Saptagandaki Journal 2022-06-27T12:39:14+00:00 Binod Khanda Timilsana Open Journal Systems <p>A research journal of Saptagandaki Multiple Campus, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal.</p> The Saptagandaki Journal 2022-06-26T08:12:42+00:00 Kapil Dev Subedi <p>Not Available</p> 2022-06-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Foreign Trade of Nepal: An Outline of India and Overseas Economies 2022-06-26T07:36:51+00:00 Yadav Mani Upadhyaya Khom Raj Kharel Omkar Poudel <p><strong>Background: </strong>This article seeks to explain the current status of Nepal's involvement in foreign trade. The major objective of this research is to look into Nepal's present foreign trade situation with India and the rest of the world</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The study used a 29-years of time series data related to foreign trade, breaking down global foreign trade, Indian foreign trade, and overseas foreign trade one by one. Graphs, a simple regression model, and a log linear model are used for analysing the data.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>This study found a positive relationship between economic growth and both imports and exports. However, an export equal to one million can generate only 0.00133 million income for Nepal. Also, imports generate only 0.03451 million revenue of Nepal which is very low.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Foreign trade is essential for Nepal's economic growth, yet it is still a long way off.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Work Life Factors and Job Satisfaction in Banking Sector of Nepal 2022-06-25T23:32:09+00:00 Dhan Raj Chalise <p><strong>Background: </strong>Quality of work-life is a progressive indicator relating to the sustainability of business where positively addressed job satisfaction and quality of work-life motivates employees to contribute to the organizational effectiveness and growth. The present study aims to extract the relationship between job satisfactions on the quality of work-life among the employees in Nepalese commercial banks. More specifically the study explores the extent of work environment and facilities, job security and safety, learning and development, leadership and employee's empowerment on job satisfaction.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Adopting descriptive cum analytical research design this study was carried out from the Nepalese banking industry and targeted sample employees were drawn from the report of Nepal Rastra Bank 2019. Likert type structured questionnaire was designed to collect information from 150 commercial bank employees using simple random sampling techniques. Correlations and regression analysis were carried out to examine the relationship between and among the study variables with the help of SPSS.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The result of the study shows that there is a positive impact of job satisfaction on the quality of work-life of employees in Nepalese commercial banks. Moreover, the study reveals that working environment, learning and development, leadership and employee empowerment has relatively more impact on the quality of work-life than pay and job security aspects of the quality of work life.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Job satisfaction and quality of work-life motivates employees to contribute to the organizational effectiveness and growth. </p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 STEAM Education for Transformative Mathematics Learning 2022-06-25T23:47:37+00:00 Basanta Raj Lamichhane <p>In this paper, I have tried to explore hegemonic western cultural worldview which heavily influences the traditional disciplinary egocentric curriculum practices. Western hegemonic culture's overriding inspirations in mathematics education have established western modern worldviews, culture, and traditions as universal standards. Through the so-called standard norms and values, the powerful countries (mainly western and European countries) have seized others' cultures, values, and perspectives and thus developed the culture of silence. Conventional disciplinary egocentrism indoctrinates hegemonic culture that makes the learners unaware of their ways of being, knowing, and doing. It severely affects less powerful (politically, economically and technologically) countries' education systems by pervading instrumental, decontextualized and bureaucratic thought and beliefs. It engulfs humanitarian, biocultural, political, and spiritual perspectives of mathematics education. It signifies that we urgently need to revitalize mathematics education by incorporating newly emerging perspectives; one such perspective might be STEAM education. I would like to discuss the different perspectives of STEAM education and explore how STEAM education contributes to creating new synergetic learning spaces in mathematics education by enhancing transformative learning practices. The primary concern of STEAM education is to acknowledge local and contextual ways of beings, knowing, and doing. The recognition of the local cosmological knowledge, perspectives, and values support authenticate the learning process. The learning authentication widens the possibilities of active engagement of learners in the learning and decision-making process by deploying creative, critical, and imaginative thinking and skills. A deep engagement in a multi/inter/transdisciplinary learning process embraces the learners into bio-cultural differences; the lifelines of the human being support developing awareness, self-consciousness, and spiritual sensibility. STEAM perspectives always focus on enriching transformative agendas to create more authentic, inclusive, and empowering educational practices. It also empowers the learners to act as change agents for enhancing socially, ecologically, and bio-culturally just society that underpins to transform mathematics education. </p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Representation of the West and the Ideological Position of the Author in Belayettira Baralinda 2022-06-26T00:00:10+00:00 Dharma Bahadur Thapa <p>Written by Tana Sarma Belayettira Baralinda [Roaming through England] is a pioneering work of travel account in Nepali literature. It recounts the author’s observations of European society during the mid-sixties of the twentieth century. The purpose of this paper is to see whether the author accepts the hegemonic discourse of the west of its progress and civilization or resists and contests it. For the textual analysis, it uses Antonio Gramsci’s concept of Hegemony, Michel Foucault’s Discourse theory and Edward Said’s notion of Orientalism and the generic parameters of travel writing<strong>. </strong>As the original text is in Nepali, the writer has translated the cited parts into English and wherever is necessary, the Nepali is also used followed by its English equivalent. This review finds that it undoubtedly is a classic work of travelogue in Nepalese literature which presents a vivid picture of Europe of the mid-sixties of the twentieth century. It is more varied and surpasses its predecessors like Jungabahadurko Belayet Yatra and it is more analytical and multifaceted. It has saved itself from the fault of admiring the west without being objective and critical. Thematically, it covers three areas: admiration of the west as the place of progress, plenty and freedom, sporadic critiquing its inhumanity and the expression of authorial ethos in the description of the west. The paper concludes that, despite sporadic moments of critiquing, Sarma’s travel account approves western hegemonic discourse.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Rhetorical Resistance in Nana Akufo Addo’s Speech 2022-06-26T00:10:05+00:00 Tek Bahadur Chhetry <p>The yoke of suppression upon the Africans by the European countries has left a permanent scar in the minds of African people for ages. The Europeans have not only invaded the African continent physically but also intruded upon its emotional space by creating the division of colonies for nearly hundred years across the vast land. The African continent abounds; massive resources which, from time to time, have perpetually been exploited by the colonizers from the Europe; not for the sake of the continent people but for fulfillment of the colonizers. This has had a knock-on-effect in every stratum of the African societies-be it cultural, social, economic or political. Ghana, the first country to set free in the sub-Saharan region of Africa against the European colonialism now shows its resistance to the foreign aid. Against this backdrop, this paper examines the resistance of the Ghanaian people rhetorically as the political exhortation to its best, in the speech delivered by Ghanaian President, Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo on Nov. 30, 2017, with the unexpected response to the French President, Emmanuel Macron, subverting the notion of colonial mentality that adheres to the hidden agenda of exploitation in a newer version in the name of financial aid. The president wants the youngsters of the continent to change their perspectives and mindsets of dependency only to use their sweat and toil to turn the African continent itself into a paradise. While analyzing this speech, the researcher employs Aristotelian rhetorical devices: Ethos, Logos and Pathos, and explores the underlying linguistic patterns which contribute to making Nana’s verdict so persuasive and moving to his audience. To the author, the President keeps all balance to bring out his thesis throughout the speech by virtue of both verbal and non-verbal sensitivity of his language and becomes one of the most followed leaders of the world.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Accounting for Management Practices: A Holistic Perspective in Nepalese Commercial Banks 2022-06-26T00:17:30+00:00 Achyut Gnawali <p><strong>Background: </strong>Management Accounting supports competitive decision-making by collecting, processing, and communicating information. It helps in management plan, control, and evaluation of business practices in Nepalese Commercial Banks. The main aim of this study is to analyze the management accounting system practices in Nepalese Commercial Banks.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This study followed a descriptive research design. A sample of 507 bank employees has been selected with convenience sampling technique to get the information related to the accounting practices. A structured questionnaire related to the Management Accounting System including the five domains like Budgeting and Planning, Controlling and Reporting, Decision support system, Costing system and Performance Evaluation were designed in Likert scale rating format for responses, and descriptive statistics were used to make the analysis of responses.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>It was found that the Nepalese banking sectors apply management accounting practices including budgeting and planning, controlling and reporting, decisions making, costing and performance evaluations. Among the various techniques banking sector use Budgeting and control most and costing system the least. These techniques were widely used in bank's performance evaluation as well.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: there is a positive and significant association between the application of management accounting system and organizational performance. So, the banks can enhance their performance through the use various techniques of accounting for managerial decisions.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Water Quality of Bagmati River in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal 2022-06-26T00:25:13+00:00 Dhruba Acharya Bhoj Raj Pant <p>Abstract <br>Background: Water quality degradation is one of the major challenges especially in under <br>developed and developing countries and Nepal is no exception from it. Adequate water quality <br>and quantity is one of the greatest factors affecting human and ecosystem health, and is <br>essential for socio-economic growth and the improvement in the quality of life. This study aims <br>to assess the water quality of Bagmati River in Kathmandu, the capital city of federal Nepal.<br>Methods: Water quality of the Bagmati River in Kathmandu Valley was analyzed to assess the <br>river water pollution. A total ten sites from Sundarijal to Sundarighat along the Bagmati river <br>corroder was selected for sample collection. The samples were analyzed for physical (pH, <br>Temperature, Conductivity), and chemical (dissolved oxygen, oxygen saturation percentage, <br>biological oxygen demand, chloride, nitrate-N, phosphate-P and ammonia-N) parameters in <br>pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons using standard methods. <br>Results: The result reveals that water quality of the Bagmati River has degraded due to physical, <br>chemical and biological contaminants. Discharge of untreated sewers, industrial effluents, <br>unmanaged location of solid waste transfer station, dumping and burning of plastic waste and <br>garbage near to the river bank. In both the season pollution was found to be increasing from <br>upstream to downstream as indicated by Bach water quality index. The paired sample t-test of <br>physicochemical parameters in two different seasons showed that all tested parameter were <br>significantly different except dissolved oxygen and phosphate concentration. parameters pH, <br>range between 7.55 to 6.33, temperature 30 °C to 26.23 °C, electrical conductivity 43.73 µS/<br>cm to 810.5 µS/cm, dissolved oxygen 0 mg/L to 9.52 mg/L, oxygen saturation percentage 0 to <br>119.75 %, biological oxygen demand 2 mg/L to 400 mg/L, chloride 4.97mg/L to 132.54mg/L, <br>nitrate-N 9 mg/L to 110 mg/L, phosphate-P 0.26 mg/L to 2.95 mg/L and ammonia-N range <br>between 0.41 mg/L to 42 mg/L. Conclusion: Untreated sewerage, industrial effluents, dumping and burning of waste, <br>unmanaged location of solid waste transfer stations, poor management of cremation ash has <br>resulted in the excessive water pollution in Bagmati river. Treatment of waste water before <br>discharge to the river and proper management of cremation ash and garbage, and prevention <br>of illegal dumping of solid waste and burning of garbage and plastic materials along the river <br>can alleviate the water pollution in Bagmati river.&nbsp;</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Impact of Female Education on Fertility Status of Muslim Community of Susta Rural Municipality: Kudiya, Nawalparasi 2022-06-26T00:34:34+00:00 Krishna Prasad Gyawali <p><strong>Background: </strong>This study explores the impact of female education on fertility status. Nepal has been experiencing a fertility decline over the last few decades. Although many factors have been shown to influence women’s childbearing, socioeconomic factors such as education and religion are some of the prime factors that mainly influence women’s fertility in Nepal. The major objective of this study is to examine the relationship between education and fertility behavior of the respondents.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This study is descriptive in nature. Sample of this study consist the 218 married Muslim women randomly selected out of 689 families from Susta Rural Municipality of Parasi. Data were analyzed using the statistics like frequencies, percentages and mean value.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Level of education has inverse relation to fertility. The CEB between illiterate, literate, SLC and intermediate attainment women was found significantly different. Moreover, it was also found that most of the women had knowledge of family planning but they were reluctant to use family planning method.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Major conclusion of this study indicated the inverse relationship between level of education and fertility behavior of Muslim women. Hence, fertility behavior can be changed through education policy intervention over Muslim women in rural area. </p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021