Pravaha 2021-12-28T10:40:52+00:00 Dr. Jitendra Upadhyay Open Journal Systems A multidisciplinary double-blinded peer-reviewed research journal published by the Nepal Commerce Campus, Tribhuvan University, New Baneshwor, Kathmandu, Nepal. Editorial Vol.26(1) 2021-12-23T16:50:21+00:00 Fattah Bahadur K.C. Ganesh Prasad Pathak Basanta Dhakal <p>It is a matter of privilege for us to present <strong>Pravaha (A Multidisciplinary Double Blind Peer Reviewed Research Journal) </strong>to our valued readers and researchers. This Journal, we believe, will include exposure to some of the most recent trends and emerging issues in modern management and other social science fields. We anticipate that the authors’ research findings, conceptual dimensions, and thought-provoking topics will be extremely useful in our teaching-learning process, as well as for scholars, practitioners, and others in their respective fields.</p> <p>The papers in this Journal are arranged in alphabetical order by the authors’ names. The editorial board is not responsible for the authors’ personal opinions and views expressed in their papers published in this journal. Finally, the editorial board, advisory board, and journal publishing committee owe a debt of gratitude to the paper contributors and campus administration for allowing the Journal to publish this magnificent 26<sup>th</sup> volume. In the coming days, we will continue our efforts to publish a series of journals.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU Inverted Shifted Gompertz Distribution with Theory and Applications 2021-12-23T17:03:45+00:00 Arun Kumar Chaudhary Laxmi Prasad Sapkota Vijay Kumar <p>In this work, a novel distribution called an inverted shifted Gompertz distribution by the inverse transformation method is introduced and studied. Some relevant characteristics of inverted shifted Gompertz distribution are mathematically and statistically discussed. To estimate parameters of an inverted shifted Gompertz distribution, some well-known estimation methods, namely LSE, MLE and CVME are used. R software is applied for computational purposes. The applicability of the proposed model has been illustrated considering a real set of data and investigated the goodness-of-fit attained by the inverted shifted Gompertz model through various test statistics and graphical methods. We found that the proposed novel distribution is more flexible and delivered a better fit in contrast with some other selected lifespan models.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU Effect of Management Control System on Perceived Performance of Commercial Banks in Nepal 2021-12-23T17:53:53+00:00 Ballav Niroula <p>Management control system is to provide information that is useful for managerial decision-making, planning, monitoring and evaluation of organizational activities to alter employee behavior. The main purpose of the study is to show the effect of MCS on perceived performance of Nepalese commercial Banks. This study followed the descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive and analytical research design has been used. As per the descriptive statistics most of the respondent were agreed that MCS has increased the perceived performance of commercial Banks. There exists strong correlation among the dependent and independent variables. The correlation is statistically significant at 1 percent level of significant.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU Impact of Earnings, Book Value and Dividend on Market Price of Stock of Nepalese Manufacturing Firms Listed in NEPSE 2021-12-23T18:04:39+00:00 Bashu Neupane <p>The main purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of EPS, DPS, BPS, and P/E ratio on the stock price of manufacturing firms listed in NEPSE from 2072 to 2076. In this study, the data of four manufacturing firms listed in NEPSE have been studied. The descriptive and causal-comparative research designs were used to analyze the impact of EPS, DPS, BPS, and P/E ratio on MPS. The DPS and BPS negative significant impact on the stock price of the market and the EPS and P/E ratios are insignificant so they cannot predict the stock price of the market. The study also revealed that the valuable stock is UNI-Lever and the more risky firm is SHIVM cement on the study of manufacturing firms, listed in NEPSE.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU Achieving Work-Life Balances through Flexible Work Practices 2021-12-23T18:25:12+00:00 Binod Ghimire <p>The paper aims to examine flexible work practices and employees' perception of work-life balance. The main purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between flexible work practice and work-life balance. The study is descriptive and co-relational. It is based on the perceptions of employees and includes the questionnaire to 160 employees of service-based organizations working on a different level at Kathmandu Valley. The sample consisted of managerial and nonmanagerial employees who were interested to participate in this study. It is found that employees feel that a flexible work schedule is the right kind of system for their kind of job and they prefer flexibility at work. Flexibility work practice was found to have a positive impact on the employees. It made them more responsible as they were able to manage time at work and fulfill the personal commitment. This paper is useful to academicians and organizations to understand the impact of FW practices on work performance. The findings in this study would help managers and organizations in Nepal to formulate flexible work schedules to improve the work-life balance of human resources working in the organization.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU Impact of Liquidity on the Profitability of the Commercial Banks of Nepal 2021-12-24T09:50:54+00:00 Churamani Pandey Rupesh Kumar Budhthoki <p>The study aims to examine the impact of liquidity on the profitability of Nepalese commercial banks. Investment ratio, capital ratio and liquidity ratio are the independent variables and return on assets is dependent variable. Secondary sources of data have been used from the annual reports of sampled commercial banks. The regression models are estimated to test the effect of bank liquidity on performance of Nepalese commercial banks. Study results reveal that investment ratios and liquidity ratios are negatively related to return on assets indicating that higher the investment ratios and liquidity ratios, lower would be the return on assets and vice versa. Further, the relationship between capital ratios and return on assets is found to be positive indicating that higher the capital ratios of the bank, higher would be the return on assets. Similarly, beta coefficient for capital ratio is positively significant with bank performance, which indicates that increase in capital ratio leads to increase the performance of the banks. However, beta coefficients for investment ratio and liquidity ratio are negative with return on assets indicating increased liquidity ratio and investment ratio decrease the return on assets of the bank.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU Relationship between Business Competency and Employee Performance Improvement: A Study of Nepalese Banking Sector 2021-12-24T10:36:46+00:00 Dhruba Raj Pokharel Sumedha Sharma Bimika Dhakal <p>This study describes the employees’ business competency and performance improvement and their relationship on the basis of responses collected from selected commercial banks inside Kathmandu valley. The main objective of this study was to analyze the employees’ perception on business competency and performance improvement in the banking industry of Nepal.</p> <p>This study adopted a descriptive and comparative design. The size for the research were 210 respondents. Primary data were collected from employee working in banks through a set of a structured questionnaire for the research. To analyze the collected data, mean, standard deviations and Pearson correlation analysis were conducted to identify the relationship between independent variables (Business competency) and dependent variable (Employee performance improvement. This research conformed that Nepalese employees in banking sector are aware of business competency and performance improvement. There is a strong correlation between employees’ business competency and performance improvement.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU Advantages and Disadvantages of Telecommuting: An Observation 2021-12-24T10:50:05+00:00 Dilip Parajuli <p>This paper aims to explore the advantages and disadvantages of telecommuting. In particular, the research design for the study is descriptive. A basic research tool used to gather data on the advantages and disadvantages of telecommuting is the questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was sent to 73 faculties of the three constituent campuses of Tribhuvan University. Based on the results, it is found that flexible working hours are the key advantage of telecommuting in the teaching field. The second key advantage is an improvement in time management. The third advantage is savings in travel time and expenses. The least advantage of telecommuting is professional flexibility. It is also found that feeling of isolation is one of the key disadvantages of telecommuting. The second key disadvantage is no separation between spheres of work and home that is followed by over-availability syndrome, ditched society, investment in training, and personality unsuitability. The least disadvantage of telecommuting is the lack of professional support. By avoiding such types of disadvantages, our organizations can get many benefits by adapting telecommuting as the few and flexible work methods.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU Perceived Corporate Politics and Political Behavior: Cause or Effect for Each Other 2021-12-27T13:33:10+00:00 Ganesh Bhattarai <p>In the literature of corporate politics, directionality (cause or effect) of the relationship between perceived corporate politics and political behavior is unsettled. This study was carried out to measure the association between employee's perceived corporate politics and their political behavior as a response to such context. Positivist research philosophy, deductive reasoning approach of research, and inferential statistic were adopted to infer the conclusion. Perceptual cross-sectional data were taken from the employees working in the Nepalese Banking industry. Structural Equation Modeling, using Analysis of Momentum Structure, was adopted to calculate the results. Data analysis of 725 respondents revealed that employees' perceived corporate politics positively affected their political behavior regarding self-promotion and ingratiation. Moreover, this study measured that employees' self-promoting behavior causes to predict their ingratiating behavior at the workplace. Practical implications, theoretical implications, and direction for further study are recommended.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU Entrepreneurship and Strategic Management: A Critical Analysis on these Paradigms' Relationship 2021-12-27T16:03:18+00:00 Gyanendra Bikram Shah <p>The purpose of this study is to provide a better understanding of the arguments concerning the various views provided by different academics in the fields of entrepreneurship and strategic management and then to find a position in which practice is generally agreed on by the divisions. The researcher examined the fundamental theories of the two paradigms of entrepreneurship and strategic management and also examined existing literature submitted by scholars in the fields who tried to look at the intersection of the two paradigms. This post, however, aims to highlight the need to see the two disciplines as being similar from various parental perspectives. Literature on each of the paradigms was checked to provide a better understanding of them. The researcher was able to consider such intersecting variables, such as culture, which was seldom stressed as a factor influencing the opportunity-seeking conduct of an entrepreneur and competitive advantage-seeking activities to create wealth and ensure the economic development and survival of an organization.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU The Base of Prosperity in Developing Economies: A Case of Business Enterprises in Nepal 2021-12-27T16:35:41+00:00 Jit Bahadur K.C. <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>This article aims to explain the status of BEs and to discuss their role in Nepal for a prosperous nation.</p> <p><strong>Methods and materials: </strong>The study adopts the explanatory methods using both (i.e., primary and secondary) source and secondary data. For this purpose, the study entertained the process of collecting, arranging, organising and interpreting the collected data with appropriate forms.</p> <p><strong>Findings and conclusion: </strong>The study found different types and forms of BEs in Nepal with different legal statuses but very small in number. The forms of BEs showed that sole proprietorship and P.Ltd. dominated business culture. Foreign companies and public limited companies which issue shares and debentures found in nominal number. The conclusion of the study shows that the governments of Nepal from the very beginning have not been working in a planned way to established the BEs in the appropriate required forms, types, natures and manner. Considering the requirement of the nation on the BEs, the government of Nepal should immediately take a good step for further development of the BEs.</p> <p><strong>Originality/value: </strong>In this subject and context it is the first attempt although it deals with the BEs with different aspects and explains the role of BEs for the prosperity of the nation very clearly and substantially. However, it requires further study to be completed in all aspects.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU Impact of Motivation on Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Nepalese Non-Life Insurance Companies 2021-12-27T16:59:33+00:00 Jitendra Prasad Upadhyay Pitri Raj Adhikari <p>This paper attempts to examine the impact of motivation on organizational citizenship behavior in Nepalese non-life insurance companies. Data are collected through a structured questionnaire from 325 respondents of 20 non-life insurance companies of Kathmandu valley. Descriptive and causal-comparative research design are used to achieve the objectives and descriptive as well as multiple regression models have been used to analyze the data. Organizational citizen behavior is the dependent variable and authority, autonomy, promotion, salary, recognition, career opportunity are independent variables. It is observed that all independent variables have a positive and significant relationship with organizational citizenship behavior. &nbsp;</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU An Analysis of Hydro-energy Deficit in Nepal 2021-12-28T08:39:06+00:00 Krishna Prasad Ojha <p>Even though Nepal has a huge hydropower capacity, it has not been able to fully exploit this vast resource for economic growth. Despite having access to electricity, the country's power sector is underperforming, with supply shortages, reliability issues, and restricted access. Nepal has been able to produce about three percent of the economic viability and less than two percent of the total potentiality. If the investment priority is made in energy sector, it contributes sufficiently to the national economy. Still there is energy deficit in Nepal basically in dry season due to lower production and high demand.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU Effects of Training on Employee Performance in Telecommunication Industry of Nepal 2021-12-28T08:46:07+00:00 Laxman Raj Kandel <p>Employees are major assets of any organization. The vigorous role they play towards a company’s accomplishment cannot be undervalued. As a result, preparing these unique resources through effective training becomes authoritative so as to use the job performance. Also position them to require on the challenges of the today’s competitive business environment. Though general research has been shown within the area of human research management, the similar cannot be said on employee training specifically because it concerns developing nations.</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to gauge the consequences of training on employee performance, using the telecommunication industry in Nepal. So as to grasp the study aim, four goals were developed and these focused particularly on identifying the training programs’ current within the industry, the target of the training offered, and therefore the methods employed and lastly the results of training and development on human resource performance.</p> <p>The study was supported two case studies of the biggest telecommunication companies operating in Nepal. A qualitative research approach of the facts collection was approved using a questionnaire including of 18 questions dispersed to 240 respondents. Supported this sample the results found, show that training features a clear effect on the performance of employees. The findings can prove useful to human resource managers, human resource policy decision makers, still as government and academic institutions.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU Fantasy in Literature: A Symbiotic Relation to the Real 2021-12-28T08:54:30+00:00 Lekha Nath Dhakal <p>This article attempts to explore the use of fantasy in literature and how it has attained the position of a literary category in the twentieth century. This work also concerns how as the form literature, it functions between wonderful and imitative to combine the elements of both. The article reveals that wonderful represents supernatural atmospheres and events. The story-telling is unrealistic which represents impossibility as it creates a wonderland. In the imitative or the realistic mode, the narrative imitates external reality. In it, the characters and situations are ordinary and real. Fantasy in literature does not escape the reality. It occurs in an interdependent relation to the real. In other words, the fantastic cannot exist independently of the real world that limits it. The use of fantastic mode in literature interrupts the conventional artistic representation and reproduction of perceivable reality. It embodies the reality and transgresses the standards of literary forming. It normally includes a variety of fictional works which use the supernatural and actually natural as well. The developers of fantasy fiction are fairy tales, science fiction about future wars and future world. A major instinct of fantastic fiction is the violence threatened by capitalist violation of personality that is spreading universally.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU Role of Fashion Involvement and Hedonistic Consumption towards Fashion Apparel Industry 2021-12-28T09:02:29+00:00 Shaifali Chauhan Richa Banerjee Nischal Risal <p>Fashion clothes industry is dependent on endless ideas and new opportunities. The apparel industry replicates people’s lifestyles and represents their social and economic status. The study aims on analyzing the impact of fashion involvement and hedonistic consumption tendency on purchase intention towards fashion apparel industry. The sample contained the representation of population from different cities between the age group 18 to 40. The purposive sampling technique, non-probability sampling techniques and 200 respondents had been selected to collect the data. The result specified that the data was highly reliable with the different values as reported by Cronbach’s Alpha test. Factor analysis, ANOVA, and regression analysis had been done to analyze the data. The regression analysis concluded and proved that there was a positive significant impact of fashion involvement and hedonistic consumption tendency on purchase intention.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU Outsourcing Practices: Benefits and Pitfalls as Perceived by Professionals and Managers 2021-12-28T09:14:53+00:00 Prakash Shrestha <p>This study aims to examine the promising benefits and pitfalls of outsourcing practices in the Nepalese industries. This paper follows a descriptive research design. By using a selective sampling technique, a total of 555 questionnaires were distributed to the professionals and managers of 37 companies listed in the Nepal Stock Exchange (NEPSE) in different types of industries of Nepal. Based on the empirical results it is found that concentration on core activities and competencies, improve responsiveness to customers, increased flexibility, quality improvements, cost-saving, and accountability are the top-ranked benefits of outsourcing practices in Nepalese industries. Change problems, contract costs, maintaining the relationship, lost opportunity, and loss of distinctive competencies are some of the notified pitfalls of outsourcing practices. Also, the companies may suffer from the lost opportunity because selling a strategic resource may end up costing them in the long-run. Due to outsourcing practices, the companies may suffer from losing public image, quality of service, outsourcer profit, loss of flexibility, and losing control as well. Therefore, the companies should be serious regarding outsourcing decision-making. To get more benefits from these practices companies need to maintain a smooth relationship with suppliers and vendors. They need to select the partners who match to expertise and business scale. They also need to consider the costs and risks associated with such practices. They need to focus on effective communications in terms of cost, time differences, and cultural difficulties and protect intellectual property as well. At the top of all the companies also need to consider customers' attitudes, expectations, and needs.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU Post-Earthquake Reconstruction in Nepal: Conformance the Assumptions, Actions, and Achievements 2021-12-28T09:26:24+00:00 Raj Kumar Bhattarai <p>Post-earthquake reconstruction works is a consequential mission. The principal premises of the mission are the goal of speedily rebuilding, well-structured plans, extensive local resources mobilization, and commissioning leadership in the reconstruction and rehabilitation works. Nepal’s pluralistic character, political upheavals, and shortcoming of resources are real-time challenges to mission accomplishment. Congruence of the assumptions, actions, and achievements concerning physical, socio-psychological, cultural, and financial dimensions of vulnerabilities is of foremost significance because the social acceptance and/or rejection is a critical determinant of the mission accomplishment. This study aims to determine the congruence level of assumptions, actions, and accomplishments concerning the managerial process activities of the National Reconstruction Authority, which are addressing the concerns of reconstruction work, national interest, and social justice. An exploration on the Authority’s attention to the reciprocal eco-cultural resiliency measures has also been made to find a balance among the concerns. The study begins with reviewing the Acts, policies, directives, standards, and working procedures concerning the reconstruction works. The Authority’s annual reports and decisions of the Appellate Committee are taken as the sources of information. A matrix form of NRA’s process activities, key assumptions, major actions, and notable accomplishments is prepared for analysis. Matchmaking of the assumptions with the actions and achievements has been made, and the level of their congruence assessed. The level of congruence among the assumptions, actions, and achievements concerning the consequential mission is found unsatisfactory. There is an absence of process activities concerning the reciprocal eco-cultural resiliency, national interest, and social justice. Partially adapted the process activities and corresponding assumptions, actions, and achievements seems insufficient to achieve the envisioned transformation in the disaster-affected districts. Deeply rooted self interest of the people and institutions associated with the consequential mission stands as a major challenge in the process of reconstruction.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU Do Interbank Interest Rates Matter for Stock Prices at Nepal Stock Exchange? 2021-12-28T09:37:59+00:00 Rajesh Gurung <p>This study examines an auto-regressive distributed lag (ADRL) modeling approach to develop the relationship between the stock price and interest rate in the context of Nepal, using the monthly data for the period from July 1996 to January 2019. NEPSE Index in Nepal Stock Exchange Limited is used for the stock prices and interbank interest rate released in Quarterly Economic Bulletin of Nepal Rastra Bank is used for the interest rate. The bound test for co-integration and estimated negative coefficient of long-run regression results justified by the Error Correction Mechanisms (ECM) establishes a valid negative long-run association between the INTEREST and PRICE. This suggests important considerations for policies towards an interest rate stabilization for the stock price stability and further development of the stock market in Nepal.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU Impact of Service Quality dimension of Commercial Banks on Customer in Nepal 2021-12-28T09:47:46+00:00 Ranu Maiya Shrestha <p>Commercial bank service quality dimensions and customer satisfaction are related with each other. Customer satisfaction play significant role for the success of bank. A structured questionnaire with 5 point Likert scale has been used to collect the data by conducting field survey. The sample size is 144 and chosen on a convenient basis. Data has been analyzed by using statistical tools like mean and Correlation Coefficient. The result revealed that service quality dimensions like such as tangibility, reliability, assurance, empathy, and responsiveness have significantly and positively correlated on customer satisfaction of commercial bank in Nepal.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU Contemporary Management Accounting Techniques and Organizational Performance 2021-12-28T09:57:50+00:00 Rewan Kumar Dahal <p>The study's purpose was to observe the degree of association of contemporary management accounting techniques (CMATs) with organizational performance (OP). A survey questionnaire instrument was employed to collect data and followed a descriptive research design. The populace comprised all the manufacturing companies that were functioning in Nepal and their employees. The study targeted the listed manufacturing companies in Nepal Stock Exchange and their employees as a sample. A sum of 570 respondents had partaken in the survey using a random sampling technique, and 387 responses were filled correctly up for further analysis. The survey questionnaire had two questions relating to the respondents' general information, 12 questions regarding CMATs, and five questions relating to the effect of the study variables on OP. The study uncovered a negative and significant association between the variables that indicated the Nepalese manufacturing companies (NMCs) need to focus on fitting CMATs into organizational context. Researchers and professionals may utilize this study's outcome to upturn their insights, which thusly encourages them to assist the NMCs in improving organizational efficacy.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU Efficient Market Hypotheses of Nepalese Stock Market 2021-12-28T10:09:05+00:00 Shanker Dhodary <p>The purpose of this paper is to examine the random walk hypothesis (RWH) by testing the weak-form efficiency in the Nepalese capital market. Descriptive, correlation and causal comparative research design has been used for analyzing the variables and different phenomenon. This research has been prepared only with the help of secondary data. Closing price of company has been collected and analyzed for the period 2015/16-2019/20. Thus researcher tried to analyze the market efficiency with the help of five years data (daily closing price).There are altogether around 233 companies listed in NEPSE. So to make this research feasible and simple researcher has selected only 10 companies from the NEPSE by using purposive sampling technique. In course of selecting company researcher has tried to incorporate only financial sectors as commercial banks, finance companies, insurance, and microfinance companies but development bank has not been taken as sample due to same nature of commercial bank. Researcher examined the weak form efficiency of the Nepal stock exchange (NEPSE) using auto correlation test (parametric test) and run test (non-parametric test) for the period of 2015/16-2019/20. Mainly this research work tested the efficient market hypothesis of Nepalese stock market with the help of daily closing price of 10 Sample Company of different sectors. The market is inefficient in the weak form implies that the NEPSE does not follow a random walk. This means that the NEPSE provides an opportunity for out- performance by skillful managers and investment specialists. Auto correlation exists in price of stock evident that there is high level of dependency of price of stock with the previous ones. It will be easy for speculator and trader to exploit the market and gain handsome profit from the market. All investor are not assumed to be rational in inefficient market, most of the people say investor are investing on the basis of market rumor. Market may be inefficient due the asymmetric of information and insider trading.</p> 2020-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU