SIRJANĀ – A Journal on Arts and Art Education <p>SIRJANĀ – A Journal on Arts and Art Education is an annual publication of Sirjana College of Fine Arts, Uttar Dhoka Sadak, Lazimpat, Kathmandu-2, Nepal. It is designed to stimulate scholars, and to provide a platform for the publication of significant studies in the field of Fine Arts. It welcomes articles, research papers, and book reviews with a focus on the themes of Fine Arts (painting, sculpture, architecture, culture, visual communications, music, dance, and other forms of visual arts and performing arts).</p> en-US (Prof. Rajesh Gautam) (Sioux Cumming) Tue, 21 Sep 2021 10:57:20 +0000 OJS 60 Widening Sphere of Modern Art and Literature in Nepal: A study of the interface between them <p>I see modernism in painting in this region as an evolutionary process that should trigger discussions about its constituent features. This argument harps on the two questions. Is modernism only an emulation of the Western style and methods in paintings and literature, or is it also the evolution of native cultural consciousness that is reflected in the experiments made by painters in art and by writers in creative literary works? To answer these questions, this article includes discussions about evolutions of modernism in paintings and culture in meta-artistic and literary discourses. Examples are drawn from very selective discussions about literature and works of art for reason of space. The basic argument of this article is that modernism in Nepali paintings should be seen in its evolutionary process. Modernism in art is not a condition that we see in palpable form today. It has grown over a long period of creative engagements and efforts both by painters and literary writers. Nepali art students' exposure to art education in Kolkata and literary writers' engagements with print-capitalism in Banaras over a century ago have played significant roles in introducing modernism in both paintings and literature. But I have said clearly that the use of the Western techniques and education has played great role in this process. We can see that in the interface between art and literature, which should be seen in the widening sphere of such sharing in terms of both techniques, and native orientations.</p> Abhi Subedi Copyright (c) 2021 Sirjana College of Fine Arts Tue, 21 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Caryā of Padasādhana – A Vajrayāna Ritual <p>Padasādhana ritual or caryā is an alphabet of vajrayāna religion represented by twenty eight caryāgīti forming a major structure of the ritual performed. All the caryāgīti enacted during the ceremony is a climbing of steps one by one culminating in vajrapada. Construction of maņđala, utterance of mantra and formation of mudra in course of worships are the pillars on which edifice of salvation is built. All the worships are based on maņđala, mudra and mantra. What transpires for spiritual emancipation is through gītī or song and nŗtya or dance which is meant for visualization and ultimate realization of the set goal of the vajrayāna religion that is Buddhahood or Nirvāņa.</p> Arun Shrestha Copyright (c) 2021 Sirjana College of Fine Arts Tue, 21 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Arts and Culture in Building and Sustaining Peace <p>Peace, harmony and development are essential conditions for any society, developed or developing, to progress. The 2011 World Development Report revealed that growing recognition of the link between social services, conflict and peace has helped in inclusion of social services’ provision in peace agreements. A report from ‘Policy Link’ gives equitable development as the key to peace. Music plays a great role in building peace in conflict situations, so does religion, media, performance, theatre. For achieving peaceful conditions there is a need to strike a balance between two extremes including inner and outer peace. Salzburg Global Seminar (2014) focused on using soft power, especially arts and culture, since cultural engagement helps transform perceptions. Case studies referred to in this write up provide sufficient evidence of the high usefulness of arts and culture in every phase of conflict. A detailed portfolio of case studies covering seven countries including Nepal of Asia describes the importance of ‘narratives’ and ‘story telling’, preservation of historical artifacts, photographs etc. for building peace mostly in post conflict stage. The researchers were of the view that the affected persons or beneficiaries needed to be involved right from the beginning of a peace project. British Council’s publication named ‘The Art of Peace’ emphasizes on the importance of local actors’ engagement as well as arts and cultural programs in linking culture, security and development. A project launched by the World Bank and the United Nations, entitled pathways to peace, offered guiding principles, namely, target institutional failure responsible for conflict, to be of inclusive nature, and form sustainable overtime character. Arts and Culture have a distinct place in resolving conflict thus it deserves adequate government support and a networking with other actors such as local municipalities, societies and groups.</p> Binod P. Bista Copyright (c) 2021 Sirjana College of Fine Arts Tue, 21 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Mural at the Southwest Corner of the Mohan Chowk: Piece of History – Rediscovered <p>During the restoration process, the experts from JAICA, made a chance discovery of a mural. But unfortunately, its viewing was/is almost totally blocked by an extra wall, built right in-front of the actual wall, with the murals. To demystify the contents, it has had remained a professional challenge, as it could be barely viewed by one end only – from within a space between 8-9 inches gap.</p> <p>It posed challenge for many reasons. First was its difficult location. Secondly, the painted wall was also damaged beyond descriptions – plaster-surface peeled off spread all over – making the task to read the images even harder. Most importantly, to read the contents or to identify the imageries in such a location, it asked for a professional ability of an art writer or an art historian, to be able to read and analyze. However, after a very meticulous effort and a proper reading of the postures, emblems and other iconographical features, the narratives are being made – explaining on and about the murals found.</p> <p>The essay is prepared and is made, after a series of exercises – begun by field visits, and followed by closer examination of the images on the spot and as is available in digital images. The writing is made - after the long afterthoughts, and in consultation with the available references.</p> Madan Chitrakar Copyright (c) 2021 Sirjana College of Fine Arts Tue, 21 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Symbolic Values Behind Art in the Animistic Practices among the Tharus of Dang and Deukhuri <p>The symbolic values behind the art in the animistic practices among the Tharus of Dang and Deukhuri is a paper that deals with various symbolic objects, that are termed as fetish associated with the animistic practices observed by the Tharus of Dang and Deukhuri of Terai Nepal. The objects or the fetish created by them when analyzed through an artistic perspective, seems, to the outsiders or through the ‘Etic Approach’ just a local ethnic crude handicraft. However, when analyzed through the ‘Emic Approach’ these artistic creations or fetish have great symbolic values associated with it. This paper-based on a field survey of the two regions has brought to limelight the symbolic values behind artistic creativity associated with their animistic practices.</p> Poonam R.L. Rana Copyright (c) 2021 Sirjana College of Fine Arts Tue, 21 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Developing Trends of Music in the Vedic and Mythological Eras <p>The Vedas are religious texts which inform the religion of Hinduism also known as Sanatan Dharma; meaning eternal order or eternal Path. The Vedic – mythological period is considered to be the golden era in the history of world literature. Not only did the philosophy of the age reach a new pinnacle; but even aspects of music, art, culture, literature, sculpture, religion, and spiritualism were extended to their highest point. Amongst these cultural instruments, Music represents vocal and instrumental sounds combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotions. During this era music – vocal and instrumental were held in high respect in society. Music had both ritual and secular aspects. Sāmaveda is considered as the root of Vedic music as well as the root of today's south Asian classical music. Sāmagāna was considered as the sound of inspiration for the people of that age. This paper attempts to discuss the musical situations in Vedic and Mythological periods regarding its origin, development, extension and practices in ancient south-eastern i.e. Hindu civilization. The paper also points out why the need and importance of Vedic music in present day society is much more; especially in regards to the adoption of lessons and ethics from Sanatan Hinduism.</p> Ramesh Pokharel Copyright (c) 2021 Sirjana College of Fine Arts Tue, 21 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Archetypes in Batsa Gopal Vaidya's Paintings <p>Batsa Gopal Vaidya's paintings integrate primordial images, symbols, and figures from myths, cultures, and rituals. These images and symbols are the archetypes that appear recurrently in his artworks. The artist shares these primordial images from his collective unconscious, the common heritage of mankind, and the storehouse of archetypes that reappear in the creative process. They suggest the pattern of experiences of our ancestors. These recurring communicable images function as an aesthetic mode of communication in society. Swastika, shaligram, tilaka, the Himalaya, rivers, various deities, and their attributes are such images and symbols that do not only provide aesthetic pleasure but also take the viewers back to their cultural roots, rituals, and myths. This article attempts to trace the archetypes in Vaidya's works and explain their significances.</p> Yam Prasad Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Sirjana College of Fine Arts Tue, 21 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 संरक्षण कविता यात्रा (२०५३) मा पर्यावरण [Environment in Conservation Poetry Journey (2053)] <p>‘संरक्षण कविता यात्रा (२०५३)’ सङ्ग्रहभित्र दस जना कविहरू हरिदेवी कोइराला, जे. अस्मिता, <br>भूपिन व्याकुल, धनप्रसाद तामाङ, नवराज अधिकारी, सरस्वती श्रेष्ठ ‘सरू’, सुकुम शर्मा, रमेश श्रेष्ठ, <br>पुष्प आचार्य तथा सरूभक्तका कविताहरू सङ्कलित छन् । यसभित्र पाँच जना स्थानीय सहभागीका <br>प्रकृतिमुखी लयात्मक सिर्जनालाई पनि समावेश गरिएको छ । प्रकृति संरक्षणको मुख्य ध्येय बनाएर<br>आरम्भ गरिएको यस अभियानका मुख्य परिकल्पनाकार कवि सरूभक्त हुन् । प्रस्तुत अध्ययन संरक्षण<br>कविता यात्रा (२०५३) का कवितामा प्रयुक्त पर्यावरणीय चेतनाको खोजीसँग सम्बद्ध रहेको छ । यसका<br>निम्ति संरक्षण कविता यात्रा (२०५३) मा सङ्कलित कविताहरूबाट प्रतिनिधि साक्ष्यहरूको विश्लेषण गरी<br>यहाँ&nbsp; प्रयुक्त पर्यावरणीय समस्या पहिल्याउनु तथा ती कवितामा प्रयुक्त शिल्पगत विशिष्टताको पहिचान<br>गर्नुमा केन्द्रित रही अध्ययन गरिएको छ ।</p> गीता थपलिया Geeta Thapaliya त्रिपाठी Tripathi Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 21 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 नेपाली धातुकला विधि र परम्परा [Nepali Metalwork Method and Tradition] <p>मूर्ति रचना पद्धतिका सन्दर्भमा नेपालमा धातुकलाको निकै लामो र विशिष्ट परम्परा रहिआएको छ ।<br>धातुकलामा ढलाइ (Casting) पद्धति र पाता अर्थात् रिपोसे (Sand casting) पद्धति प्रचलित रहेका छन् । <br>स्यान्ड कास्टिङ (Sand casting)&nbsp; लाई ढलान पद्धतिमा वैकल्पिक विधिका रूपमा लिइन्छ । धातुमूर्ति रचना पद्धतिमा मैन निर्गम पद्धति (Lost wax Process) को अलगै महत्व रहेको छ । प्रस्तुत अध्ययन <br>मैन निर्गम पद्धतिको परम्परामा केन्द्रित रहेको छ । ढलाइ पद्धति साँचामा पग्लेको धातु खन्याई <br>मैनको ‘मानसरा’ मा मधुच्छिष्ट विधानम् भनी उल्लेख गरिएको पाइन्छ । यस पद्धतिलाई फ्रान्सेली <br>भाषामा ‘सेर पर्डु’ (cere-perdue) र अङ्ग्रेजी भाषामा (lost wax process)<br>भनिन्छ । ऐतिहासिकताका दृष्टिले सिन्धुघाटी सभ्यताको मोहेन्जोदारोमा प्राप्त २५०० इस्वी संवत्पूर्वको <br>‘नर्तकी’ नाम दिइएको धातु मूर्ति सर्वाधिक प्राचीन मानिएको छ । मैन निर्गम पद्धतिबाट गठित तथा<br>खोक्रो दुबै खालका मूर्ति बनाउन सकिन्छ । यो पद्धति भारतका बिभिन्न आदिवासी समुदायमा पनि <br>‘डोकरा कास्टिङ’ नामले प्रचलित रहेको पाइन्छ । आधुनिक पद्धतिका तुलनामा यो पद्धति कम खर्चिलो<br>भए तापनि परम्परागत पद्धतिमा केही चुनौतीहरू पनि रहेका छन् ।<br><br></p> ओम Om खत्री Khatri Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 21 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 नेपाली आधुनिक गीत: देश, काल र चिन्तन [Nepali Modern Songs: Country, Time and Thought] <p>नेपाली गीतको प्रारम्भिक स्वरूप लोकगीत नै हो । लोकगीतकै भाका र भावबाट एउटा विशिष्ट <br>कालखण्डमा आएर आधुनिकताका मानकहरूसंग सापेक्ष रही रचना भएका गीतलाई ‘आधुनिक गीत’<br>भनिएको हो । गीतमा एकातिर शब्द–संरचना र अर्कोतिर प्रयुक्त शब्दको अर्थका तहमा हुने <br>फराकिलो युग चेतनासंगै गीतमा अन्तर्निहित नवीन सङ्गीत शैलीका आधारमा पनि गीतमा <br>आधुनिकताको चरण निर्धारण गरिन्छ । प्रस्तुत अध्ययनमा नेपाली लेख्य गीतको पृष्ठभूमि र त्यस <br>सम्बन्धमा गीत रेकर्ड र गायनका आरम्भ र विकासलाई समेत आधार मानी विश्लेषणको ढा“चा तयार <br>पारिएको छ । नेपाली गीतमा आधुनिकताको मापनका निम्ति नेपाली परिवेशमा बढ्दै गएको बाह्य<br>प्रभाव र नेपालभित्र पनि सामाजिक, राजनीतिक घटनाक्रम संगै संस्कृति र परम्परामा सुधारका अपेक्षा र <br>अवधारणा लिएर उपस्थित भएका परिवर्तनगामी चिन्तनका पक्षबाट विकसित भएका गीतलाई <br>आधुनिकताको आधार मानी अध्ययनलाई अघि बढाइएको छ ।</p> प्रकाश Prakash सायमी Sayami Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 21 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000