Shanti Journal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/shantij <p>Shanti Journal: A Multidisciplinary Journal is a bi-annual research journal published by Bishwa Shanti Chiran Milan Campus, Bansbari, Kathmandu, Nepal. Shanti Journal publishes articles in a wide range of disciplines in arts and humanities, including but not limited to language, literature, culture, international relation, performance arts, media and communication.</p> Bishwa Shanti Chiran Milan Campus en-US Shanti Journal 2961-1601 Fatherhood and Changing Patterns in the Roles of Black Fathers https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/shantij/article/view/47786 <p>The Afro-American writers of the slavery- era like Harriet Jacobs, Douglass, etc reflect the absence of the black males as fathers of their children. Over the period in the late 19th and early 20th century, the change in this situation can be noticed in the writings of James Weldon and others. In the modern era, the concept of fatherhood has become uniquely important both in the white and black communities. The increased ratio of divorce, birth from unwed mothers, acceptance of cohabitation, has forced many children to live without their fathers. Though the whole country faces the problem of absent fathers, it is acute in the black communities. Concentrating on how the concept of fatherhood is constructed and why it matters so much now, this paper explores the changing roles that the black fathers play in the families. It primarily focuses on whether their role is present or absent in the everyday life affair. It studies why African American fathers are invisible or absent players from behind. It makes a thematic analysis of the selected texts of three different eras: slavery, post-slavery and modern using by using racism, an African American perspective. The study suggests that the black fathers stay in a supportive network of their families in contrast to the stereotypical fathers. Excavating the reasons for the changing modes of the roles of fatherhood in the African American family structure it recommends the necessity of reducing the gap between fathers and children.</p> Madhav Prasad Dahal Copyright (c) 2022 Madhav Prasad Dahal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 1 1 1 14 10.3126/shantij.v1i1.47786 Analysis the Impact of Various Factors Affecting Mental Agony of Indian Expatriate Employees at Muscat in Sultanate of Oman https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/shantij/article/view/47787 <p>Several factors build mental agony for the Indian expatriate workers at Muscat in Oman. The researcher collected data from 120 respondents. All the respondents are working in various companies with their diverse designations. The researcher framed informal questionaries’ and asked them to the 120 respondents on various dates from 17/07/2021 to 27/01/2022. All the respondents are male employees aged about 22 to 55 years having Graduations in Engineering, Diploma in Engineering and Technical Training Certificates, Degree in graduations. The researcher collected the data meeting the respondents informally / incidentally at various premises in Muscat, Oman. The seven hypotheses are framed. The researcher finds that all the 07 factors do not give the mental agony equally to the respondents. The quality of the food, Family member response and Colleagues attitude give more mental agony to Indian expatriate rather than other factors. Hence, the employer must deputize a committee/ employee welfare officer to solve the mental agony.</p> S. Mohan Copyright (c) 2022 S. Mohan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 1 1 15 26 10.3126/shantij.v1i1.47787 Availability and Implementation of Instructional Materials in Science Teaching: A Glimpse of Gorkha District https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/shantij/article/view/47788 <p>This paper focuses on the availability and implementation of instructional materials in science teaching with the main objectives to find the extent of laboratory and improvised materials used at the secondary level and to assess the practical activities completed by secondary science teachers prescribed in the science curriculum at the secondary level. This study is carried out based on the concept learning of Brunner, the cognition theory of Piaget and Skinner’s operant conditioning learning theory. This study is based on the descriptive survey design to explore the knowledge of teachers and students. For the study, eight public secondary schools within the Gorkha Municipality of Gorkha district were selected purposively and then eight science teachers were selected purposively and forty students selecting five students from each secondary level were selected using a simple random sampling method. A checklist, questionnaire and class observation guidelines were prepared and used to generate data. Data obtained from different tools were analyzed first using simple statistical methods quantitatively, then information obtained from class observation, the interview was analyzed qualitatively making themes and then interpreted linking with prescribed theory. From the data, it was found that most of the schools haven’t sufficient materials in their laboratory. Similarly, most of the science teachers have knowledge but they did not give priority to the improvised materials and did not follow the practical work prescribed in the science curriculum. Teachers can make materials; however, they were found depending upon the marketed science materials neglecting socio-culturally generated materials.</p> Anju Kattel Kamal Prasad Koirala Copyright (c) 2022 Anju Kattel, Kamal Prasad Koirala https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 1 1 27 48 10.3126/shantij.v1i1.47788 China’s Foreign Direct Investment In South Asia: A Strategic Quest Of China’s Economic Diplomacy https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/shantij/article/view/47791 <p>China has been South Asia’s strategic consort with economic, diplomatic, and developmental influence. China’s support for South Asia has been seen as truly strategic. It has started to overview the countries of its periphery in a more consolidated may rather than focusing on a separate strategy. FDI, especially for South Asia, is a vital source and means of funds, technology transfer, and skill development. To boost up domestic private and public investment, FDI is essential to carry out steady growth of south Asia. In this research paper, China’s FDI in South Asia has been analyzed and examined from the perspective of China’s expansionary integration, key foreign policy objectives, and key achievements. Empirical analysis has been done. Book, journal articles and reports are reviewed. The key global impacts of China’s economic ascendence and achievements of its FDI diplomacy in South Asia are derived in conclusion. Beijing leverages Belt and Road Initiatives in nearly every country having geo-strategic implications, especially at ports through the Indian Ocean. Moreover, China has made significant effort to assuage periphery diplomacy in the region. Going forward, the South Asian countries should be aware of what Beijing is precisely attempting to achieve in the region, with a view of long-term consequences of the novel plan. To reduce the imbalance of FDI tendency, South Asia should reform their policy to maintain steady growth of FDI and to encourage a large size of capital abandoning export of labor force.</p> Hari Bol Kafle Copyright (c) 2022 Hari Bol Kafle https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 1 1 49 66 10.3126/shantij.v1i1.47791 Enhancing The Skill In Stating Research Questions Using A Contextualized Module https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/shantij/article/view/47793 <p>This classroom based action research delved on enhancing the skill in stating a research question in Practical Research 1 subject of Late Afternoon Senior High School students. The study utilized an action research design. This was conducted in Francisco Bangoy National High School during the second semester of school year 2017-2018. Two students were taken into consideration as participants of the study. Baseline data were gathered to assess their performance. Contextualize module was utilized as the tool in helping students master the competency. Also, interview was conducted to validate the results of the quantitative findings. Data were analyzed using Thematic Content Analysis. The findings revealed that students performance after the intervention was implemented has recorded significant increased. Similarly, students claimed that the intervention was helpful and effective in addressing their need. Further, from those meaningful results, it can be reflected that students’ success in the class was largely attributed to the kind of intervention implemented by the teacher which was suited to their need. Undeniably, the use of a module has helped them master the required learning competency. Hence, use of a module may be offered to teachers handling research subject.</p> Glen L. Villonez Copyright (c) 2022 Glen L. Villonez https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 1 1 67 80 10.3126/shantij.v1i1.47793 The Prospects of Domestic Tourism in Post-Covid Nepal: Connecting the Missing Dots https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/shantij/article/view/47794 <p>Nepal has experienced challenges in developing its international tourism business during Covid-19 and domestic tourism has not yet been considered a viable alternative to the allure of foreign travel in Nepal. There are no statistics on domestic tourism in Nepal. Worldwide, domestic tourism has been sought as an alternative to revive the tourism industry during a pandemic, and the Ministry of Tourism and Nepal Tourism Board is implementing strategies and plans to promote domestic tourism in Nepal.</p> <p>This study aims to investigate the potential of domestic tourism in Nepal from the perspective of domestic tourists. The study is qualitative in nature and has used an online survey from May to June 2020. Data has been analyzed thematically using SPSS, MS-Excel, and descriptive statistics. This study attempts to connect the dots by focusing on domestic tourism and tourist destinations in Nepal in accordance with respondents’ opinions. The findings reveal that the tourism industry can potentially be revitalized by domestic tourism. A high percentage of respondents indicated that the Covid lockdown has floored the tourism sector however, they are highly motivated to travel domestically rather than overseas despite the travel restrictions. To summarize, the potentiality of domestic tourism to strengthen the tourism industry should be further explored, and the absence of strategies and policies, travel restrictions, lack of provision of tourism infrastructure, and safety protocol are barriers to the flourishment of domestic tourism.</p> Ashma Silwal Grizelda Noraine Gonzales Garcia Amisha Silwal Copyright (c) 2022 Ashma Silwal, Grizelda Noraine Gonzales Garcia, Amisha Silwal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 1 1 81 101 10.3126/shantij.v1i1.47794 A History Of The Dutch Reformed Church Mission East Of Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) And Impact On The Development Of Colonial Societies 1897-1964 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/shantij/article/view/47811 <p>This study attempts to examine the history of the Dutch Missionary in the eastern of Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) and the impact on the colonial society. The area of the study was Fort Jameson which is now known as Chipata District. The study focused on the period 1898-1964 because this period was characterized by changes in the economic organisation of the African societies not only in Northern Eastern Rhodesia, but also the whole country. Due to external influence this period under study was also marked by changes in social and political organisation of the people in the study region. Therefore, political suppression of the Ngoni Chewa, Nsenga and other ethnic groups in eastern province, was executed by the imperialist company representatives. The company surrendered the administration of the area to the British imperial government in 1924, which ruled the country as a whole up to 1964 when the country became independent. The data that contributed to this study was derived from oral interviews to people who were linked with the missionary and a multiple of sources which comprised of primary and secondary sources. These source includes books, dissertations, journals articles, Magazines and official reports. This body of literature was consulted in the University of Zambia library and Repository. Data was also sourced from the National Archive of Zambia (NAZ) such as Annual Native Affairs Report, District note books, Tour Reports. Other invaluable archival sources consulted included files of official correspondence among administrators and between individual subjects and their chiefs. The study concluded that the Dutch Reformed Church mission had an impact on the development of colonial societies in North eastern Rhodesia. This is because of the introduction of Christianity, education, agriculture and skill training centre helped in transforming colonial settlements. &nbsp;</p> Martin Chabu Copyright (c) 2022 Martin Chabu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 1 1 102 125 10.3126/shantij.v1i1.47811 Determination of inhabitation percentage of pesticide residue in vegetables with the help of spectrophotometer https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/shantij/article/view/47812 <p>The common types of pesticides such as carbamate and organophosphate are cause serious health issues for consumers. Although these have several benefits to preserve fruits, vegetables, and cereals as well as better yield. The farmers should be aware during the used of the pesticides in nature of the pesticides, ratio of pesticide to land area, and waiting period for edible vegetable. This study focused on the quantitative analysis of rapid bioassay of spectrophotometric for inhabitation of pesticides occurs in the vegetables. The nine different vegetables were collected from six places and analyzed then compared with the standard result. Eight vegetable samples provided green coloured indication and one indicated yellow colour by spectrophotometry. Furthermore, the percentage of Op and Ca pesticide residue is below 35%, which indicates such vegetables are edible. But for cucumber the Op was found in the 35-45% range and resulted in yellow colour, it indicates that the vegetables are non-edible. For cucumber, it takes to quarantine for 2-3 days after that the pesticide could be reduced and safe for consumption. It is clear from this study that no vegetable in the local market has a maximum percentage level of pesticide Op and Ca. However, most of the vegetables available in the market of Sudurpaschim province are safe to consume.</p> Anup Bist Pream Singh Saud Copyright (c) 2022 Anup Bist, Pream Singh Saud https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 1 1 126 133 10.3126/shantij.v1i1.47812 Performance management system in educational institution using Management by Objectives (MBO) and 360° appraisal method https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/shantij/article/view/47813 <p>Performance management is the management activity through which an institution ensures that employees are working effectively and efficiently towards achievement of institutional goal. To ensure that, performance appraisal i.e. evaluating employee’s current or past performance relative to the standard set by institution, is carried on. The data obtained from appraisal is used to take decision of promotion, salary, training and development and for other purposes too. The appraisal is generally done using different appraisal methods or tools like graphic rating method, essay method, critical incident method MBO, 360° appraisal method etc. MBO is now one of the most used a popular tool which is used as appraisal tool, motivational technique as well as planning and control device. Likewise, 360 degree appraisal method is another popular method which is gaining popularity nowadays where all round feedback is taken from all the staffs around the staff going to be appraised. Whatever the method is used, if the appraisal is carried on properly by minimizing common problems like biasness, unclear standards, halo effects etc., any institution can achieve goal through motivated staff with good working environment.</p> Gopal Shrestha Copyright (c) 2022 Gopal Shrestha https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 1 1 134 147 10.3126/shantij.v1i1.47813 Impact of Domestic Violence upon Mental Health of Secondary level School Girls https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/shantij/article/view/47814 <p>Abusing physically, mentally, sexually and economically by a person to a person who have familial relationship is domestic violence. This paper aims to describe what the relationship between impact of DV committed by mother and father, and mental health of girl students is. The study followed cross sectional research design and cluster sampling technique. Data of 385 students that were collected through self-administered anonymous questionnaire were analyzed. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. Pearson’s Correlation test was applied to identify what the relationship of abusing and beating have with anxiety and depression, and multiple regression analysis was used to predict significant contributor to DV. The great majority (84.6%) and 73.1% respondents who had experience of DV respectively had mild to moderate anxiety and depression. One in seven (15.4%) and 26.7% respondents respectively had severe anxiety and depression. Severity and frequency of abusing and beating had strong positive significant relationship with anxiety and depression. Severity and frequency of father beating contribute more to anxiety and depression. Local government must conduct domestic violence education for mothers and fathers of the study area.</p> Anil Kumar Mandal Copyright (c) 2022 Anil Kumar Mandal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 1 1 148 166 10.3126/shantij.v1i1.47814 Russia-Ukraine Crisis And Economic Sanction: Power Politics Through Geoeconomic Means https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/shantij/article/view/47815 <p>The nature of international politics has always been volatile, chaotic and anarchic. The state’s national interest remains permanent when dealing with others. Although the current Russian invasion of Ukraine has been driven by the national interests objective and forthcoming security threat from North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO). Ukraine’s wish to join NATO is the ultimate cause of War. Now, military escalation has taken place and this war has created the largest humanitarian crisis Europe has seen in decades. The war also leads to the global crisis in rising oil and gas prices, and food stuff shortages. Now, the Eurasian region has become a hotbed of power struggles between the Western bloc and Russia. However, Western countries placed a series of sanctions on Russia in response to the invasion, aimed at weakening its economy. Despite this, most European countries still purchase Russian oil and gas. As a result, it has become ambiguous due to geopolitical and geoeconomic interplay in the ongoing war. On the other hand, Ukraine is also receiving military aid from western countries to fight Russia. So, this paper will discuss the current crisis via a geoeconomic lens, as well as how power politics is played through geoeconomic methods.</p> Dharmendra Kumar Copyright (c) 2022 Dharmendra Kumar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 1 1 167 182 10.3126/shantij.v1i1.47815 Teaching Of Reading In The Midst Of Uncertainties: The Narratives Of Elementary Laboratory School Teachers https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/shantij/article/view/47816 <p>Teaching of reaching brought a monumental implication to teaching and learning. This qualitative-narrative research aimed to determine the narratives of Cotabato Foundation College of Science and Technology Elementary Laboratory School. Results showed that teachers were challenged by unresponsive learners, lack of parental support, and lack of reading materials. Meanwhile, they provided their learners with remedial reading activities. They advised that teachers must be passionate and compassionate in handling learners to enhance their reading skills.</p> Zoraida M. Adil Copyright (c) 2022 Zoraida M. Adil https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 1 1 183 196 10.3126/shantij.v1i1.47816 Biogas Plants and Its Impact on Rural Life in Nepalese Communities https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/shantij/article/view/47817 <p>The main components of development are energy. The manufacturing of biogas is an established technology that is largely used to produce sustainable energy as well as to monetize organic waste. The potentiality of the development of biogas energy is very high in rural Nepalese community and the mainly used for cooking. This article aims to know the impact of biogas plant installation on the community people in their lifestyle including the study area of Lekbesi Municipality - 4 Dasharathpur, Surkhet. Quantitative research design was adopted to meet the objectives and extent of activity as well as the descriptive. Data were collecting through the questionnaire method. The purposive sampling of 72 HHs was taken to gathering the necessary information. The study found that, Biogas plant is a reliable source of renewable energy for limiting deforestation rates, increasing productivity, and protecting the environment from human population increase. The workloads of people, particularly women, have decreased in everyday activities since the installation of the biogas plant, which has had a good impact on the family members’ workload schedules. The current study shows that there is a rising tendency toward reliance on biogas plants, which appears to be solid evidence for the preservation of forest resources. The findings of this article have been helpful for government, non-government, as well as social groups to develop better plans, policies, and practical tactics for providing biogas energy to the poorer sector of rural residents.</p> Lokendra Woli Copyright (c) 2022 Lokendra Woli https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 1 1 197 216 10.3126/shantij.v1i1.47817 Igniting Learners’ Behavior And Language Development Through Cartoon Movies: A Phenomenological Study https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/shantij/article/view/47905 <p>Children at the current days were more exposed to different cartoon movies. This study aimed to uncover the different experiences and observations of parents in their children who were exposed to cartoon movies. It employed a phenomenological design which structures the consciousness of experiences of the informants. Results revealed that the learners exhibited the abilities to ask excessive questions, articulated words clearly, increased language awareness, and imitated and mimicked conversation. Pedagogical implications are incorporated which strengthen language acquisition among the children.</p> Gijet C. Paron Copyright (c) 2022 Gijet C. Paron https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 1 1 217 228 10.3126/shantij.v1i1.47905 Social Media Exposure and Usage of Cyber Slang: Bases in Examining the Academic Writing Conventions of the Students https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/shantij/article/view/47906 <p>The study established the relation of social media exposure and cyber slang usage towards the academic writing conventions of the Grade ten students of Kumalarang National High School, Kumalarang Zamboanga del Sur, Philippines. The study has been conducted in the second semester of the school year 2020-2021 and has utilized the descriptive statistics such as percentage, weighted mean as a measure of average, and standard deviation as a measure of variability of numerical observations in order to determine the levels of the students’ exposure to social media, cyber slang, and academic writing conventions. Fifty (50) respondents coming from the aforementioned grade have been distributed with online survey questionnaires based on the concept of several references related to this study. The study found that the Grade 10 students of Kumalarang National High School held the high level of exposure in social media, and usage of cyber slang in social media; and their overall writing convention has a descriptive equivalent of average. The results of the study justified the following; there is no significant relationship between students’ social media exposure and cyber slang usage, there is no significant relationship between exposure to social media and students’ academic writing conventions, and there is no significant relationship between cyber slang usage and students’ academic writing conventions. The result of the study also signified that even if the students are exposed to social media, yet their use of cyber slang is still controlled. The more they used cyber slang in social media, their academic writing conventions will also increase. Further, the results of the study implied that social media exposure contributes a lot to students’ academic writing conventions. Besides it supplied notable entertainment, this can also be a communication channel at their most convenient time, pace and location that teachers cannot afford to overlook. The possibilities to acquire learning with variety of data in social media has reinforced and influenced students’ academic writing conventions. Even if cyber slang is already part of human’s lives in the modern century, yet this will academically challenge the students to decide as to what form of writing they are going to use in order to fit in the requirements both in school and in the community. With this, students must know how to set limit as to when and when not to use them. By knowing this fact, they may widen their competency in the field of writing without sacrificing the English language. This will also allow them to establish their voice in writing.</p> Lhuillier B. Ricaforte Copyright (c) 2022 Lhuillier B. Ricaforte https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 1 1 229 254 10.3126/shantij.v1i1.47906 Economic Welfare and the COVID-19 Pandemic in Nigeria: An Overview of the First Half of 2020 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/shantij/article/view/47907 <p>Corona virus pandemic is a current misery not only to health status but also to economic wellbeing and to the world at large. This study examines the relationship between the pandemic outbreak and economic welfare using daily data on proximate economic welfare measures-real GDP and changes in consumer price index-and the disease indicator variables-discharge rate, fatality rate, spread rate and number of tested cases. The Prosperity theory is adopted and the estimation issue is rooted from the robust least squares technique due to the failed normality assumption of the conventional least squares. Results indicate that corona virus due to its spread lowers labour supply and causes production shortages and subsequently results in hike in price and loss of real income value. High discharge rate can increase real income value and hence economic welfare. Immediate Financing, regulatory, equity and diversification strategies are needed to revive the Nigerian economy.</p> J.O. Saka Copyright (c) 2022 J.O. Saka https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 1 1 255 279 10.3126/shantij.v1i1.47907 मायालु हुम्ला नियात्रामा ध्वनिसौन्दर्य {Sound beauty in the lovely Humla Niyatra} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/shantij/article/view/47922 <p>प्रस्तुत लेखमा दामोदर पुडासैनी किशोरद्वारा रचित “मायालु हुम्ला’ ’ नियात्रामा ध्वनिसौन्दर्यकोखोजी गरिएको छ । साहित्यमा भनाइको तरिका र प्रभावकारितालाई मुख्य आधार मान्ने घुमाउरोकथनपद्धतिलाई ध्वनि भनिन्छ । सोझो भनाइभन्दा परोक्ष कलात्मक अभिव्यक्तिबाट प्रकट हुने सौन्दर्यनै ध्वनि हो । नियात्राकार पुडासैनीको खारिएको प्रौढ लेखनीबाट सृजित “मायालु हुम्ला’’ नियात्रामा ध्वनिसौन्दर्य प्रशस्त मात्रामा पाउन सकिन्छ । विषयवस्तुलाई सोझो सादृश्यरूपमा प्रकट नगरी प्रतीकात्मकरूपमा पस्कने कलात्मक शैलीको प्रयोग भएको प्रस्तुत नियात्रामा धेरै ध्वनिसौन्दर्यहरू रहेका छन् ।ध्वनिका उपकरणहरूका आधारमा विश्लेषण गर्दा प्रस्तुत नियात्रा ध्वनिसौन्दर्यका दृष्टिबाट प्रतिनिधिमूलक रचना मान्न सकिन्छ । यस लेखको अध्ययनको निष्कर्षका रूपमा भन्दा “मायालु हुम्ला’’ नियात्रा उत्कृष्ट ध्वनिकाव्य वा उत्तम काव्यका रूपमा रहेका छ । यस लेखमा पुस्तकालयकार्यबाट प्राथमिक र द्वितीयक सामग्रीको सङ्कलन गरिएको छ भने ध्वनिसिद्धान्तको अभिधामूला र लक्षणामूला भेदलाई ध्वनि विश्लेषणकोविधि बनाइएको छ ।</p> ज्ञानु Gyanu ढुङ्गेल Dhungel Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 1 1 280 289 10.3126/shantij.v1i1.47922 चीरहरण उपन्यासमा नारीवादी चेतना {Feminist Consciousness in Chirharan Novel} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/shantij/article/view/47923 <p>प्रस्तुत अध्ययनमा अस्तित्ववादी नारीवादी सिमोन द बुभोले अघि सारेको नारीवादी विचारलाई आधार बनाएर नीलम कार्की निहारिकाको चीरहरण उपन्यासमा प्रस्तुत नारीवादी चेतनाको निरूपण गरिएको छ । नारीलाई दोस्रो दर्जाका नागरिकमा रूपमा हेर्ने परिपाटीको विरूद्धमा नारी तथा पुरूषपात्रमा जागृत चेतनालाई प्रस्तुत गरिएको यस उपन्यासको नारीवादी विश्लेषणका लागि नारी अस्तित्वप्रतिको चेतना तथा नारीविभेदको विरोधप्रतिको चेतनालाई विश्लेषणका मूल आधार मानिएको छ । नारी अस्तित्वप्रतिको चेतनाभित्र नारीको पहिचान एवम् स्वतन्त्र अस्तित्वप्रतिको चेतना, नारीको वैयक्तिक अधिकारप्रतिको चेतना, पितृसत्तात्मक दमन तथा महिला हिंसाप्रतिको विरोध सम्बन्धी चेतनाका साथै राजनीति र शक्ति संरचनामानारीको समान सहभागिताप्रतिको चेतनालाई र नारीविभेदको विरोधप्रतिको चेतनाभित्र लैङ्गिक विभेदएवम् समानताप्रतिको चेतना, जातीय एवम् वर्गीय विभेदप्रतिको चेतनाका साथै धार्मिक एवम् सांस्कृतिक विभेदप्रतिको चेतनालाई उपन्यास विश्लेषणका ढाँचा मानिएको छ । विवेच्य उपन्यासका सापेक्षमा निर्धारण गरिएका नारीवादी प्रवृत्तिका यी विविध बुँदाहरूका आधारमा उपन्यासका साक्ष्यको विश्लेषणबाट यस उपन्यासमा नारीहरूलाई शारीरिक रूपमा भिन्न भएकैले लैङ्गिक आधारमा विभेद गर्ने, दमन गर्ने, हेप्ने तथा कमजोर मानव ठानी विभिन्न किसिमका हेयपूर्ण उपमा दिने प्रवृत्तिको विरोध गरिएकाले लैङ्गक विभेद र समानताप्रतिको चेतना मुखरित बन्न पुगेको निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ । यस्तै पितृसत्तात्मक समाजमा लिङ्गका आधारमा नारीको बौद्धिकता र क्षमतामाथि बन्देज तथा विभेद गरिने परिपाटीको समेतविरोध गरिएको, नारीलाई धर्म र संस्कृतिले निर्माण गरेका विभिन्न कुरीतिको फन्दामा बेरिने प्रवृत्तिदेखि लिएर राजनीति, शक्तिसम्बन्ध तथा वैयक्तिक निर्णयमा समेत नारीको स्वतन्त्रताको पक्षमा आवाज उठाइएको हुनाले नारी अस्तित्वप्रतिको चेतना तथा नारीविभेदप्रतिको विरोधको चेतना सशक्त बनेको तथ्यपनि प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । महाभारतकालीन समयका पात्र तथा घटनालाई लिएर वर्तमान परिवेशका तादात्म्यमा पुनर्लेखन गरिएको प्रस्तुत उपन्यासमा अस्तित्ववादी नारीवादी प्रवृत्ति सशक्त बन्न पुगेको निष्कर्ष यस अध्ययनले निकालेको छ ।</p> अम्बिका Ambika अर्याल Aryal Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 1 1 290 304 10.3126/shantij.v1i1.47923 गहुँगोरो अफ्रिका कवितामा दलित चेतना {Dalit Consciousness in Wheat Africa Poetry} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/shantij/article/view/47924 <p>प्रस्तुत शोधलेख आहुतिद्वारा रचना गरिएको ‘गहुँगोरो अफ्रिका’ कवितामा चित्रित दलित चेतनाको अध्ययनसँग सम्बन्धित छ । यस लेखमा सदियौँदेखि उत्पीडनमा पारिएका दलितहरूको प्रतिनिधित्व गहुँगोरो अफ्रिका कवितामा के कसरी गरिएको छ र दलितहरूले आफुमाथि भएको दलनविरूद्ध केकस्तो प्रतिरोध गरेका छन् भन्ने जिज्ञासाको समाधान खोज्ने प्रयास गरिएको छ । यस अध्ययनका लागि आवश्यक प्राथमिक तथा द्वितीयक स्रोतका सामग्रीहरू पुस्तकालयीय कार्यबाट सङ्कलन गरिएका छन् । साथै ओमप्रकाश वाल्मीकि, चमनलाल तथा शरणकुमार लिंबालेका दलित सौन्दर्यशास्त्रीय अवधारणालाई आधार बनाई निष्कर्षसम्म पुग्नका लागि विश्लेषण तथा तर्क विधिको उपयोग गरिएको छ । अध्ययनका क्रममा कवितामा नेपालका सम्पूर्ण भूगोलका र विभिन्न दलित समुदायका कामी, दमाई, च्यामे, गाइने, बादी, मुसहर र सार्कीको प्रतिनिधित्व गरिएको र यिनीहरूलाई बिसौँ शताब्दीका जातीय अस्तित्व चेतयुक्त पात्रका रूपमा उपस्थित गराएर यी पात्रबाट दलनविरूद्ध जुझारू प्रतिरोध गरिएकाले ‘गहुँगोरो अफ्रिका’ दलित चेतनाका दृष्टिले सशक्त कविता बन्न पुगेको निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> लावण्यप्रसाद Labanyaprasad ढुङ्गाना Dhungana Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 1 1 305 317 10.3126/shantij.v1i1.47924