Rural Development Journal 2024-03-22T10:10:45+00:00 Prof. Dr. Jaya Laxmi Pradhan Open Journal Systems <p>The Rural Development Journal is published by the Department of Rural Development, Padmakanya Multiple Campus, Nepal. It aims at encouraging the researchers for conducting research on multidimensional development issues as their research questions and objectives. Hence, it will contribute to analysing the overall situation of development, especially in rural areas of Nepal.</p> Conceptual Understanding of Ethnicity in Nepal: Exploring Primordial and Constructivist Approach 2024-03-22T08:54:17+00:00 Bidhya Jyoti Ghimire <p>This paper critically analyzes the primordial and constructivist approaches to understanding ethnicity in Nepal and examines how intersectionality, hybridity, power dynamics, and agency shape ethnic identity construction. The study draws on diverse perspectives and scholarly literature to explore the complexities of ethnicity in Nepalese society. The findings reveal the interplay of primordial factors, such as shared ancestry and kinship, with constructivist factors, including social construction and fluidity, in shaping ethnic identity formation. The analysis also highlights the significance of intersectionality, where gender, caste, class, and ethnicity intersect, in influencing ethnic identity construction. Additionally, the study emphasizes the role of hybridity, power dynamics, and agency in shaping and contesting ethnic identities. The implications of these dynamics for marginalized ethnic communities are discussed, focusing on their challenges in challenging dominant narratives and advocating for their rights. The research contributes to a comprehensive understanding of ethnicity in Nepal and informs future research, policy considerations, and interventions related to ethnicity and identity.</p> 2024-03-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Department of Rural Development, Padmakanya Multiple Campus Estimation and Projection of Fertility in Nepal 2024-03-22T09:01:25+00:00 Bijaya Mani Devkota <p>The text discusses the importance of indirect estimation techniques in understanding population dynamics, particularly in countries with limited or flawed data like Nepal. Indirect methods offer valuable insights into fertility and mortality rates when direct measures are unavailable or unreliable. Techniques like Brass P/F ratio and the logistic curve function are explored for estimating fertility trends and projecting Total Fertility Rates (TFR). These methods involve meticulous analysis and adjustment for data inconsistencies. Indirect estimation plays a crucial role in bridging data gaps and informing demographic analysis and planning, especially in regions undergoing demographic transition. Through these techniques, researchers gain valuable insights into fertility dynamics, contributing to a better understanding of population trends. The text explores fertility estimation in Nepal using Arriaga's method, analyzing data from the 2011 and 2021 censuses. It reveals disparities in lifetime fertility indices, particularly after age 20, with higher rates among women aged 20-24 and 25-34, tapering towards the end of the reproductive span. Arriaga's adjustments address issues like misreporting of children's ages, aiming to rectify discrepancies and estimate the Total Fertility Rate (TFR) for both years. Additionally, the study discusses fertility projections for 2026 and 2031, highlighting the importance of trend extrapolation models and the logistic curve for accurate estimation. The findings underscore the significance of meticulous adjustments and reliable methodologies in understanding fertility dynamics in Nepal.</p> 2024-03-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Department of Rural Development, Padmakanya Multiple Campus Impact of Remittances on the Nepalese Economy: Opportunities and Challenges 2024-03-22T09:10:47+00:00 Laxmi Sharma <p>This study focuses on the role of remittances in the Nepalese economy drawing on data from the different secondary data. It analyzes the influence on household income, poverty alleviation, and overall economic development. The research then presents regression analysis between remittance and HDI and finds a high correlation. While finding remittance to be critical to Nepal's improving quality of life, the study also highlights challenges associated with remittances, including brain drain and over reliance. The article advocates for a strategic approach to continue maximizing their positive impact on the national economic landscape.</p> 2024-03-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Department of Rural Development, Padmakanya Multiple Campus Changing Trends of Migration in Nepal 2024-03-22T09:15:12+00:00 Lumanti Shrestha <p>This paper aims at analyzing the changing trends of migration that have turned the world into a global village. The study focuses on how migration has affected all aspects of life including social, economic and demographic; and how it is affected by different factors like spatial variation in labour supply and demand, determined by economic concepts guided by wage differences, geographical opportunities and constraints. In the past, migration was limited to Tibet for trade and India for labour and trade. Later, as Lahure and British Gorkhali, they moved to Pakistan and India to serve as army. The major findings of this study shows that the top destination for the migrants who aspire for better survival are Malaysia, GCC countries remained the destination for economic reasons with moderate education level and the developed countries became the destination for high economic class step there for accomplishing their further study. The ratio of Male and female migrants has not only vast differences but also their prioritized destination also differs due to the kind of work they chose. Nepalese labour migration was badly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic due to restriction despite having labour approvals. Later many new destinations have been opened with options of work type. This article is mainly based on secondary data collected from different articles published in journals related to migration, regular reports published by CBS, NLMR, IOM and others.</p> 2024-03-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Department of Rural Development, Padmakanya Multiple Campus Heritage Tourism and its Impact on Livelihood: A Study on Heritage Site 2024-03-22T09:24:21+00:00 Pampha Duwadi <p>This study aims to investigate the complex relationship between heritage tourism and its impacts on social, cultural, and economic aspects of people's livelihood in the study area. This research is conducted in Changunarayan 4, Bhaktapur. The nature of the study is qualitative. Using Purposive Sampling method, research process is carried out in total 40 households involving in tourism business. This study unveiled positive impacts, including cultural revitalization and preservation, social identity development, and unity. However, it also identified negative effects such as cultural standardization, commercialization, and challenges like cultural clash and littering.</p> 2024-03-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Department of Rural Development, Padmakanya Multiple Campus Internal Migration in Nepal: Resilience to Departure and Host Area 2024-03-22T09:29:26+00:00 Parbata Devi Karki <p>The present study aims to explain the current situation of internal migration and resilience. It is based on secondary sources of information. Mixed method is used to depict the complex scenario of inter-regional migration. Internal migration is a common phenomenon in Nepalese social history. It is generally attributed to poverty, low income, scarce fertile land, lack of opportunity, disparity of population distribution and resources. The unnatural flow of population from hilly to Tarai and rural to urban areas is an issue of study. Migration creates an unprecedented challenge to modern society. The resilience of society either to the host area or the place of departure being painful. The issue of mobility of the people generates disparities of population distribution and resources. Due to uncontrolled movement of people either temporarily or permanently, balanced social and cultural issues are being destroyed and several complexities are emerging. Ancient migration pattern was guided by the scarcity of food and security. Current migration issues are governed by the luxuries of life. Over pressure of population in Tarai and urban areas and dearth of people in hilly region creates havoc in life of both the places.</p> 2024-03-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Department of Rural Development, Padmakanya Multiple Campus Nexus of Gender and Renewable Energy: Importance and Trends in Global and National context 2024-03-22T09:34:43+00:00 Rekha Maskey Joshi <p>This is an article on “Nexus of Gender and Renewable Energy: Importance and Trends in Global and National context”. Here, as per objectives of the study, literatures on the respective issues have been reviewed by a desk review process. This paper has highlighted the issues on importance and trends of gender-energy nexus. The reviews have tried to show association between SDG 7: "Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all.” SDG: 5 is "Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls" for sustainable development. The major highlight of the paper is effective Policy implication, participation, importance and trends, poverty and energy justice and transitions are inseparable entities of gender energy nexus. Energy access saves time, reduces drudgery, reduces indoor air pollution levels, improves education and improves health of women, alleviates poverty etc. Energy access creates new opportunities for income generating activities.</p> 2024-03-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Department of Rural Development, Padmakanya Multiple Campus Problems and Perspectives of Foreign Migration in Rural Nepal: A Case Study of Narja, Nuwakot 2024-03-22T09:40:34+00:00 Sangita Neupane <p>International migration stands as a significant livelihood strategy for individuals in developing countries such as Nepal. The primary objective of this study is to comprehend the underlying factors that drive foreign migration in Narja, Nuwakot. Employing a mixed-method approach, this study combines surveys with qualitative insights gathered through direct questionnaires and interviews conducted with respondents. Data collection took place in September 2023. Our findings revealed that foreign migration has emerged as a noteworthy phenomenon in Nuwakot, propelled by a combination of push and pull factors, including economic opportunities, unemployment, poverty, and aspirations for a better life. These factors collectively influenced the decision of Narja residents for international migration. In our study, a higher percentage of labor migrants were observed in the Gulf states, followed by Malaysia, Australia, USA, and Japan. The majority of these labor migrants were male and predominantly within the age group of 20-40 years. A significant portion of applicants obtained their visas through Recruiting Agencies/Consultancies. Our results demonstrated that over 60.0% of migrants earned an income ranging from Rs. 50,000 to 1,00,000 per month and sent remittances to support their families' livelihoods. While these remittances play a crucial role in sustaining the local economy and enhancing living standards for families, in the long term, they may pose serious threats to the country's human resource and economy.</p> 2024-03-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Department of Rural Development, Padmakanya Multiple Campus Sanitation and Personal Hygiene Practices in Rural Nepal: A Case Study of Namobuddh Kavre District 2024-03-22T09:46:39+00:00 Suresh Acharya <p>Namobuddha is a Buddhist pilgrimage site located in Kavre District, Nepal. The main purpose of this study was to understand the sanitation and personal hygiene practices of people of Namobuddha, Nepal. Altogether, 80 samples have been studied through field work methods by using different tools and techniques like scheduled questionnaires interview, focused group discussion, and observation methods. Data analysis was done through MS Excels. Sanitation and personal hygiene practices are the fundamental elements for a healthy life. This research found out that every respondent was practicing basic sanitation and personal hygiene practices. Every resident of the field area is aware about the personal hygiene practices such as washing hands, washing vegetables, eating healthy foods, doing their laundry, taking bath, etc. Also, they were aware about sanitation practices such as proper toilet facility, proper disposal of wastes from kitchen and other sources, healthy drinking water, and cleaning their surroundings. Hence, overall activity of the respondents regarding sanitation and personal hygiene was satisfactory. Further, it was observed that females were more involved in sanitation and personal hygiene practices. They were involved in cooking, disposal of cooking wastages, cleaning the toilets, surrounding, washing clothes, making their children aware about unhealthy habits, etc. So, they have more knowledge on such practices and they know the consequences of unhealthy food habits and unhealthy surroundings. However, they had the problem with disposal of household wastages. Some of the households dispose of their wastes on the river due to lack of a proper disposal system. Thus, we were impressed by their awareness on sanitation and personal hygiene practice.</p> 2024-03-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Department of Rural Development, Padmakanya Multiple Campus Inclusive Policy and Performance of Women Representatives in Central Alignment of local level of in Nepal 2024-03-22T09:51:44+00:00 Shachita Kuikel <p>This paper is dealing Inclusive policy as one of the beauties of inclusive democracy through affirmative action to ensure gender equality in this era. It significantly tries to recognize women as one of the backward cluster in the society and how they are working in sectorial diversities at local level as a representatives of people. For ensuring equal access to decision making process, women’s inclusive participation at local level is means to strengthen root to democracy. This paper tries to deal with the role of policy to enhance performance of women representatives through secondary and primary data.</p> 2024-03-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Department of Rural Development, Padmakanya Multiple Campus