Research Journal of Padmakanya Multiple Campus <p>The Research Journal of Padmakanya Multiple Campus is published by the Research Management Cell, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus. It provides an intellectual and academic forum for researchers from multiple disciplinary fields of humanities, social sciences, management, education, media and communication, law, and sciences to share their innovative and thought-provoking ideas on the most challenging and debatable issues of the twenty first century.</p> Research Management Cell, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus en-US Research Journal of Padmakanya Multiple Campus 2645-8543 Socio-Demography of Tamang Community in Nepal <p>Tamang is one of the largest ethnic groups in Nepal. They live scattered all around the country, and they live in the hilly region of the country. This paper highlights the caste, culture and demographic status of the Tamang people of Nepal. This study is based on secondary information which has obtained from the published literature. Tamangs have a rich culture, tradition and religion. They are followers of Bon and Buddhism. Farming is a major source of income. Most of them are dependent on agricultural work. Tamang is socially, economically and educationally back warded ethnic group of the country. The illiteracy rate is still higher than other castes. Also, they have a high rate of school dropouts because of their poor economic family background and poor academic progress. Half of the Tamang children have to work in addition to attending schools; they do not play a significant role to bring change in their social and economic status. They are rich in their language, culture, arts and skill. Tamang's various rites, rituals and skills of painting attract foreigners. Tamang community is socially, economically and educationally back warded. They should be addressed by the considered agency from exploitation and backwards community.</p> Bhesh Nath Sapkota Govinda Prasad Adhikari Purnima Syangtan Copyright (c) 2023 RMC, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 2 1 1 10 10.3126/rjpkmc.v2i1.62984 Potato Crop: A Main Source of Income for Farmers in Nepal <p>This study attempts to describe the contribution of potato crop to generate the income of the farmers. The study has used quantitative and descriptive research design. For this, primary and secondary data were used. While collecting the data, 25 households were consulted as a sample out of 250 households. To collect the data, this study adopted interview guideline and observation checklist as tools. While analyzing the data, simple statistical tools were used. The study revealed that majority of the households used pesticides, chemical fertilizers and applied modern technology to produce the potato. The study also found that farmers were able to produce 31,300 kg potatoes and earn NRs 1,252,000 money at a time. They produced 93,900 kg potatoes and earned NRs 3,756,000 in a year. The study concludes that majority of the households were able to increase the potato productivity and their income.</p> Gyanu Acharya Rohit Kumar Shrestha Copyright (c) 2023 RMC, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 2 1 11 20 10.3126/rjpkmc.v2i1.62986 Use, Misuse, and Abuse of ICT in Nepalese Education Policy: A WPR Analysis <p>Of late, a young school student from Mahottari's Shree Kishor Janta Madhyamik Vidhyalay, has exposed the administration's blatant deceit. He was most concerned about the conspicuous dearth of high-quality education (see this Facebook video at: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>). Surprisingly, the school is egregiously deficient in even the most basic conveniences required for a conducive learning atmosphere. There are glaringly insufficient restrooms, not enough clean drinking water, and even not enough teachers at this facility. The sheer pace at which the internet and digital learning, among other technological advancements, have become so crucial in today’s everyday academic practices, pedagogy and parlance has become alarming. Owing to its efficiency, reliability, and the liberalization of knowledge, as well as its functionality in addressing crises such as the most recent Covid-19 pandemic, ICT has become an essential, irreplaceable tool. Hence, this paper explores the use, abuse and misuse of Information and Communication Technology, highlighting since its inception in 2012. This study explores how Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been incorporated into Nepal's educational approach. The study applies the "What is the Problem Represented to be?" (WPR) analytical framework to examine the policy's implementation, outcomes, potential, and challenges within Nepal's educational system. ICT adoption aims to switch from traditional to student-centered learning by 2018 to increase educational access and quality. The report underlines persistent policy implementation, teacher ICT training, public-private partnerships, and community engagement as ways to preserve the use of ICT in education. It exhorts decision-makers to ensure policy objectives are carried out effectively and encourages resource allocation to address these problems. It also emphasizes how ICT may revolutionize schooling. The study uses a thorough WPR analysis to look at how ICT has been incorporated into Nepal's educational policy, highlighting challenges, inconsistencies, and workable solutions to make the most of ICT's potential to improve educational quality and accessibility.</p> Jilshan Saha Copyright (c) 2023 RMC, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 2 1 21 33 10.3126/rjpkmc.v2i1.62987 Writing a Literature Review in Reseach <p>This paper explores what a literature review are and offers strategies into the form and construction of literature review for the scholars writing a research paper, a thesis, and, a dissertation. The “literature” of a literature review refers to any collection of materials on a topic, not necessarily the great literary texts of the world. A literature review is an essential component of research. It serves several important purposes that contribute to the overall quality and credibility of your paper, thesis, or dissertation. It discusses published information in a particular subject area, and sometimes information in a particular subject area within a certain time period.</p> Khum Prasad Sharma Copyright (c) 2023 RMC, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 2 1 34 44 10.3126/rjpkmc.v2i1.62988 Mountaineering Stories of Adventurous Women: A Brief Survey <p>This article looks at the dream and the achievement of adventurous women in the field of mountaineering. It focuses on Everest climbing and the narrations of Lhakpa Phuti Sherpa, a Nepalese mountaineer, Rebecca Stephens, the first British Everest climber, and Lene Gammelgaard, the first Scandinavian woman to summit Mount Everest. The magic of Mount Everest, its beauty, mystery, and majesty lures the women's adventurous souls. They are emotionally and spiritually connected to the mountains because the high peaks are the sources of peace, happiness, and enlightenment to them.</p> <p>Mountaineering, the art of climbing mountain peaks, is a perilous sport that attracts climbers from all over the world. Despite the challenges, the climbers risk their lives to thin air, frostbite, bone-chilling temperatures, avalanches, and powerful winds. They understand that getting to the top is not always simple, but it is worthwhile because it represents self-conquest, and touch with greater power. In this article, the three women climbers mention their invincible courage and inexhaustible stamina to ascend the steep and rugged snow peak of Mount Everest.</p> Pragya Gautam Copyright (c) 2023 RMC, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 2 1 45 56 10.3126/rjpkmc.v2i1.62990 Attitude Toward Homosexuals Among College Students <p>Accepting homosexuality is increasing in Nepali society, yet negative attitude toward homosexuals persists. In educational setting, homosexual students face direct or indirect discrimination.</p> <p>This article reports on the study aimed to assess the attitude of college students toward homosexuals in relation to various factors affecting it. A descriptive study was done on 160 students of Padmakanya Multiple Campus and Shanker Dev Campus using homophobia scale, a self-administered questionnaire that measured the affective, cognitive and behavioral aspects of homophobia. It was hypothesized that there would be difference in attitude toward homosexuals with regards to the independent variables used under the study. Exactly how these factors play role to form a college students’ overall attitude toward homosexuals is not fully understood, though associations between sex, religion and contact experience have been recognized. The study results show that male students and those who have no or negative contact experience with homosexuals hold more negative attitude than female students and those having homosexual friends. The implication of the study includes taking gender into account when working with issues surrounding homosexuality and emphasizing on more positive contact environments between heterosexual and homosexual students. &nbsp;</p> Prekshya Shakya Kabita Raj Kadel Copyright (c) 2023 RMC, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 2 1 57 64 10.3126/rjpkmc.v2i1.62991 Review Based Study of Physical Violence Experienced by Women from their Husband in Nepal <p>The article is based on the issues of violence against women (VAW) by their husbands. The experience of physical violence faced by women from their husband in Nepal is the main focus of this article. Violent behaviors like physical attacks or harm done by men against women have been unfortunate events in individuals. The article shows the status of Nepal in the world in the context of violence. The objectives of the article are to identify the situation of violence against women by age, level of education, caste/ ethnicity and occupation of the women. The data for this article was collected by cross-sectional survey and the study was quantitative descriptive study. The prevalence of all forms of VAW by husband was common among women aged 15-49. Even physical violence (22.8%) was higher than emotional (12.3%) and sexual (7%) violence. Physical violence is pervasive in any status of the women; in such a situation the government must focus its programs to eliminate any type of violence against women.</p> Radhika Shrestha Copyright (c) 2023 RMC, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 2 1 65 71 10.3126/rjpkmc.v2i1.62993 Efficacy of Different Soaps available in Kathmandu, Nepal <p>The main objective of this research was to assess the antibacterial activity of commonly used different soaps. Altogether 8 different types of soaps which were used in our daily life were collected from market of Bagbazar, Kathmandu and processed in the Microbiology laboratory of Padmakanya Multiple Campus from June 2022 to August 2022. Agar well diffusion method was done for studying antibacterial activity of soaps against the bacteria cultures of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Bacillus cereus</em>, <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Klebsialla pneumonia</em>, <em>Salmonella </em>Typhi<em>, Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, <em>Enterobactor </em>spp, <em>Proteus mirabili</em>s and <em>Shigella dysenteriae </em>along with ATCC culture of <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>(ATCC: 25923) and <em>Escherichia coli </em>(ATCC: 25922). A cork borer of 7mm diameter was used for preparing wells in MHA plate in which 70μl of soap samples (100mg/1ml) along with positive control (Ofloxacin) and negative control (distill water) were pouring then incubated at 37°C for 24 hrs to 48 hrs. After incubation, clear zone of inhibition was measured in which antiseptic soaps were found to be highly effective for both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria than other soaps. For total bacterial load reduction (before wash hand and after wash hand with the soaps) from hands of students, antiseptic soaps S<sub>1</sub> and S<sub>2</sub> showed the higher reduction of bacteria which was 91.3% and 95.91% respectively. It was concluded that hand washing with soaps reduced the daily encountered bacteria as well as human pathogenic bacteria.</p> Rama Khadka Copyright (c) 2023 RMC, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 2 1 72 81 10.3126/rjpkmc.v2i1.62994 Some Ranunculaceae of Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park Central Nepal <p>Four species of the family Ranunculaceae were collected from Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park (SNNP). These were <em>Aconitum ferox </em>Wall ex Ser, <em>Clematis smilacifolia </em>Wall, <em>Ranunculus scleratus </em>L. and <em>Thallictrum foliolosum </em>DC. Among these <em>Aconitum ferox </em>is threatened plant and are widely collected for medicinal purpose. The plant is used for curing many diseases.</p> <p>Nepal is rich in biodiversity and it harbors 2% of the world’s flowering plants and it boasts around 6200 species. Floral diversity is quite high in SNNP due to its location, altitudinal and climatic variations. However its detailed study is not undertaken till now. Human survival primarily depends upon the plant resources. Plants and plant product form an integral part of our life and it is extremely difficult to imagine the survival of human without it. The area shows climatic variation from subtropical to lower temperate. Indigenous knowledge and traditional practice about the use of plants of SNNP has not been documented.</p> Sabina Singh Shrestha Copyright (c) 2023 RMC, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 2 1 82 90 10.3126/rjpkmc.v2i1.62997 Role of Roopamandana in Making of Nepalese Images <p>Kathmandu valley has plenty of sculptural art. Images since an early period have been made following <em>vidhana </em>or <em>pratima lakshan</em>. ‘An image prepared without following <em>vidhana </em>is unfit for worship, says sastras and Puranas’ (Khanal, B.S.2075.p.15). <em>Vidhana </em>is a guideline for making images. There are several texts and Puranas describing <em>vidhana</em>. Roopmandana was written by Sutradhar Mandana during the 12<sup>th</sup> century describing <em>pratima lakshana </em>of several dieties. Images of Nepal from 3<sup>rd</sup> century BC till the end of 17<sup>th</sup>/18<sup>th</sup> century CE have their specific identification with gradual inclining changes in their features from early period un wards to Licchavi, early medieval and medieval period. However, the theme has always been same. In this context, how far the <em>pratima lakshana </em>described in Roopamandana has influenced Nepalese images? In what ways and how are they implemented in Nepalese images? The answer to these questions have been tried to be traced on the basis of through detail review of Roopamandana. Likewise, survey of images through purposive sampling, collection of epigraphic records and photographs are used in this study as a primary source. Findings of the facts are analyzed in a descriptive manner. Through various references, it has been revealed in this research that Roopamanda was the best-selected text of <em>vidhana </em>for making Nepalese images and a religious code for continuation or disposal of images in case of breaking. It has been found to be completely implemented in most of the images related to Vaishnava during medieval period, few of them have been found to be made through partial implementation and the rest by merging the <em>vidhanas </em>mentioned in several texts.</p> Sandhya Khanal Parajuli Copyright (c) 2023 RMC, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 2 1 91 106 10.3126/rjpkmc.v2i1.62998 Antibacterial Activity of Zanthoxylum Armatum (Timur) on Gram Positive Bacteria and Gram Negative Bacteria <p><em>Zanthoxylum armatum </em>is commonly known as Timur which is a major indigenous spice of Nepal. The objective of this research work is to determine the antibacterial activity of <em>Z. armatum</em>. The fresh fruits seeds of <em>Z. armatum </em>were collected from Pyuthan District of Nepal<em>. </em>About 25 gram of seeds were grinded to make powder and mixed with 500 ml ethanol for ethanol extraction. Then, extraction was separated by filtration and left for time until residue obtained. The residue obtained was mixed with DMSO (10%) and diluted to 1% and 10% dilution. Agar well diffusion method was done for studying antimicrobial activity for the Gram positive bacteria (<em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>and <em>Bacillus </em>spp.,) and Gram negative bacteria (<em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Klebsialla pneumonia</em>, <em>Salmonella </em>Typhi and <em>Shigella dysenteriae</em>)<strong>. </strong>For the quality control of test, antimicrobial activity of <em>Z. armatum </em>was also done for <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>(ATCC: 25923) and <em>Escherichia coli </em>(ATCC: 25922) along with positive control (Oflaxacin) and negative control (10% DMSO). Among different concentration of 1%, 10%, and 100% of ethanol extract of <em>Z. armatum</em>, 10% and 100% of ethanol extract were found to be effective for both Gram positive bacteria and Gram negative bacteria. From this study, it was concluded that antibacterial activities of <em>Z. armatum </em>was found to be effective.</p> Sunita Shrestha Copyright (c) 2023 RMC, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 2 1 107 113 10.3126/rjpkmc.v2i1.62999 Environmental Flow and River Ecology: A Case Study from Tamakoshi River Basin of Central Nepal <p>Does environmental flow (E-flow) work for maintaining the hydro-ecological regime in Tamakoshi River Basins of Nepal? The flow regime of 15 spatial and temporal locations of main and 17 tributaries was examined through the area velocity methods and Pigmy flow meter in the year 2014 and 2015. Moreover, observations and socio-economic survey of 412 household with buffer zone of 1000 meter in the either side was carried out to understand the flow characteristics along the settlements of 1000 meter (each side) of the basin. However, the Basin is in pressure due to fifteen different types of major and minor hydropower projects. Therefore, desired environmental flows need to be maintained to understand existing geo-hydro- ecological relationship associated with river side settlements. The present policy and practice of allocating 10%—flow is not feasible for the existing ecological balance and local stakeholders. There is an urgent need to develop holistic basin wise approach, and frameworks for environmental flows in the Tamakoshi River Basin. The main objective of this paper is to assess implication of ecological flow maintaining river ecology and perception of basin people. The present paper is based on the field survey of the basin 2014 and 2015, Key Informant Interviews, Stakeholder consultation.</p> Uttam Sagar Shrestha Copyright (c) 2023 RMC, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 2 1 114 126 10.3126/rjpkmc.v2i1.63000