टिले छिमेकी कथाको विश्लेषण https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59699 <p>कथाकार गुरुप्रसाद मैनालीका हरेक कथाहरु सरल र सुबोद्य छन् । उनका कथाहरु धेरै पहिले लेखिएका भए तापनि आज पढ्दा पनि वर्तमान नेपाली समाजको आजै भएको घटना जस्तो लाग्छ । यसको उदाहरण छिमेकी कथा हो । आज पनि नेपाली गाउँ घरमा गुमाने र धनजिते जस्ता प्रतिनिधि पात्रहरु जस्तै एक मुठी घाँसको निहुँमा झैझगाडा गरिरहेका होलान्। उनीहरुको झगडाका कारण एकले अर्कोलाई अभिघात हुने वचन लगाएका छन्। उनीहरुको बिचमा एउटा सानो निहुँमा झगडा भएको छ । एउटाले भनेको वचनले अर्कोलाई चोट परेको छ चोट पर्नु भनेको अभिघात हुनु हो । मैनालीको प्रस्तुत कथाले अभिघातित पक्षलाई जोडेर अन्त्यमा आँठे रोगको प्रसङ्ग उठाएर दुबै छिमेकीलाई कहिल्यै नछुट्ने गरी मिलाइएको देखाएर कथा अन्त्य गरिएको छ । एउटा सानो कुरामा अरूले उचालेको भरमा उचालिनु नहुने र घमण्ड पनि गर्नु नहुने निष्कर्षमा प्रमुख पात्र गुमाने र धनजिते पुगेका छन्। कहिले काँही सानो कुरामा छिमेकीसँग झैझगडाले अभिघातित भए तापनि गुमानेको जस्तो व्यवहार प्रस्तुत गर्नुपर्ने मुख्य उपलब्धि यस कथाको रहेको छ ।</p> वासुदेव Basudev गौतम Gautam Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59699 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 नेपाली शिक्षाका विद्यार्थीको शोधपत्र लेखनसम्बन्धी जीवन्त अनुभब : शैक्षेणिक उपयोगिता https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59701 <p>Available with fulltext.</p> शक्तिराज Shaktiraj नेपाल Nepal Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59701 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 छन्त्याल, चेपाङ र नेपाली भाषाको वचन, पुरुष र आदरगत तुलना https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59710 <p>छन्त्याल, चेपाङ र नेपाली भाषाको वचन, पुरुष र आदरगत तुलना’ शीर्षकको यस लेखमा छन्त्याल र चेपाङ र नेपाली भाषालाई वचन, पुरुष र आदरका आधारमा विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । सबै भाषामा वचन, पुरुष र आदरको व्यवस्था समान किसिमको देखिँदैन । कतिपय भाषामा वचनको प्रभाव कर्ता र क्रिया दुवैमा पर्ने गरेको पाइन्छ भने कतिपय भाषामा वचनको प्रभाव कर्तामा मात्र परी क्रियामा परेको पाइँदैन । छन्त्याल र चेपाङ भाषाको वचनको प्रभाव कर्तामा मात्र परेको देखिन्छ , यिनीहरूमा नेपाली भाषामा जस्तो वचनको प्रभाव क्रियामा परेको देखिँदैन । यसले गर्दा छन्त्याल र चेपाङ भाषीले नेपाली भाषाको प्रयोग गर्दा वचनका आधारमा क्रियाको सङ्गतिको प्रयोगमा कठिनाइ अनुभव गर्दछन् अर्थात् उनीहरूले नेपाली भाषाको अभिव्यक्तिमा वचनका आधारमा क्रियाको सङ्गतिमा त्रुटि गर्न सक्ने देखिन्छ । यसैगरी पुरुषको प्रभाव कतिपय भाषामा कर्ता र क्रिया दुवैमा परेको पाइन्छ भने कतिपय भाषामा कर्तामा मात्र परेको हुन्छ । छन्त्याल र चेपाङ भाषामा पुरुषको प्रभाव कर्तामा मात्र सीमित रहेको देखिन्छ, नेपाली भाषामा जस्तो पुरुषको प्रभाव क्रियामा परेको देखिँदैन । यसकारण छन्त्याल र चेपाङ मातृभाषीहरूले नेपाली भाषाको प्रयोगमा पुरुषगत क्रियाको सङ्गतिको प्रयोगमा जटिलता अनुभव गर्दछन्अर्थात्उनीहरूले नेपाली भाषाको अभिव्यक्तिमा पुरुषको आधारमा क्रियाको सङ्गतिमा त्रुटि गर्न सक्ने देखिन्छ । कतिपय भाषामा आदरार्थीका विभिन्न रूपहरू पाइन्छन् भने कतिपय भाषामा आदारार्थीका विभिन्न रूपहरू पाइँदैनन्। छन्त्याल र चेपाङ भाषाको अभिव्यक्तिमा नेपाली भाषामा जस्तो आदरको तहमा विभेद पाइँदैन त्यसैले यिनीहरूले नेपाली भाषाको प्रयोगमा आदरगत प्रयोगमा कठिनाइ अनुभव गर्दछन्अर्थात्उनीहरूले नेपाली भाषाको अभिव्यक्तिमा आदरगत प्रयोगमा त्रुटि गर्ने सम्भावना देखियो ।</p> दुर्गा प्रसाद Durga Prasad दाहाल Dahal Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59710 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 ‘सोतला’ उपन्यासको विश्लेषण https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59702 <p>डोरबहादुरद्वारा लिखित ‘सोतला’ उपन्यास तिब्बत चिनको स्वशासित क्षेत्रमा परिणत हुनुभन्दा अगाडि नै नेपाल र तिब्बतको बिचमा घनिष्ट सम्बन्ध स्थापित भइसकेको थियो भन्ने साहित्यिक दस्तावेज हो । सोतला उपन्यासलाई प्राथमिक सामग्री मानेर गुणात्मक ढाँचामा विवेच्य उपन्यासको अध्ययन विश्लेषणलाई मूल विधि मानेर प्रस्तुत लेख तयार गरिएको छ । यसमा नेपाल परापूर्व कालदेखि नै त्यस भूमिसँग नेपालीहरुको गहिरो सम्बन्ध रहिआएको अभिव्यक्तिहरु पाइन्छन्। त्यस्तै नेपाल र तिब्बत बिचको सामाजिक–सांस्कृतिक सम्बन्ध, ऐतिहासिक राजनैतिक परिवेश, गरिबीसँगको सङ्घर्षको क्रममा उपत्यकाली युवकहरु ल्हासा पुग्नु, त्यसपछि धर्म, संस्कृति र भेष–भूषा–भाषामा समेत समिश्रण आउनु, नेपाल र तिब्बत बिचको व्यापारिक सम्बन्ध र त्यसको स्थिति, त्यस क्रममा दुई सांस्कृतिक व्यक्तिहरुका वा तिब्बती र उपत्यकाली नेवारहरु बिचको वैवाहिक सम्बन्ध र सन्तानको जन्म, सांस्कृतिक विषमता एवम् सामाजिक अन्ध विश्वासका कारण खच्चड संस्कृतिको जन्म, नेपाली सरकारी कर्मचारीको भ्रष्टचारी घुसखोरी प्रवृत्ति, व्यापारिक बेइमानी र नाफाखोरी प्रवृत्तिका कारण साना व्यापारीहरुले भोग्नु परेका समस्याहरुलाई उपन्यासले प्रस्तुत गरेको छ र यस लेखमा उपन्यासका ती पाटाहरुको विश्लेषण गर्ने कार्य गरिएको छ ।</p> राम कुमार Ram Kumar राई Rai Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59702 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 नेपालमा संविधानवादको कार्यान्वयन https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59706 <p>नेपालको संविधानले जनताको अधिकार प्रत्याभूति गर्नुका साथै सरकार र जनताबीचको सन्तुलन कायम राख्ने गरेको पाइन्छ । नेपालको राजनीतिक इतिहासमा धेरै संविधानको निर्माण भए तथापि तिनमा संविधानवादको प्रभाव भने लामो समय रहनसकेन । राज्यप्रणालीमा आएको परिवर्तनको कारण र पटकपटकको व्यवस्था परिवर्तन भएसँगै संविधानवादको कार्यान्वयनमा राजनैतिक दलको स्वार्थगत भावना र सरकार तथा शासनमा बसेका मानिसहरुको आफू अनुकुलको व्याख्याका कारण संविधानवाद ओझेलमा पर्यो । त्यो सँगै कानूनी शासनका संरक्षक, बुद्धिजिवी, कानूनका जानकार समेतले दलीय भागबण्डामा आफ्नो अस्तित्व बनाउँदै जानु र सैद्धान्तिक विषयलाई मात्रै बहसको विषय बनाएर जाँदा संविधान र कानूनको कार्यान्वयनमा कमजोरी देखा परे । यसैगरी न्याय सम्पादन गर्ने निकायमा समेत दलीय भागबण्डा गर्दा निष्पक्ष न्यायमाथि प्रहार हुनगयो । संविधान लोकतान्त्रिक र जनमुखी हुँदापनि यसको प्रयोगकर्तामा आएको विचलन र शक्तिको उन्मादले राज्यप्रणाली चलाउने मनोविज्ञानका कारण नेपालमा संविधानवाद कार्यान्वयनमा अभाव देखिएको हो । राज्यको कार्य सफलतापूर्वक सञ्चालन गर्नका निम्ति जब कसैलाई शक्ति प्रदान गरिन्छ त्यहाँ शक्तिको प्रयोग नागरिकको स्वतन्त्रता र रक्षा गर्नेभन्दा बढी प्रयोग गरिदैन भन्ने विश्वास र वचनवद्धताको आवश्यकता पर्दछ । नेपालमा धेरै संविधान बनेपनि कार्यन्वयन गर्न नपाउँदै विघटन हुने परिस्थितिका कारण संविधानवाद मौलाउन सकेन र कार्यान्वयनमा कठिनाई भयो । यस अध्ययनको उद्देश्य नेपालमा संविधानवादको कार्यान्वयनको अवस्थालाई व्याख्या गर्नु रहेको छ । संविधान भनेको सरकार स्थापनाको मूल आधार हो । सरकारले संविधानलाई कार्यान्वयन मात्र गर्दैन संविधानमा व्यवस्था भएका विषयलाई कानूनी आधारमा पालना गर्ने कार्य पनि गर्दछ । सरकारका ईच्छा, भावना र आकांक्षा असल हुँदाहुँदै पनि यसमा समावेश हुने प्रतिनिधिको अन्तरनिहित शक्ति प्रयोग र निरंकुश बन्ने प्रवृत्तिका कारण संविधानवादको कार्यान्वयन हुन सक्दैन । नेपालको सन्दर्भमा यिनै विषयले प्रसय पाएको पुष्टि हुन आउँछ ।</p> तारादत्त Taradatta पनेरु Paneru Copyright (c) 2023 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pragyaratna/article/view/59706 Fri, 03 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000