Quest Journal of Management and Social Sciences <p>Quest Journal of Management and Social Sciences is published by the Quest Research Management Cell of the Quest International College, Gwarko, Lalitpur, Nepal which is affiliated to Pokhara University.&nbsp;Quest Journal of Management and Social Sciences (QJMSS) is a double-blind peer reviewed scholarly journal devoted in publishing high-quality papers using multidisciplinary approaches with a strong emphasis on emerging issues of business, economics, communication, management, finance, administration, English and social issues in half yearly basis. It was established in 2019 to accommodate qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods of research. It is not for profit and fully abides to UGC and QAA guidelines. Its main purpose is to disseminate ideas and research findings in various socio-economic development and managerial issues related to Nepal and other countries. It brings out scholarly research articles and other features. It intends to serve as an outlet with strong theoretical and empirical research for an intellectual forum for the communication of ideas among social scientists in Nepal and rest of the world. The authors does not have to pay any kinds of publication charges for open access.&nbsp;</p> Quest Research Management Cell, Quest International College, Gwarko, Lalitpur, Nepal en-US Quest Journal of Management and Social Sciences 2705-4527 Socioeconomic Determinants of Employment and Further Study Status of University Graduates: Evidence From a Higher Educational Institute of Nepal <p><strong>Background:</strong> There has been a tremendous expansion of higher education in&nbsp;Nepal over the years and this expansion has increased the number of graduates&nbsp;entering the job markets.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Within this context, the objective of this paper is to find socioeconomic determinants of employment and opportunities for further&nbsp;studies on the status of management graduates of Pokhara University, a relatively young university in Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> The survey instrument was adapted using the questionnaire developed by the University Grants Commission of Nepal. The primary data&nbsp;was collected from 261 graduates, who were graduated in 2017 and 2018,&nbsp;from the School of Business, Pokhara University. The determinants of being&nbsp;employed and pursuing higher study were carried out using logistic regression&nbsp;analysis.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> Of the total 261 respondents, the study had a well-balanced gender&nbsp;distribution with females making up 51%, a majority (58%) of respondents&nbsp;were from Bachelor level, and Brahmin comprised around half. Most of&nbsp;the graduates (87%) are being involved either in a job or pursuing further&nbsp;studies. Nearly one-third (31%) of the graduates were pursuing further&nbsp;studies. The logistic regression analysis revealed that gender and graduation&nbsp;level are significant predictors of employment and pursuing further study.&nbsp;Male graduates are more likely to be employed compared to female graduates&nbsp;(Adjusted Odds Ratio=1.44). In contrast, concerning pursuing further study,&nbsp;being females, they are 56% more likely to pursue their further study compared to male graduates (Adjusted Odds Ratio=1.56).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The status of management graduates is very good as most of the&nbsp;graduates (87%) are already employed or pursuing further studies. However,&nbsp;male graduates have better job opportunities than female graduates and this&nbsp;indicates the socio-economic status such as gender discrimination that reflects the national scenario.</p> Deepak Raj Paudel Umesh Singh Yadav Surya Bahadur G.C. Santosh Kumar Gurung Pradeep Sapkota Ravindra Prasad Baral Copyright (c) 2021 Quest Journal of Management and Social Sciences 2021-06-10 2021-06-10 3 1 1 13 10.3126/qjmss.v3i1.37575 Leadership Style and Organizational Culture as Correlate of Job Satisfaction Among Agricultural Training Institute’s Workers in Kwara State, Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> The workplace is a complex and cultured environment that&nbsp;requires intellectual leadership and a different degree of management style&nbsp;due to global economic competitiveness.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The objectives of the study are to examine the relationship between&nbsp;leadership style, organizational culture, and job satisfaction among workers in&nbsp;the Agricultural and Rural Management Training Institute (ARMTI) Ilorin,&nbsp;Kwara State, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> This research study employed a descriptive survey research method.&nbsp;The total number of employees in ARTMTI in Ilorin was 762. Using a simple&nbsp;random sampling technique, a total of 401 respondents was randomly selected&nbsp;from the population of the study for questionnaire administration. 401&nbsp;questionnaires were distributed out of which 325 questionnaires were retrieved&nbsp;and analyzed for the study. Data were analyzed using Pearson Moment&nbsp;Correlation on the relationships between leadership style, organizational&nbsp; culture, and job satisfaction.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> The study found that leadership style and organizational culture were&nbsp;significantly correlated with job satisfaction at a 0.05 level of significance.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on the findings of the study, the study concluded that&nbsp;there is a relationship between leadership style, organizational culture, and&nbsp;job satisfaction among workers in the Agricultural and Rural Management&nbsp;Training Institute (ARMTI) Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation:</strong> The study recommended that leaders should realize that&nbsp;influencing the satisfaction of employees leads to higher performance and&nbsp;lower turnover rates among other things. Leadership in organizations should&nbsp;be assessed and managers should become aware of what is needed to obtain positive results from employees to improve performance.</p> <p><strong>Originality:</strong> This article is original and there is no potential conflict of interest.</p> Zachheaus O. Olonade Oluwatobi O. Omotoye Akinyemi M. Oluwoye Copyright (c) 2021 Quest Journal of Management and Social Sciences 2021-06-10 2021-06-10 3 1 14 22 10.3126/qjmss.v3i1.37584 An Empirical Investigation Between Money Supply, Inflation, Capital Expenditure and Economic Growth in Nepal <p><strong>Background:</strong> Money supply, inflation, and capital expenditure along with&nbsp;others are major issues of consideration for policymakers in developing&nbsp;countries given the need to spark internal demand and to encounter the&nbsp;government’s massive fiscal obligations to alleviate poverty and achieve&nbsp;sustainable economic growth. Like other economies, the economic&nbsp;performance of Nepal is also based on these macroeconomic variables.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The principal objective of the study is to explore the association&nbsp;between money supply, inflation, capital expenditure, and economic growth&nbsp;in Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> The study applies the ARDL approach to co-integration to check the&nbsp;relationship between selected variables. The bound test is carried out to see&nbsp;the relationship between variables.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> The empirical findings of the study show that there is a significant&nbsp;long-run positive relationship between money supply, capital expenditure,&nbsp;and growth. There is a unidirectional causation from money supply and&nbsp;capital expenditure to real economic growth in Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study concludes that an increase in money supply, capital&nbsp;expenditure, and controlling inflation help to increase the long-run real&nbsp;economic growth of Nepal. Nepal Rastra Bank has to emphasize monetary&nbsp;policy instruments that help to increase the money supply in the long run and&nbsp;the Ministry of Finance (MoF) should be encouraged to increase spending on&nbsp;capital overheads to broaden and enhance the growth of the economy.</p> Tilak Singh Mahara Copyright (c) 2021 Quest Journal of Management and Social Sciences 2021-06-10 2021-06-10 3 1 23 39 10.3126/qjmss.v3i1.37588 The Aging Workforce Management in Business Sectors <p><strong>Background:</strong> Aging society affects good planning in workforce management&nbsp;for sustainable business running. Workforce management is not only the duty&nbsp;of human resources but also promotes the strategy for effective management.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The objective of this study is to analyze the aging workforce&nbsp;management in business sectors.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> The research reviews relevant literature and, based on the evidence&nbsp;of theories about age-diverse management, creates a framework related to&nbsp;antecedent factors and the following factors. The testing applied the CBSEM&nbsp;model with a sample group of 300 respondents.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> The result found that planning “capacity in the workplace” and&nbsp;“knowledge management” are two factors that affect the potential corporate&nbsp;reputation efficiency of an organization significantly via “cultural value” and&nbsp;“social value” which were completely transformational.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The result of the study regarding the theory evidence and&nbsp;support research from overseas has a problem in applying to practice with an&nbsp;empirical result that differs locally. Therefore, the model needs to be verified&nbsp;with the local data, and develop a suitable model.</p> Nhatphaphat Juicharoen Suradetch Wangthong Copyright (c) 2021 Quest Journal of Management and Social Sciences 2021-06-10 2021-06-10 3 1 40 48 10.3126/qjmss.v3i1.37589 An Empirical Study in Nepalese Commercial Bank’s Performances on Green Banking: An Analysis From the Perspective of Bankers <p><strong>Background:</strong> Becoming environmentally viable, lately, ‘Going Green’ has&nbsp;been a popular expression for both worldwide banking and financial areas&nbsp;just as for the overall population. Green banking as a piece of going green is&nbsp;another method of playing out the financial organizations thinking about the&nbsp;clean natural issues and corporate social duty of banks.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> This paper tries to investigate banker’s overall arrangement and&nbsp;elements influencing their viewpoint on green banking performances.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> The information was gathered between June–October 2019 from&nbsp;various banks in Kathmandu valley, Nepal. The sample of 326 financial&nbsp;representatives has been gathered by utilizing a purposive sampling technique.&nbsp;Collecting primary and secondary data, this study utilizes an explanatory&nbsp;research design that assesses the causal relationship among reliant and&nbsp;free factors. The paper utilizes descriptive and inferential techniques for&nbsp;assessment. For understanding green financial mindfulness of the bankers, an&nbsp;index has been calculated.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> The outcomes show that large numbers of the bankers are less mindful&nbsp;of green financial practices in their banks, while just 5% of respondents know&nbsp;about green banking practices. The Probit regression results uncover that&nbsp;education, preparing for green banking, fixed expense, client fascination,&nbsp;related parties’ directions, and security of the climate have critical and&nbsp;constructive impacts on green financial practices in banks.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> All in all, for the selection of green financial practices, most&nbsp;importantly, banks ought to provide training to their employees and offer&nbsp;effective online services to their clients.</p> Heena Tandukar Niranjan Devkota Ghanashyam Khanal Ihtsham Ul Haq Padda Udaya Raj Paudel Udbodh Bhandari Kabita Adhikari Seeprata Parajuli Copyright (c) 2021 Quest Journal of Management and Social Sciences 2021-06-10 2021-06-10 3 1 49 62 10.3126/qjmss.v3i1.37591 Determinants of Data Use for Decision Making in Health Facilities in Kitui County, Kenya <p><strong>Background:</strong> Effective management of today’s health systems depends on the critical use of data for the policy-making, planning, monitoring of services, and making decisions. The use of data has been limited and faced with inadequacy hence vital health decisions often relying on political opportunism, donor demand, and infrequently repeated national studies which are insensitive to changes occurring over a shorter timescale.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study was designed to identify determinants of utilization of routine data for decision making by health care providers in health facilities in Kitui County in Kenya.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The conceptual framework was constructed from the literature review. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study adopting quantitative and qualitative research paradigms. The district hospital was purposively selected. Multi-stage cluster sampling was used to sample the health facilities in sub-counties and simple random sampling to select the respondents from different cadres in health facilities. The 110 participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Key informant interviews, focused group discussions, observation, and analysis of documents in health facilities were applied. Recordings were transcribed and key concepts identified. Questionnaire results were edited, coded, tabulated, and analyzed using the SPSS 18.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Respondents interviewed were different cadres of health care providers including doctors, clinical officers, nurses, and midwives from different levels of health facilities. Among the respondents, 70% were females, and 30% males. &nbsp;The majority, 64% had a diploma level of education. Nurses/ midwives were the majority, making up 81% of the workforce. The overall extent of data utilization was 66% not using data and 34% use the routine generated data. The following actors influence utilization of routine data: frequency of meetings held (Χ<sup>2</sup> =42.036, df=1, p=0.001), data storage and analyzing methods (Χ<sup>2</sup> = 30.582, df=1, p=0.001), and continuous professional training (Χ<sup>2</sup> = 49.782, df=1, p=0.0001). Organization of the district health system influenced routine data utilization through the frequency of support supervision (Χ<sup>2</sup> =30.000, df=1, p=0.001), issues assessed during supervision (Χ<sup>2</sup> =49.164, df=2, p=0.002) and feedback report from the supervisors (Χ<sup>2</sup> =5.236, df=1, p=0.022).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study demonstrated limited utilization of routine data for decisions in health facilities and recommended the need for capacity building for data utilization through on job training and strengthening the curriculum in health training institutions in data-related areas. The ministry of health can standardize the parallel reporting levels and unify the reporting tools and finally ensure the districts have structured meetings, support supervision, and feedback to the health care providers.</p> Eddah Kanini Karijo George Ochieng Otieno Stephen Mogere Copyright (c) 2021 Quest Journal of Management and Social Sciences 2021-06-10 2021-06-10 3 1 63 75 10.3126/qjmss.v3i1.37593 What Determines Indigenous Peoples’ Mental Health Awareness? A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study From Nawalpur District <p><strong>Background:</strong> The health status of indigenous people including Tharu is very poor.&nbsp;Despite several studies on indigenous communities, no previous studies were found&nbsp;about mental illness and its awareness among the Tharu people in Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> This study aims to find out the awareness of mental illness among adults&nbsp;of the Tharu community. Within the objective the present study specific to identify the&nbsp;level of awareness on mental illness and to identify an association between selected&nbsp;socio-demographic characteristics and level of awareness on mental illness.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> The study was based on the descriptive cross-sectional design and was&nbsp;conducted in 3, 4, 6, 8, and 15 wards of the Madhyabindu municipality of Nawalpur&nbsp;District as the majority of the Tharu's household are located in these wards. This&nbsp;research administered a structured questionnaire to assess awareness of Tharu adults on&nbsp;mental illness. Data were collected in September and October 2018. The collected data&nbsp;were analyzed by using descriptive statistical methods where the researcher calculated&nbsp;mean, standard deviation, percentage, and frequency. Chi-square test was used for&nbsp;inferential statistics.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> Our analysis revealed that the socioeconomic status of the Tharu community&nbsp;is based on agriculture. The overall level of awareness of respondents, 35.5 % had&nbsp;adequate awareness of mental illness whereas 34 % had moderate awareness and 30.5&nbsp;% respondents had inadequate awareness of the mental illness. The level of awareness&nbsp;of mental illness is statistically significant with the age of respondents, gender, marital&nbsp;status, education status, and occupation status.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on the findings of the study, it concluded that nearly one-third of&nbsp;Tharu adults have an adequate level of awareness regarding mental illness. Further,&nbsp;the awareness level of Tharu adults tends to vary according to age, sex, education,&nbsp;occupation, and marital status.</p> <p><strong>Implication:</strong> The findings of this study imply that mental awareness among the&nbsp;indigenous community is still low and the findings of the study could be used by a&nbsp;mental health organization to plan and implement mental health-related awareness&nbsp;programs in an indigenous community.</p> Ranjana Koirala Tilarupa Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2021 Quest Journal of Management and Social Sciences 2021-06-10 2021-06-10 3 1 76 85 10.3126/qjmss.v3i1.37595 Population Composition and Its Effect on Economic Growth <p><strong>Background:</strong> The relationship between population and economic growth has always been a subject of debate. There has never been any clear consensus amongst economists about the nature and extent of influence that population has on the economic growth of a country. <br><strong>Objective:</strong> This paper aims to explore the influence exerted by the age structure of the&nbsp;population on the economic growth of a country. <br><strong>Method:</strong> The paper uses secondary data to find the relation between Gross Domestic&nbsp;Product (GDP) per capita levels of countries and their respective Age Dependency&nbsp;Ratio.<br><strong>Result:</strong> There is a significant negative relationship between them, which implies that, if&nbsp;a country has a rise in a high proportion of the dependent population, per capita income&nbsp;will tend to be lower. <br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The paper then makes a special study of the prospect of demographic&nbsp;dividend in India. The country is in the third phase of demographic transition, implying&nbsp;that the proportion of the working-age population is greater than the dependent&nbsp;population. This provides an ideal condition for the Government to reap the benefits of&nbsp;demographic dividend and achieve higher levels of economic growth.</p> Deboshmita Brahma Copyright (c) 2021 Quest Journal of Management and Social Sciences 2021-06-10 2021-06-10 3 1 86 100 10.3126/qjmss.v3i1.37597 A Competitive Perspective of Sustainable Coffee Production Practices <p><strong>Background:</strong> This study analyzes sustainable coffee production and its competitive&nbsp;perspectives. The present study explains the understanding of sustainable production&nbsp;practices with a triple bottom line approach examining the relationship between&nbsp;production practices and competitiveness. The adoption of a sustainable development&nbsp;strategy has become important for companies as they cannot only be environment&nbsp;friendly but also gain a competitive advantage. The recent studies even found that&nbsp;environmental sustainability has a direct and positive relationship with competitiveness. <br><strong>Objective:</strong> The main objective of this study is to find out sustainable coffee production&nbsp;practices and competitive perspectives. <br><strong>Method:</strong> The research is descriptive. It explains the data and their characteristics&nbsp;statistically without manipulation. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the&nbsp;data using a survey method.<br><strong>Result:</strong> The most significant observation of the study is that the strenuous working&nbsp;condition of coffee production changes the living standard of the people in the&nbsp;community in the future. In this study, the majority of farmers responded that they&nbsp;were practicing sustainable coffee production. They were aware of the environmental&nbsp;aspect of coffee production practices and sustainable way of production leads to <br>competitiveness in international markets. <br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The research concluded that the independent variables economic aspect,&nbsp;social aspect, and environmental aspect of sustainable production practices have a&nbsp;significant positive relationship with competitiveness.<br><strong>Implication:</strong> The findings of the paper imply that the adoption of a sustainable&nbsp;development strategy has become more important for the companies as they cannot&nbsp;only be environment friendly but also gain a competitive advantage.<br><br></p> Khom Raj Kharel Dipak Bahadur Adhikari Copyright (c) 2021 Quest Journal of Management and Social Sciences 2021-06-10 2021-06-10 3 1 101 111 10.3126/qjmss.v3i1.37600 Assessment of Grassroots Empowerment Programs for Economic Development in Anambra State, Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> The work is anchored on community development theory and&nbsp;decentralization process which emphasize both a holistic approach to development and&nbsp;transfer of power, functions, competencies, and means from the central government to&nbsp;the regional and local governments at the grassroots.<br><strong>Objective:</strong> The study assessed the Anambra State Government’s Grassroots&nbsp;Development Scheme for economic empowerment of community dwellers, in all the&nbsp;local governments of Anambra state, in Southeastern Nigeria. This was with the view&nbsp;to determine the extent of involvement of all the communities in the Government’s&nbsp;Grassroots Development Scheme and the commitment of the people to the purpose for <br>which the development scheme was initiated. <br><strong>Method:</strong> The primary source of data was used for the study. The population was made&nbsp;up of all the indigenes of Anambra State. The total number of respondents selected&nbsp;for the study is 975. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential&nbsp;statistics.<br><strong>Result:</strong> The result showed that all the communities were involved in the grassroots&nbsp;development scheme of the Government of Anambra state (χ2=698.211, df =4, p=0.00).&nbsp;The research findings also showed that the communities were committed to the purpose&nbsp;for which the grassroots scheme was initiated (r=0.747, p=0.00). <br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study, therefore, concludes that all the communities in Anambra&nbsp;State were included in the grassroots development scheme of Anambra State and that&nbsp;the people of Anambra State were committed to the scheme as they embarked on and&nbsp;completed different development projects in the state</p> Abasilim Angela Nneka Okhankhuele Omonigho Tonia Copyright (c) 2021 Quest Journal of Management and Social Sciences 2021-06-10 2021-06-10 3 1 112 125 10.3126/qjmss.v3i1.37603 Determinants of Workers’ Remittances in Nepal: An Empirical Study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Remittance has a crucial role in external sector stability, poverty eradication, and social as well as the human development of developing countries like Nepal. The determinants of remittance are widely discussed in the existing works of literature from altruism and portfolio approaches. Since the share of remittance in the current account, current transfer income, and forex reserve is significantly high, the study of major determinants of increasing remittance inflow is necessary. In this regard, this paper examines the relationship between remittance inflow, exchange rate, and workers outflow in Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The main objective of this study was to examine the effect of the exchange rate and workers outflow on the remittance inflow of Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study employs the ARDL approach to co-integration to examine the relationship between remittance inflow as an endogenous variable and exchange rate and workers outflow as exogenous variables.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The coefficients of the exchange rate and workers outflow are significant and positive in long run as well as in the short-run whereas coefficients of the first lag value of workers outflow and remittance inflow itself are significant but negative.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The significant and positive coefficient of exchange rate indicates that depreciation of Nepalese currency with US dollar (or rise in the exchange rate) rises the remittance inflow. Further, the remittance inflow also increases with an increase in workers outflow. The effect of the exchange rate on remittance is greater than that of workers outflow in both the long-run and short-run.</p> Naw Raj Bhatt Melina Kharel Copyright (c) 2021 Quest Journal of Management and Social Sciences 2021-06-10 2021-06-10 3 1 126 140 10.3126/qjmss.v3i1.37605