Saptagandaki Journal A research journal of Saptagandaki Multiple Campus, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal. Research Management Cell, Saptagandaki Multiple Campus en-US Saptagandaki Journal 2594-3243 <p>© The Saptagandaki Journal</p><p>The author of article must sign the copyright permission or the author must assign copyright to the Journal/to the Campus Authority prior to publication.</p><p>All rights reserved.</p> Assessment Practices in Mathematics: Local to Global Contexts <p> The main purpose of this paper is to explore the present mathematics assessment practices in local and global contexts. For this, I decisively review educational policies, practices, curricular documents and contemporary researches. In doing so, I select the Finland, China, USA, as they have stood in the significant positions in an international comparative study such as TIMSS, PISA and Nepal. It reveals that the assessment practices in mathematics are not an isolated phenomenon that have been executed by an external authority at the end of the academic sessions to quantify the individual attributes relating to mathematical performances. It is largely embedded in educational activities from the very beginning and simultaneously works throughout the programme for enriching mathematical outcomes and performances of students. I capture two major trends of assessment practices of these countries; post-positivist approaches of assessment and integral approaches of assessment. The post/positivist perspective incorporates summative evaluation techniques and assessment of learning whereas integral perspectives concentrate on assessment for learning as having broad goals of reconstructing, reframing and transforming the entire programs. These trends of assessment practice largely blend with philosophy of mathematics education. The comparing and contrasting views of assessment practices would be helpful for the policy makers, educators, mathematicians and other related personnel for critically re-evaluate their respective assessment practices and thus encourage to transform the deep-rooted conventional assessment practice that is one of the major hindrance to sanction the mathematics education within the positivistic paradigm.</p><p> <strong>The Sapta Gandaki Journal</strong></p><p>Vol. IX, 2018 Feb. Page: 1-16<em></em></p> Basanta Raj Lamichhane ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-26 2018-08-26 9 1 16 10.3126/sj.v9i0.20876 Women with Disabilities in Nepal <p> The women who have one or more impairments and experience barriers in society are the women with disability (WWD). Disabled women of all ages, in rural and urban areas, regardless of the severity of the impairment, sexual preference and cultural background or whether they live in the community or an institution are recognized as the WWD. As the Person with Disabilities are deprived, isolated, marginalized and excluded groups of the society, the women who have disability are one of the components of them. The social status of disabled women varies according to individual circumstances and to the country in which they live. Being a member of United Nations, Nepal recognized the human rights of people with disability in the year 1981. Accordingly, it enacted a special law known as the Disabled Persons Protection and Welfare Act, 1982 but even after 36 years of existence, the people with disabilities are often excluded from the mainstream of society and denied their human rights. Nepal is rich with legislative provisions but there is discrepancy between legislation and practices. Social security system is very poor in Nepal; disabled as well as economically marginalized people have not received any kind of social protection (food, shelter, clothes, health, education, and training). The strongest rights to social security may turn out to be nothing more than unfulfilled promises. Again most of the services are situated in urban areas and disabled people from rural areas at more risk. So it is mandatory to cater necessary services to all women with disabilities living in any part of Nepal for the respect, protect and fulfilling the commitment of government by human rights Instruments.</p><p> <strong>The Sapta Gandaki Journal</strong></p><p>Vol. IX, 2018 Feb. Page: 17-25<em></em></p> Binod Khanda Timilsana ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-26 2018-08-26 9 17 25 10.3126/sj.v9i0.20877 Effect of Gender Exploitation and Violence on Health Status of Women and Girls in Chitwan District <p> This study aimed to findout forms and causes of gender exploitation and violence as well as reveal the effect of gender exploitation and violence on the health status of women and girls. The researcher collected secondary data from District Police Office and Women Cell of the same office of Chitwan. Primary data was collected from purposive sampling method. The study reveals that majority of the victims of exploitation and violence suffers from grave physical health problem, psychological and mental health problem and reproductive health problems. Similarly, the study also reveals that the causes of gender exploitation and violence are economical, political, educational and social backwardness. From the research, it is concluded that women and girls are dominated due to lack of education, patriarchal society, polygamy society, sexual dissatisfaction and dowry. Moreover, women are discriminated from birth. This study also shows that literate women are equally victimized as well as the illiterate women and girls.</p><p> <strong>The Sapta Gandaki Journal</strong></p><p>Vol. IX, 2018 Feb. Page: 26-33<em></em></p> Govinda Prasad Parajuli Sarita Chapagain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-26 2018-08-26 9 26 33 10.3126/sj.v9i0.20878 Funding Gap in Hydropower Projects of Nepal: Does Internal Finance Matter? <p> This paper aims to examine the current status of investment and availability of financing to hydro power companies in Nepal. Using pooled cross sectional data of NEPSE listed companies; a regression equation has been estimated to determine the effect of financing constraints on investment decisions of hydro companies. The study results confirm that internal cash flows and leverage are the major determinants of investment decisions in Nepalese hydro companies. Moreover, the coefficient of internal cash flow is significantly strong and positive showing its interdependency in financing new investment projects of hydro companies. This relationship strongly supports the financing constraints hypothesis that indicates the capital market frictions as the major obstacle of hydro investment in Nepal. Although the companies have access to banks and foreign capital, still the financing gaps persist and they are highly dependent on their internal cash flows for investment. Additionally, the volatility of cash flows and sales of hydro companies along with their long gestation period pose a significant credit risk to banks and lending institutions that hinder them to provide as much credit as they demand. Besides, the cyclical variations of net worth and collateral values of hydro companies during the tough economic period also resist them to obtain enough finance for further investment. Hence, the government should ensure with appropriate policies, information systems and regulatory mechanism that enable well functioning of capital markets to efficient flows of funds either in the form of equity or debt to boost up the hydropower investment in Nepal.</p><p><strong>The Sapta Gandaki Journal</strong></p><p>Vol. IX, 2018 Feb. Page: 34-52<em></em></p> Kapil Deb Subedi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-26 2018-08-26 9 34 52 10.3126/sj.v9i0.20879 A Survey of Investors Preference on Stock Market : A Case of Nepal Stock Exchange <p> This paper shows investors preference on stock market of Nepal Stock Exchange (NEPSE). The study is based on survey method using structured questionnaire. The results demonstrated that investors were found to have investment interest in secondary market. The reasons for selecting shares are mostly liquidity and high rate of earning. The investors' perception regarding the influencing factors for the investment decision in secondary market of NEPSE is the advice of brokers and then movement of indices. The news in daily newspaper and market sentiments are viewed as least influencing factors for investment decision. Most motivating factors prioratized by respondents were capital gains, then liquidity and then dividend, safety and bonus shares. The motivating factors like tax benefits and rights shares were under least preference by the respondents.</p><p> <strong>The Sapta Gandaki Journal</strong></p><p>Vol. IX, 2018 Feb. Page: 53-61<em></em></p> Post Raj Pokharel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-26 2018-08-26 9 53 61 10.3126/sj.v9i0.20880 Microfinance Intervention and Livelihood Status: A Case of Gramin Bikash Bank Limited <p> This paper attempts to focus on the impact of micro finance intervention on livelihood status of the people taking samples of 60 respondents of microfinance intervened and 60 non intervened population of Grameen Bikash Bank which lies on remote area of Pokhara, Leknath Metropolitan city and nearby VDCs. The study is based on the randomized control trial approach and data were collected through researcher administered questionnaire. Respondents were taken through stratified sampling. The research finds that microfinance intervention has association with occupational status, micro enterprise creation, frequency of loan taken and occupational change. Independent sample t-test shows micro finance intervention increases income level, capital expenditure, consumption expenditure and saving. The regression analysis shows that micro finance intervention changes the livelihood status of women of rural areas of Pokhara Municipality and nearby VDCs.</p><p> <strong>The Sapta Gandaki Journal</strong></p><p>Vol. IX, 2018 Feb. Page: 62-72<em></em></p> Ramkrishna Chapagain Rishikesh Aryal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-26 2018-08-26 9 62 72 10.3126/sj.v9i0.20881 Economic Perspectives of Trademarks <p class="Pa3">Primarily, this paper examines the role of trademark in global economy, as an intellectual property the value of trademark and brand in the global marketplace, and the economic potentiality of trademarks to generate more value and surplus in the economy. This paper also discusses the contribution of the trademarks for creating brand and value of business enterprises. The article is basically conceptual and descriptive in nature. Based on the literature review, the purposes of this paper are; to assess the perceived value of a trademark and brand, to examine the trademark roles for creating brand and value and to understand the impact of trademark on economy.</p><p>The article deals with trademark and its economic perspectives. This article is valuable to understand the value of trademark in marketplace. The article helps academicians and practitioner to know the concept of trademark as an intellectual property and to understand that it can be used by market economy to generate more income, value, and surplus in the economy. The economic perspective of trademark can be applicable to many segments of Nepalese business context; ranging from manufacturing to service sector and importantly for the entrepreneurship development. Finally, the article is recommending for further empirical research study to examine the impact of trademark protection system for the countries’ economic growth.</p><p> <strong>The Sapta Gandaki Journal</strong></p><p>Vol. IX, 2018 Feb. Page: 73-83<em></em></p> Rishi Ram Chapagai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-26 2018-08-26 9 73 83 10.3126/sj.v9i0.20882 फाटो कथामा अनुभूतिको संरचना Fato Kathama Anubhutiko Samrachana <p>पश्चिमी चिन्तक रेमन्ड विलियमले विकास गरेको साहित्यको समाजशास्त्रीय अध्ययन गर्ने सैद्धान्तिक अवधारणा<br />अनुभूतिको संरचनालाई मुख्य आधार बनाइ यस लेखमा फाटो कथामा संरचित अनुभूतिहरु खोजी गरिएको छ । फाटो<br />कथामा प्रतिबिम्बित पिढीगत अनुभूतिहरु र प्रभुत्वको परिवेश, अधिनस्थ पिढीका अनुभूतिहरु, दवाबजन्य अनुभूतिहरु<br />तथा तनावजन्य अनुभूति आदिका कोणकाट कथाको विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यी विविध कोणबाट प्रस्तुत कथा<br />विश्लेषण गर्दा फरक फरक पिढीगत अनुभूतिहरु संरचित भएको पाइन्छ ।</p><p><strong>The Sapta Gandaki Journal </strong></p><p>Vol. IX, 2018 Feb. Page:84-90<em></em></p> प्रभा Prabha मरहट्टा कोइराला Marahatta Koirala ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-26 2018-08-26 9 84 90 10.3126/sj.v9i0.20884 सुम्निमा उपन्यासको परिवेशीय मिथक Sumnima Upanyasko Pariweshiya Mithak <p>(विश्वेश्वरप्रसाद कोइराला आधुनिक नेपाली कथा जगत्को मुर्धन्य व्यक्तित्व हुन् । उनले मनोविश्लेषणात्मक उपन्यासहरुको<br />सिर्जना गरेका छन्, जसमध्ये सुम्निमा पनि एक हो । किँराती र आर्य संस्कृतिका पात्रहरुको सिर्जना गरी त्यसमा<br />किँराती र आर्य समाजका मिथकहरुको संयोजन गरेर उपन्यासको कथावस्तुलाई जीवन्त बनाइएको छ । यस उपन्यासको<br />विषयवस्तुगत पृष्ठभूमि अति प्राचीनतम् हुनुका साथै किँराती जनश्रुति र मिथकलाई समायोजन गरी अतीतको धमिलो<br />संस्करणत्मक कल्पनाको स्वैरकल्पित, प्रतीकात्मक र सङ्केतात्मक प्रस्तुतिमा अभिव्यक्ति हुन गएको स्पष्टतः देखा<br />पर्छ । उपन्यासकारले विषयवस्तु सुरू हुनभन्दा अगाडि नै उपकथा शीर्षकमार्फत यसको कथावस्तुलाई सत्य र असत्यको<br />तराजुमा नजोखिने एउटा यात्रा वृत्तान्त हो र यसको महइभ्व पौराणिक छ, सङ्केतमय र प्रतीकात्मक भने तापनि<br />किँराती मिथकलाई अगाडि सारेर लेखिएकाले यस उपन्यासलाई निकै रोचक र मिथकप्रधान मान्न सकिन्छ ।)</p><p><strong>The Sapta Gandaki Journal </strong></p><p>Vol. IX, 2018 Feb. Page: 91-100<em></em></p> Bindu बिन्दु Poudyal पौड्याल वस्ती ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-26 2018-08-26 9 91 100 10.3126/sj.v9i0.20885 पारिजातको ‘शिरीषको फूल’ उपन्यासको सांस्कृतिक अध्ययन Parijatko Shirishko Phul Upanyasko Sanskritik Adhyayan <p>(शिरीषको फूल पारिजातद्वारा रचित उपन्यास हो । विसङ्गतिको बीच रङ्गिएको जीवनलाई उपन्यासमा प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । यसमा युद्धभूमिबाट भागेर आएका भगौडा सैनिकको नारीप्रतिको दृष्टिकोण र एक निस्सारवादी युवतीको जीवनकथालाई मर्मस्पर्शी ढङ्गबाट चित्रण गरिएको छ । निर्मम युद्ध संस्कृतिबाट प्रभावित सुयोगको पुरुष चरित्र कठोर, निर्दयी र परपीडक<br />अनि नीच रहेको देखिनु साथै उसमा प्रतिशोधी पुरुष प्रवृत्ति हनु, त्यस्तै परम्परागत नारीभन्दा भिन्न स्वभाव भएकी र विद्रोही विचार प्रस्तुत गर्ने बरीमार्फत् प्रस्तुत उपन्यासमा उग्र नारीवादी चेतना पनि प्रस्तुत गर्नु, निस्सारवादी, शून्यवादी जीवनदृष्टि प्रस्तुत हुनु, त्यस समयको अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय परिस्थिति र राष्ट्रिय सामाजिक, राजनीतिक परिवेशका कारण निर्मित तत्कालीन<br />नेपाली जीवनको प्रभाव परेको पाइनु जस्ता सांस्कृतिक पक्षहरू यस उपन्यासमा रहेका छन् ।)</p><p><strong>The Sapta Gandaki Journal </strong></p><p>Vol. IX, 2018 Feb. Page: 101-108<em></em></p> सरोज Saroj दवाडी Dawadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-26 2018-08-26 9 101 108 10.3126/sj.v9i0.20886