Research Journal 2024-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 Mr Rajendra Prasad Baral Open Journal Systems <p>The Research Journal is published by the Research Unit, Mahendra Ratna Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal. The articles here vary in their nature and contents ranging from Education, Management Humanities and Social Sciences (Geography, History, English, Economics, Population, Health, Nepali etc.) These contributions obviously include some of the current local and global issues, new knowledge, expertise and experience.</p> Editorial Vol.8(1) 2023-12-22T11:21:51+00:00 Rajendra Prasad Baral <p>No abstract available.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Research Unit, MRMC, Ilam Pedagogical Shift in ELT through Post-method Pedagogy 2023-12-22T11:28:25+00:00 Arun Nepal <p class="Default"><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">As the field of language teaching has been influenced by different methods and approaches developed over time, the pedagogy journey has been shifted from method-based teaching to post-method pedagogy. This article critically examines the same pedagogical shift from method-based model to post-method pedagogy that the ELT situation at present is in a transitional period regarding language teaching applying the beliefs and principles of both PPP (i.e., presentation, practice, and production) model and PPP (i.e., particularity, practicality, and possibility) pedagogy. The beliefs, principles, features, and criticisms published in different books and journals at different times are major sources of information for this article. The critical examination of those ideas in connection with my own teaching-learning experience showed that the pedagogical shift from method-based teaching to post-method pedagogy is a turning point in language teaching because the method-based model prescribes teaching procedures without considering the contextual, practical, and political factors and issues, whereas post-method pedagogy gives primary emphasis on those contextual factors and local issues. Thus, <em>psychological, contextual, glocal, socio-economic/political, and research-based teaching and learning perspectives </em>have been discussed as the major themes of this article.</span></p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Research Unit, MRMC, Ilam Identification of Algebraic and Transcendental Numbers Using Some Elementary Functions 2023-12-22T11:34:45+00:00 Bal Bahadur Tamang <p>In this paper, to identify irrational numbers while appropriately emphasizing basic functions. All rational numbers can be expressed algebraically, but not all irrational numbers. Rational, irrational, algebraic numbers and transcendental numbers are mostly concerned with irrational numbers using some elementary functions.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Research Unit, MRMC, Ilam Head Teacher's Job Satisfaction: At Community Schools in Dadeldhura District 2023-12-22T11:43:51+00:00 Durga Devi Ghimire <p>In the current situation, job satisfaction is one of the most important issues in organizational and leadership studies because it directly impacts individuals' sense of commitment to their job and belonging in the workplace. However, there is currently no general agreement in the educational research on job satisfaction and its definition. This was a quantitative approach with the survey research design method. For this, the questionnaire was used to collect data. There were 57 head teachers as the sample from the Dadeldhura district. A questionnaire was sent via e-mail to collect data, and collected data were analyzed using SPSS 25 version chi and phi as the test. About fifty and fifty percent of males and females are head teachers. Most of them were from the village area with Master’s degree qualifications. The p-value of males and females in salary satisfaction was found to be 0.14, which is not significant. Similarly, the p-value of age and professional satisfaction was 0.45 which is also not significant. Fifty percent of head teachers were males and females which is good. Likewise, 76.7% of the head teachers have Master’s great degree qualifications. More than 66% of the head teachers were satisfied with their co-workers working happily which can be interpreted as a good result in comparison to others. Most of the head teachers were from the village area of the Dadeldhura district. Females are also capable to get as higher a position as males that also reflected that the salary satisfaction level of males and females was not significant in terms of age and professional satisfaction.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Research Unit, MRMC, Ilam Learning Difficulties of Ethnic Minority Students for Construction in Geometry 2023-12-22T12:46:07+00:00 Hari Prasad Sapkota <p>This paper reports the findings of a study that explored the learning difficulties of ethnic students for construction in geometry and analyzed the views and experiences of the students in practicing construction of geometrical figures like triangle and parallelogram with comparing the area of quadrilateral. This study was based on phenomenological research design on exploring the views and experiences of four ethnic minority students. Unstructured interview was used as the main tool for deriving the data from the participants. The collected data were analyzed and interpreted using thematic approach. The results indicated that the students felt conceptual complexity for the learning of geometry. It was found that students had such difficulties due to their irregularity in the geometry classes, teacher’s biasness to the below average students, shyness to ask questions to the teachers and emphasis on culturally privileged students over the minority group of students. Moreover, the ethnic minority students have their own problems as they miss their classes because of socio-economic status of their family and they are confined to their household works. Thus, the study implies that the conceptual complexity and socio-cultural reflection in classroom should be addressed in teaching geometry to the ethnic minority students.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Research Unit, MRMC, Ilam Rural-Urban Linkages of Dipayal-Silgadhi, Doti Municipality 2023-12-22T12:51:22+00:00 Kamal Adhikari <p>This paper reports the findings of the study that examined the urban-rural relationship between Dipayal-Silgadhi, Doti Bazaar and the hinterland areas. Both primary and secondary sources of data were used and primary data were collected from a purposive sampling of 40 consumers and 30 service providers through structured questionnaire, field observation, and focus group discussion. Secondary data were collected from district and municipality profiles, journals, and e-resources. The study revealed that the highway connects Dipayal-Silgadhi, Doti with the hills and Tarai districts. It lies at a break-up point between the Tarai and Mountains areas of <em>Sudurpaschim </em>Province. The local traders have increased their functional magnitude with the coordination of Dhangadhi, Aateriya, and Mahendranagar. It provides functional services to the hinterlands of the northern, western, and eastern parts of Silgadhi. The opening of Samuhagad-Uditola, Shantinagar-Dang, Khaptad-Sadak, Kalena-Sadak, and Mallo-Kalena-Sadak has supported to access and expand the business, educational, and medical services in its hinterlands. However, with further extensions of highways, the buffering of hinterlands is shrinking to perform a variety of functions.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Research Unit, MRMC, Ilam Income Generation through Home Stay Tourism: A Case of Ilam Municipality 2023-12-22T12:56:12+00:00 Kendra Prakash Khatri <p>Home stay tourism has emerged as a promising avenue for income generation and community development in Nepal, particularly in rural areas where traditional forms of accommodation are scarce. This article explores the income generation opportunities offered by home stays in Ilam Municipality, Nepal, and delves into the impact of rural tourism on the local economy. The article also analyzes the challenges and opportunities associated with home stay development, emphasizing the importance of community-based tourism and its potential for economic growth, cultural preservation, and poverty alleviation. Drawing on qualitative approach, data were collected through the unstructured interview and direct interaction with local participants and visitors. The findings highlight the economic benefits of home stays, the empowerment of local communities, and the preservation of cultural heritage. However, challenges related to cultural authenticity, service quality, and equitable development are identified. The findings imply that the policymakers, tourism planners, and local communities should formulate effective plans and programs to enhance the sustainability and inclusivity of home stay tourism in Nepal.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Research Unit, MRMC, Ilam Critical Perspectives in Language Education Research: Exploring English-generated Inequalities from Marxist-influenced Theory 2023-12-22T13:06:59+00:00 Krishna Kumar Khatri Rajendra Prasad Baral <p>This paper critically examines the major threads of critical perspectives that are pervasively employed in Social Sciences in general and language education research in particular. First, it examines briefly about three critical theories (viz. Marxist-influenced, poststructuralist and postcolonial) with reference to language education related notions. Then, building on the theoretical underpinnings of Marxist-influenced theory, it delineates and discusses the English language-generated issues and inequalities prevalent in the multilingual context of Nepal. The authors argue that English as a medium of instruction (EMI) has created social and epistemic inequalities between the students from dominant languages and indigenous communalities in Nepalese society. EMI has been implemented in the schools at the cost of other indigenous languages and posed injustice to the students from diverse linguistic groups. It is claimed that critical pedagogy as being one of the threads of Marxist-influenced perspectives can be employed to mitigate such inequalities.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Research Unit, MRMC, Ilam Contrast of Physical Fitness between Rai and Limbu Ethnic Communities of Phalelung Rural Municipality: A Comparative Analysis 2023-12-22T13:12:36+00:00 Manu Rai Suresh Jang Shahi <p>This paper reports the findings of the study which attempted to compare and analyze the contrast of physical fitness between Rai and Limbu ethnic boy students of Phalelung-2 Rural Municipality, Panchthar. Drawing upon the quantitative approach, the study was based on comparative and descriptive research design. Altogether 24 boy students were selected as the sampled population using purposive non-random sampling procedure. Among them, 12 were from Rai and 12 from Limbu communities. The physical fitness test battery developed by American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (AAHPER) was applied with the minor adaptation as the tool for data collection. While comparing the mean score, the boys from Rai community were found better than their counterpart group in pull-ups, shuttle-run and sit-ups. Likewise, the Limbu students were found to better than their counterpart group in standing broad jump, 50-yard dash and 600-yard run/walk. The sit-ups test has showed significant difference among six test items between two counterpart groups. It was also found that there is no significant difference in physical fitness between two counterpart groups. Whereas equating the composite score between both groups, it found no significant difference between both ethnic groups. It implies that both the ethnic groups should be treated with similar types of physical and sporting activities.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Research Unit, MRMC, Ilam Problems on Reproductive Health of Tribal Women in Phidim Municipality 2023-12-22T13:18:58+00:00 Shukmaya Jabegu Limbu <p>This paper reports the findings of the study that attempted to find out the reproductive health problems faced by the tribal women of Phidim Municipality, Panchthar. Altogether 160 tribal women of Phidim municipality ward no. 10 were selected using simple random sampling technique. Interview schedule was used for the data collection. Questions for the interviews were prepared in order to collect essential data from tribal women, which were applied to the sampled population The findings revealed that majority of the tribal woman reported various problems related to their reproductive health such as pain in lower stomach and vaginal discharge with bad smell from related sex organs. Continuously pain in lower stomach related to placenta is seen major problems of respondents after having child. Over bleeding, mental tension was seen the main problems during menstruation. Most of the respondents (70%) were unknown about contraceptive devices however among them 52.83 percent of the women were found aware of the usage of contraceptives with the access to social media and communication media.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Research Unit, MRMC, Ilam The Need for LGBTIQ+ Movement in the Society of Nepal 2023-12-22T13:25:59+00:00 Shyam Prasad Phuyel <p>A range of terminologies is used by LGBTIQ+ individuals to express themselves and their community. Equality and discrimination-free treatment are essential human rights that apply to all people, regardless of sexual orientation or gender identity. In most societies, LGBTIQ+ people are persecuted, marginalized, or at risk. The LGBTIQ+ movement is simply a social movement advocating gender equality and acceptance of all genders. In Nepal, this movement is extremely necessary as sexual minorities are sometimes not treated as humans and they face discrimination, oppression, violence, abuse, and biasness. This article is written to introduce sexual minorities as an important section of society and highlight the importance of LGBTIQ+ acceptance for a better society. The objective of this study is to explore the existing laws and create a sense of better awareness among the readers. Explorative, qualitative, and descriptive designs and secondary data have been used to satisfy the objectives of this research. This article composes of a short description of the role of laws, state policies, and mechanisms of the legal courtroom in assuring LGBTIQ+ rights in Nepal. The resume of this research is to conclude that every society should cherish and respect every gender, and the legislation should act likewise.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Research Unit, MRMC, Ilam Different Models of the Federal System 2023-12-22T13:32:02+00:00 Tara Nath Ghimire <p>There are different types of systems in modern countries and governments. Governments are becoming distinct sub-systems. In a federal system, a state's authority is constitutionally split and governed by lower levels of government. This is opposed to a unitary system, where it is regulated from top to bottom based on law. There are some federal system models in modern countries. At first, the Constitution of United States of America applied federalism to its creation. Central federalism was mandatory for country formation. That is the first contemporary federal system in contemporary governing systems. Despite this, many countries have adopted different federalism models today. Federal systems also have various practices. Since this paper is prepared using the secondary sources of data, it attempts to introduce various models of federal government systems practiced in different countries. It also critically examines the reasons why multiple forms exist within the federal government system.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Research Unit, MRMC, Ilam विद्यालय शिक्षामा बहुकक्षा बहुस्तर शिक्षणका लागि कक्षा व्यवस्थापन {Classroom Management for Multigrade Multigrade Teaching in School Education} 2024-01-01T06:10:37+00:00 बद्रीप्रसाद Badriprasad फुएल Phuyel <p>यस अध्ययनको उद्देश्य विद्यालय शिक्षामा बहुकक्षा बहुस्तर शिक्षणको परिचय दिंदै यसलाई हाम्रा विद्यालयहरूमा प्रभावकारी रूपमा व्यवस्थापन गर्ने उपायको चर्चा गर्नु रहेको छ । प्रस्तुत लेख उपलब्ध सम्बन्धित साहित्य, अनुसन्धानात्मक प्रतिवेदन, पत्रपत्रिकामा प्रकाशित सामग्री, इन्टरनेट जस्ता द्वितीय स्रोत सामग्रीहरू अध्ययन गरी पुस्तकालय विधिद्वारा तयार पारिएको छ । बहुकक्षा बहुस्तर शिक्षण सिकाइ पद्धति शिक्षणका क्षेत्रमा आएको नयाँ अवधारणा हो । भारतको आन्ध्रप्रदेशमा कृष्णमूर्ति फाउन्डेसनले सञ्चालन गरेको ऋषिभ्याली इन्टिच्युट अफ एजुकेसनल रिसोर्सको सहकार्यमा यो पद्धति नेपालमा सुरु भएको थियो । यस पद्धतिलाई अवलम्बन गर्दा सिकारु सक्रिय हुने भएकाले अहिले विश्वमा आएको शिक्षणसिकाइ प्रवृत्तिअनुसार गरेर सिक्ने मान्यतालाई अँगाल्छ । यस पद्धतिले बालकेन्द्रित, योजनाबद्ध गरेर सिक्ने एवम्सक्रिय सिकाइ, समस्या समाधान उपागम, सहयोगात्मक, प्रतिबिम्बात्मक, क्रमिक विकास, निर्माणात्मक, समावेशी, संस्कृतिकेन्द्रित, भयरहित एवम्रोचक, निदानात्मक, बहुबौद्धिकताको शिक्षणसिकाइ सिद्धान्तको प्रयोग जस्ता सैद्धान्तिक आधारलाई अँगालेको देखिन्छ । यसलाई कार्यान्वयन गर्ने सिलसिलामा बहुकक्षा बहुस्तर शिक्षणसिकाइ सामग्रीको रूपमा रूजुसूची, सिकाइ सिँढी, कोसे ढुङ्गा, चेकलिस्ट, सिकाइ कार्ड एवम विद्यार्थी कार्यपुस्तिका आवश्यक हुन्छ । बहुकक्षा बहुस्तर पद्धतिमा कक्षाकोठा व्यवस्थापनअन्तर्गत कक्षाकोठाको छनोट, ¥याक, टेबुल निर्माण, बसाइ व्यवस्था, किट बक्सको प्रयोग, कालोपाटी व्यवस्थापन, प्रदर्शनी बोर्ड, ह्याङ्गिङको व्यवस्था, सिकाइ अभिलेख व्यवस्थापन पर्दछन्। नेपालमा यो पद्धतिलाई सही रूपमा अँगाल्न सकियो भने यसले सबैका लागि शिक्षा भन्ने सहस्राब्दी लक्ष्य प्राप्त गर्न सहज बनाउने देखिन्छ ।</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 भोक र भित्ताहरू उपन्यासको समाजभाषिक अध्ययन {A Sociolinguistic Study of the Novel Hunger and the Walls} 2024-01-01T06:22:40+00:00 विमला Bimala मिश्र Mishra <p>समाज र भाषाबिचको अन्तरसम्बन्धलाई केलाउने र सामाजिक सम्बन्धका आधारमा भाषाको अध्ययन गर्ने सामाजिक भाषाविज्ञान प्रायोगिक भाषाविज्ञानको नवीन शाखा हो । सामाजिक भाषाविज्ञानको अध्ययन क्षेत्र व्यापक रहेको छ । यस अध्ययनमा समाज भाषाविज्ञानको संक्षिप्त विश्लेषण र सैद्धान्तिक आधार, वर्ग, लिङ्ग, उमेर र शैक्षिक अवस्थाको आधारमा ‘भोक र भित्ताहरू’उपन्यासको पात्रले प्रयोग गर्ने भाषाको समाजभाषिक विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । दौलतविक्रम विष्टद्वारा लिखित ‘भोक र भित्ताहरू’उपन्यास एक सामाजिक उपन्यास हो । यस उपन्यासमा नेपालको पहाडी दुर्गम क्षेत्र र तत्कालिन अवस्थाको काठमाडौं उपत्यकाका मुख्य रूपमा शङखमुल नजिकको परिवेश तथा गरिबीको दलदलमा फसेको यथार्थ चित्रण छ । समाजका शोषक सामन्तले तल्ला वर्गका परिश्रमी, सोझासिधा व्यक्तिलाई गरेको शोषण,थिचोमिचो, बलात्कारजस्ता घटनाको यथार्थ चित्रण गर्नु यस उपन्यासको उद्देश्य रहेको छ ।‘भोक र भित्ताहरू’ उपन्यासका पात्रहरू वर्गीय आधारमा उच्च र निम्न रहेका छन्।लैङ्गिक आधारमा उपन्यासलाई महिला र पुरूषगरी वर्गीकरण गरिएको छ जसमा पुरूष पात्र बढी रहेका छन्। उमेरका आधारमा उपन्यासका पात्रहरू बाल, युवा, प्रौढ गरी वर्गीकरण गरिएको छ भने वृद्ध पात्र छैनन्। शैक्षिक आधारमा पात्रहरूलाई शिक्षित र अशिक्षित गरी विभाजन गरिएको छ । शिक्षित पात्रको तुलनामा अशिक्षित पात्रको संख्या बढी रहेको छ । प्रस्तुत लेख तयार पार्न प्राथमिक तथा द्वितीयक स्रोतका सामाग्रीहरू पुस्तकालय अध्ययन विधिबाट सङ्कलन गरिएको छ । यस लेखमा ‘भोक र भित्ताहरू‘ उपन्यासमा प्रयुक्त पात्रका आधारमा समाजका विभिन्न वर्गले प्रयोग गर्ने भाषिक रूपको जानकारी प्राप्तभएको छ ।</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 स्थानीय पाठ्यक्रमको कार्यान्वयनको अवस्था {Status of local curriculum implementation} 2024-01-01T06:42:02+00:00 प्रेमलाल Premlal मिश्र Mishra <p>प्रस्तुत लेख स्थानीय पाठ्यक्रमको कार्यान्वयनको अवस्था, पाठ्यक्रमको आवश्यकता, प्रभावकारिता, कार्यान्वयनमा देखिएका समस्या र समाधानका उपायहरू प्रस्तुत गर्ने उद्देश्यले अध्ययन गरिएको छ । इलाम जिल्ला फाकफोकथुम गाउँपालिकाअन्तर्गत चारवटा सामुदायिक विद्यालयका प्रधानाध्यापकहरू, स्थानीय पाठ्यक्रम विषय अध्यापन गर्ने शिक्षकहरू, शिक्षाशाखा प्रमुख र १० जना विद्यार्थीहरूलाई नमुनाको रूपमा छनोट गरिएको छ । प्रधानाध्यापक, शिक्षक र शिक्षाशाखा प्रमुख तथा साविकका स्रोत ब्यक्तिलाई अन्तर्वार्ता, प्रश्नावली, विद्यार्थीहरूसँग छलफल तथा कक्षाकोठा अवलोकन गरी आएका कुराहरूलाई तथ्याङ्कको रूपमा समावेश गरिएको छ । प्राप्त तथ्याङ्कको वर्णनात्मक ढाँचामा ब्याख्या तथा विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । अध्ययनको क्रममा प्राप्त सूचनालाई विश्लेषण गर्दा छनौटमा परेका विद्यालयहरूमा स्थानीय विषयका रूपमा मातृभाषा र अंग्रेजी तथा कम्प्युटर विषय समेटेर स्थानीय पाठ्यक्रमको रूपमा पढाइ भइरहेको र सो विषय शिक्षण गर्न छुट्टै विषय शिक्षकको कमी रहेको पाइयो । स्थानीय विषय छनोट गर्दा शिक्षाशाखा प्रमुखको सल्लाह बमोजिम प्रधानाध्यापक ,शिक्षकहरू, अभिभावकहरू, र स्थानीय नेतृत्व संलग्न रहेको पाइयो । स्थानीय विषय शिक्षण गर्ने क्रममा शैक्षिक सामग्रीको प्रयोगको अवस्था र उपलब्धता सन्तोषजनक नरहेको, स्थानीय विषय शिक्षणको अनुगमन तथा मूल्याङ्ककन प्रधानाध्यापकले एक वा दुई महिनामा एक पटक गर्ने गरेको पाइयो । छनौटमा परेको विद्यालयहरूले हालको मूल्याङ्कन प्रणालीहरूलाई भन्दा परम्परागत मूल्याङ्कन प्रणालीलाई प्रयोगमा ल्याएको, स्थानीय विषय शिक्षणको लागि स्थानीय विषय पढाउन शिक्षकलाई आवश्यक तालिम तथा सेवा सुविधाको व्यवस्था नभएको साथै शिक्षण सिकाई प्रक्रिया प्रभावकारी हुन नसकेकोले यसको कार्यान्वयनमा सवै सरोकारवाला निकायहरूको ध्यान जान आवश्यक छ ।</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 सामाजिक परिवर्तन र इलाम : एक समाजशास्त्रीय विश्लेषण {Social Change and Elam: A Sociological Analysis} 2024-01-01T06:56:34+00:00 सन्तोष Santosh पराजुली Parajuli <p>यस अध्ययनले इलाम जिल्लाको समग्र समाज विकास र रूपान्तरण प्रकृयालाई साङ्गोपाङ्गो ढङ्गले विश्लेषण गर्ने प्रयत्न गरेको छ । यस अध्ययनमा व्याख्यात्मक अनुसन्धान पद्धति भित्र रहेर विभिन्न विद्वानहरूका अनुसन्धानात्मक योगदानहरूलाई साहित्य समीक्षाको रूपमा डेस्क रिभ्यू विधिमार्फत गुणात्मक अध्ययन गरी साथै विभिन्न प्राथमिक र द्वितीय दुवै स्रोतमा आधारित गुणात्मक तथ्याङ्कहरू प्रयोग गरी अध्ययनको उपलब्धिलाई समाजशास्त्रीय सिद्धान्तसँग सम्वन्ध देखाउँदै सामाजिक यथार्थको रूपमा पुष्टि गर्न खोजिएको छ । यो अध्ययनले इलाम जिल्लाको सामाजिक साँस्कृतिक, भौतिक लगायत विभिन्न पक्ष तथा विकासको क्षेत्रमा धेरै परिवर्तन र रूपान्तरण ल्याएको पाउन सकिन्छ ।</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023