Pravaha https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha A multidisciplinary double-blinded peer-reviewed research journal published by the Nepal Commerce Campus, Tribhuvan University, New Baneshwor, Kathmandu, Nepal. en-US <p>© Nepal Commerce Campus, TU</p><p>Authors are required to transfer their copyright to the Nepal Commerce Campus, TU.</p> jupadhaya@yahoo.com (Dr. Jitendra Upadhyay) sioux.cumming@ubiquitypress.com (Sioux Cumming) Thu, 15 Oct 2020 17:06:30 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.6 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Bayesian Analysis of Two-Parameter Exponentiated Log-logistic Distribution https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31864 <p>In this paper, the parameters of the two-parameter exponentiated log-logistic distribution based on a complete sample are estimated using the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. In order to perform full Bayesian analysis of the two-parameter exponentiated log-logistic distribution, the procedures are developed using the MCMC simulation method in Open BUGS, established software. The researcher has obtained the Bayes estimates of the parameters and their probability intervals are presented. The researcher has also discussed the estimation of the reliability function. For illustration under independent gamma priors, the real data set is considered.</p> Arun Kumar Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31864 Thu, 08 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Selected Variables on Stock Price With reference to Nepalese Commercial Banks https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31896 <p>This study is entirely based on secondary sources of data. The data has been collected from the Nepal Stock Exchange (NEPSE). The descriptive and analytical research designs have been used to analyze the sample. The data has-been examined to determine the financial health of Nepalese commercial banks. Financial ratios help in predicting the stock price. The twenty-seven commercial banks are taken as a sample for the study. The information and data has been collected for the year 2065/066. The independent variables earning per share, price earnings ratio, dividend per share, return on equity and book value per share and the dependent variable is market price per share. The financial ratios have been collected from the financial statements of the sample banks and NEPSE. The theoretical framework determines the dependent variable and independent variables. Hence, this event has been used to analyze the financial ratio and variables as independent variables to predict the dependent variable e.g., stock price. In this research five independent variables has been used e.g., price earnings ratio, earning per share, dividend per share, return on equity, and book value per share with the dependent variable e.g., stock Price.</p> <p>The descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and multiple regression models is used to states the impact of independent variables on dependent variable empirically. These models aroused as a strong tool to establish and find if the relationship or correlation exists between the variables. This research also throws light on the ratios can help to predict the stock return for the next period. Results give a clear indication that the P/E Ratio and EPS have the positive impact on the stock price in the NEPSE. The Nepalese investors can rely on the price earnings ratio and the earning per share to predict the market price per share. Hence, the overall conclusion of this research is that the financial variables direct the investors in NEPSE. If the answer is yes investors can rely on P/E ratio and EPS on the confidence level is 99 percent and significance level is below 0.01 which gives clear indication that price earnings ratio and earnings per share may influence the stock price of commercial banks in Nepal.</p> Bashu Neupane Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31896 Fri, 09 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Demographic Factors on Consumer Purchase Intention in Buying Television Set in Kathmandu Valley: An Empirical Study https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31871 <p>The main objective of the research is to identify the impact of demographic factors on purchase intention. The study examine whether there is any significant differences on consumers’ purchase intention of television across gender, age groups and education level. Primary data has been used in the study. The structured questionnaire has been used for collection of primary data. Convenient sampling technique has been used to collect information from the respondents and 394respondents have been taken from customers buying Television in Kathmandu. The sampling location for the research has been allocated in show room, colleges and houses in Kathmandu. Age, gender and level of education have been taken as independent variables and purchase intention has been taken as dependent variable. Percentage has been used to analyze the purchase intention of respondents; independent sample t-test and ANOVA Test have been used to analyze the collected data and to draw valid conclusions by using SPSS. The result of independent sample t-test showed that there is no significant difference on purchase intention between male and female in buying television in Nepalese market. The result of ANOVA Test showed that there is no significant difference on purchase intention among different age groups. But the result of ANOVA Test showed that there is significant difference on purchase intention among different level of education.</p> Bharat Rai Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31871 Fri, 09 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Employee Organizational Commitment Towards Quality Outcomes: A Study in Manufacturing Organization of Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31931 <p>The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of total quality management practices on employees’ organizational commitment in Nepalese manufacturing industry. Structural questionnaire are used. Data was analyzed by employing correlation and sample regression analysis. The result of this study revealed that training and education, teamwork, and organizational culture are positively associated with employees’ organizational commitment.</p> Bhupindra Jung Basnet Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31931 Sun, 11 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Mediating Role of Trust in Management on Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31932 <p><strong>Purpose</strong>- The paper aims to empirically testing the mediating effect of trust in management in the relationship between organizational justice and personal outcomes. The main purpose of this study is to understand mediating role of trusting the management on organizational justice and its impact on job satisfaction and organizational commitment.</p> <p><strong>Approach</strong>- The study is based on the effect of organizational justice, trust in management, job satisfaction and organizational commitment among nursing staff working at different hospitals at Kathmandu Valley. This study incorporates design and distribution of questionnaire to 160 nurses belonging to different hospitals working on different scale of pay level.</p> <p><strong>Findings</strong>- Organizational justice alone does not significantly increase job satisfaction as well as commitment in the organization. Trust in management mediates the relationship organizational justice and personal outcome. Organizational justice positively affect personal outcome when mediated by high trust in management.</p> <p><strong>Practical implication</strong>- This paper is useful to academicians and organizations to understand the impact of trust in management on the work performance. This study provides practical implications towards nurses and management of hospitals. Management requires change in behavior to develop trusting environment in workplace.</p> Binod Ghimire Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31932 Sun, 11 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Cash Management on Profitability in Small Manufacturing Organization https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31934 <p>Small businesses are vital for economic development and employment generation. The implementation of sound cash management practices is essential to ensure the profitability. The aim of the study was to identify the impact of cash management on profitability. This study was adopted correlation research design. Purposive sampling method was adopted while undertaking research. 80 samples were considered while collecting data. The sample structure consisted of small and medium manufacturing businesses in the Kirtipur Municipality. Owners of such enterprises were taken as sample because they can better understand the cash management. Data were collected using five point Likert Scale Questionnaires. Data were analyzed using mean, correlation and regression models. Study found that Cash management has an insignificant but positive effect on profitability. It clarifies that conversion cycle, cash flow and inventory manage positively effects to the profitability but the effect is nominal.</p> Dhruba Lal Pandey Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31934 Sun, 11 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Glass Ceiling and Women Career Development in Nepalese Commercial Banks and Women Career Development in Nepalese Commercial Banks https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31935 <p>The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of the glass ceiling (GC) on women’s career development (WCD)in Nepalese commercial banks. One hundred and forty-four women branch managers working in different branches were taken as the sample. The study used a survey questionnaire (17 items) derived from women workplace culture questionnaire (WWC) (Bergman and Hallberg,2002) for measuring glass ceiling, used as an independent variable in the study. Additionally, a career satisfaction questionnaire developed by (Greenhaus, Parasuraman, and Wormley1990) was used to measure WCD (dependent variable).The statistical tools like Pearson correlation and regression analysis were applied to find the result of quantitative data. The result revealed that there is an existence of GC in commercial banks in Nepal and the negative relationship between GC and the WCD along with the impact of the corporate climate on the WCD. Some limitations of the study have been found and implications and recommendation for the future researchers are also discussed.</p> Indira Shrestha Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31935 Sun, 11 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Guiding principles of good tax policy: Is there an association between the principles of the income tax of Nepal and the principles of good tax policy suggested by AICPA? https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31936 <p><strong>Purpose </strong>– This article aims to examine the association between principles of income tax in Nepal and the principles of good tax policy prescribed by AICPA.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods </strong>– This study uses both primary and secondary data. Forth primary data, the study obtained data from several individuals using the Likert type scale questionnaires. To obtain the answer upon research questions and to reach into the conclusion, the study used the Chi-square and summated rating scale.</p> <p><strong>Findings </strong>– The study found an association between the principles of income tax in Nepal and the guiding principles of the good tax policy suggested by AICPA. Only on three principles (i.e., certainty, information security and economic growth and efficiency) out of the twelve guiding principles came into the acceptance ofH0 (null hypothesis) while others came into the acceptance of H1 (alternative hypothesis). However, the study concludes that Nepal needs reform/s to its income tax principles to make them compatible with the principles of other countries.</p> <p><strong>Practical implications </strong>– Theory and practice both are complementary to each other. Every theory is worthless in the absence of practice and vice versa. The theory, which people perceive as simple, progressive, and democratic is fundamental and practical. Thus, this writing keeps crucial importance in the government revenue sector and suggests being practical after reforming the required policy.</p> <p><strong>Originality/value </strong>– This is survey research to find out the association between the principles of income taxation in Nepal and the guiding principles of good tax policy suggested by the AICPA. For which, the author prepared this product using both primary and secondary sources of data based on Kathmandu valley. Thus, this is original writing in this subject.</p> Jit Bahadur K.C. Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31936 Sun, 11 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Generic competitive strategies on organizational performance in Nepalese Commercial Banks https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31937 <p>This paper attempts to examine the impact of generic competitive strategy on organizational performance in Nepalese commercial banks. It has employed descriptive and causal comparative research design to estimate the relationship between dependent variable (organizational performance) with independent variables (differentiation strategy, cost leadership strategy, focus strategy, organization’s core competency and bank size). Data has been collected from 384respondents by using structured questionnaire. The multiple regression model has been used to test the relationship. It is found that organizational performance of banks is influenced by cost leadership, differentiation, focus, organization ‘score competency and bank size.</p> Jitendra Pd. Upadhyay, Pitri Raj Adhikari Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31937 Sun, 11 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Thematic Review on Economic Cost, Benefit Analysis of Hydropower Projects https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31938 <p>While taking investment decisions on hydropower projects cost and benefit analysis (CBA) is important technique. It was started from United Kingdom for transportation sector later on it is used widely in mega projects all over the world.CBA contributes to identify all relevant benefits and costs and provides tools to quantify in monetary value. The CBA measurement variables defers from country to country on the basis of geography, population, natural resources, technology, market etc. This article aims to present a conceptual frame work to select a hydropower project and its viability. Basically in developing countries like Nepal this frame work plays important role in selecting particular hydropower projects.</p> Krishna Prasad Ojha Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31938 Sun, 11 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Investors’ Preference Towards Mutual Fund: An Analytical Evidence From Kathmandu Valley https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31939 <p>This paper analysis investors’ preference towards mutual fund. The study was conducted inside the Kathmandu valley. In terms of familiarity with the various financial securities currently available in the Nepalese capital market, investors have high familiarity with fixed deposits, medium familiarity with shares and low familiarity with bonds and debentures and money market instruments. Incase of the preference for the structure of the mutual fund, more than two-third of the total respondent were in favor of Close Ended Mutual Funds. Potential investors of mutual funds prefer family members followed by self-analysis as a medium for getting understanding to create the awareness of mutual funds; TV Advertisement and Print Newspaper are effective, as these sources are preferred by the potential investors. This study concludes that mutual funds could be an admirable institution for bridging the gap between the individual savers and the established business in Nepal. Investors are showing more interest in mutual fund these days.</p> Laxman Raj Kandel Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31939 Sun, 11 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Sense of Selfhood in Zora Neal Hurston’s Their Eyes Were Watching God https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31940 <p>Sense of selfhood constitutes one of the main ideas of Zora Neale Hurstson’snovels.The central argument in this paper is the quest for identity in Hurstson’s Their Eyes Were Watching God. In the novel the characters identify themselves on the basis of their inner desires and thoughts. This paper explores that identity and selfhood changes according to human situation, realities and experiences. Human being turns into an integrated and self-aware individual through psychological process. This article also attempts to present the Psychological impact of colonialism on the colonized people. It focuses on the oppressionofthe whites on the black people and improper European rationalism and their disregard of the experiences of ‘the other’. The novel shows that people’s attempts and sense of selfhood or identity gains a great success in achieving their goals in the long run.</p> Lekha Nath Dhakal Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31940 Sun, 11 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on the Financial Performance in Nepalese Commercial Banks https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31941 <p>The main purpose of this study is to examine the impact of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) on Return of Assets (ROA), Return of Equity (ROE) and Earnings per Shares (EPS) of commercial banks in Nepal. This study will be of immense use to the government, financial institutions and to other stakeholders. The data is obtained from the annual reports issued by the sample banks, and the study has covered the period of 2010-2018. The impact of ROE, ROE and EPS was tested on CSR. Similarly, to verify relationship between ROA, ROE, EPS and CSR the simple regression model was used. The regression model shows that ROA of Nepal Investment Bank and Standard Chartered Bank Nepal have no significant relationship with corporate social responsibility. ROE of Nepal Investment Bank has a significant relationship but Standard Chartered Bank Nepal has no significant relationship with CSR. Similarly, EPS of Nepal Investment Bank has a significant relationship but Standard Chartered Bank Nepal has no significant relationship with CSR. The study recommends that the financial institutions i.e. commercial banks should follow the directives given by the Central Bank (Nepal Rastra Bank) in the Monetary Policy for the F/Y 2016/17, in which Banks and Financial Institutions (BFIs) are asked to spend at least one percent of their profits in CSR activities and also CSR should be seen as an investment reported as such in financial statements of the financial institutions.</p> Lok Bahadur Rai Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31941 Sun, 11 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Critical Analysis of Relationship between Gold Prices and NEPSE Index https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31948 <p>The investors’ prioritization towards the gold investment and capital market investment is really interesting issue. To clear the issue in the context of Nepal,the research paper seeks the relationship between gold prices on Nepalese capital market. The descriptive and analytical research design has been adopted in the study. The study is based on quantitative approach. The data has been collected from July 2015 to July 2018. The information on market index and gold price has been collected for the same period. The information has been collected from the annual reports of NEPSE, Nepal Gem and Jewellery Association (NEGJA),Nepal gold market and Federation of Nepal Gold and Silver Dealer’s Association(FENEGOSIDA). The comparative analyses of gold market and capital market have shown the direct relationship between these two markets. The investors ‘tendency to switch to gold investment is found risky. The gold prices and interest rates have influence on NEPSE.</p> Nischal Risal Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31948 Mon, 12 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Managerial Leadership Qualities in the Financial Institutions of Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31949 <p>Leadership and leaders matters effectively and confidently effect on outcomes ofthe organization. Certain leadership characteristics and qualities are important to improve leadership effectiveness and organizational performance. This study is based on two major qualities of leadership such as relationship-oriented and task-oriented. Developing others, supporting team, identifying the pain and interpersonal skills were taken as dependent variables of relationship-oriented qualities. Likewise, developing self, business acumen, commitment, pursuit of excellence and accountability/focus were taken as dependent variables of task oriented qualities. It was concerned with the managerial qualities of managers working in financial institutions of Nepal (including three commercial banks, three development banks, three finance companies, and three insurance companies). In total 60 managers (5 of each organization) and 120 (10 of each organization) were the respondents. Their opinions were used for analysis purposes in this study. The Likert-scale questionnaire was used as the tool for data collection. It was composed of five points showing 5 represents strongly agree to 1 indicates strongly disagree. The empirical results of this study indicated that on the basis of relationship-oriented, "identifying the pain" was the most desirable quality of leaders (managers) by employees whereas on the basis of task-oriented, “pursuit of excellence" was the most desirable quality of leaders (managers) from employee perspective of the financial institutions of Nepal. Based on managers ‘perspective, the most desirable quality of leaders was "interpersonal skills" in terms of relationship-oriented leadership qualities, whereas in terms of task oriented qualities, the most desirable quality of leaders by the manager was" commitment". The leadership qualities are best while targeting to accomplish the organizational task on time.</p> Prakash Shrestha Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31949 Mon, 12 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Determinant of Capital structure of Nepalese hydropower companies https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31950 <p>This study examines the effect of profitability, liquidity, size, tangibility and tax shield on capital structure of Nepalese Hydropower Companies. Debt ratio and long term debt to total assets ratio are taken as dependent variable and Profitability, liquidity, size, tangibility and tax shield are as independent variable. The study reveals that tangibility and non debt tax shield are positively influence the total debt where as profitability and liquidity are negatively influence on the total debt decision of the Nepalese Hydropower Companies. The regression coefficients for size are neither consistent nor statistically insignificant in all regression equations indicating that size variable is not the major factor of determinant of total debt as well as long term debt.</p> Prem Lal Rajbanshi Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31950 Mon, 12 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship between Treasury bill rate and NEPSE index in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31951 <p>This study has examined the relationship between 91-days Treasury bill rate and NEPSE Index with the use of annual time series data taken from Mid-July1994 to Mid-July 2018 in the context of Nepal. Time series are stationary at first differenced and they are co integrated in order 1, i.e., I (1). Error Correction Model (ECM) confirms the long-run causality from 91-days Treasury bill rate (INT) to NEPSE Index (IND) at 5 percent level and long-run causality from IND to INT at 10 percent level. This bi-directional causality implies that the interest rate policy of Nepal Rastra Bank considerably influences in the stock market performances in long-run as well as the investors’ decisions in choices between stock market and bank deposits. This finding justifies the theoretical underpinning of impact of cost of capital in business investment decisions and demand for and supply of securities in capital markets. However, Wald statistics for joint short-term coefficients of variables under the interest does not support for shortruncausality between them. This finding justifies the theoretical underpinning that low cost of capital crucially linked to create the demand for and supply of securities through business investment opportunities. Higher interest rate, in other hand, not only discourage the businesses to use credit but also stimulate investors to switch to bank deposits causing decline in stock prices.</p> Rajesh Gurung Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31951 Mon, 12 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Social Media on Nepali Consumer Purchase Decision https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31955 <p>Social media has significant role on purchasing decision of buyer. The objective of this research paper is to understand how social media network influence on purchasing decision of consumer. A structured, self-administered questionnaire was distributed among 75 people of Baneshwor, Kathmandu. Out of them,60 questionnaire were used for analysis. There was 31 male and 29 female participants. The findings showed that both male and female preferred online services (Face book, YouTube, Instragram, Twitter etc) for social connection. On the basis of result it could be recommended that online marketers should clearly understand the application of social media to promote their products keeping their present consumers as well as attracting more potential customers.</p> Rajeswor Neupane Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31955 Mon, 12 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Investor’s Perception towards Service Quality of DEMAT Account in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31958 <p>The main purpose of the study is to analyze the investors’ perception towards service quality of DEMAT account in Nepalese capital market. The study has used descriptive research design to measure the perception towards service quality. This study is based on primary data by administered questionnaire to the investors. Service quality and customer satisfaction are interrelated. Higher the service quality, higher will be the customer satisfaction. The research findings, shows that investor’s perception towards service quality of DEMAT account meet Nepalese investor’s expectations and they are satisfied with the different features of DEMAT. Further, this study also shows that the most important predictor of investor satisfaction in this study is assurance dimension.</p> Shanker Dhodary, Shreeya Joshi Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31958 Mon, 12 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 International Agencies Affecting the Business Law https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31965 <p>International Business Law (IBL) is the law that has been deliberately working to bring the peace and justice all around the world. IBL is the grass or the parent platform that provides guideline and expertise to develop the national business law. As every country have their own set of laws with own set of rules andregulations.IBL helps to bring together with the rules and regulations that has-been built up by the incorporation and taking in the consideration of the entire world in one. It helps to bring in the individuality and makes the system easier to understand and incorporate the system in one another. IBL having the influence in the national laws plays a significant role and it is necessary for it to take all of the considerations in account while IBL encompasses all the necessary voices for the international organizations; it is equally necessary for them to take account of each laws and formation of the new laws.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shuvan Acharya Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Commerce Campus, TU https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/pravaha/article/view/31965 Mon, 12 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000