SCHOLARS: Journal of Arts & Humanities <p><em>SCHOLARS: Journal of Arts &amp; Humanities</em> is a peer-reviewed, open access journal. Indexed in NepJOL, star-ranked in JPPS and preserved in Portico (a permanent digital archive), the journal is published twice a year in February and August by Central Department of English, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Nepal (<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>).</p> <p>The journal provides a platform for national and international researchers/ scholars to publish and share their research outcomes that explore the topics from a broad array of academic disciplines of arts and humanities, including but not limited to language, literature, culture, music and visual arts. To access its online site, open this link: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> Central Department of English, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal en-US SCHOLARS: Journal of Arts & Humanities 2773-7829 <p>© Central Department of English, Tribhuvan University and Authors</p> List of Reviewers (Vol. 4, No. 2, August 2022) <p>No Abstract available.</p> Editorial Board Copyright (c) 2022 Central Department of English, Tribhuvan University and Authors 2022-08-11 2022-08-11 4 2 135 135 Facts & Figures (Vol. 4, No. 2, August 2022) <p>No Abstract available.</p> Editorial Board Copyright (c) 2022 Central Department of English, Tribhuvan University and Authors 2022-08-11 2022-08-11 4 2 136 137 The Power of the Unsaid in Graphic Narratives: Decoding Joe Sacco <p>This paper analyzes the representation of Palestine-Israel conflict in Joe Sacco’s graphic novel <em>Palestine </em>(2001) through the foregrounding of haptic visuality—a terminology in a visual text for conveying a sense of visceral touching evoked by the visual image—at the center of which lies the use of gesture. Drawing upon both techniques of reading a graphic text and Giorgio Agamben’s notion of gesture, this paper intensely examines the graphic based gestural representation in the novel. It aims to unravel Sacco’s attempt to redirect his readers’ affect of sympathy towards the Palestinian refugees by exposing the prevailed discrepancies in the media reportage and the implicit reasons of the Middle East conflict. The paper concludes that the gesture-based visual narration of the clashes help Sacco expose his readers to both emotional and rational veracity of the conflict. This exposure finally redirects his readers towards a gesture-actuated visceral witnessing to the Palestinians’ pain and evokes the ethos for the Palestinian refugees.</p> Deepa Silwal Copyright (c) 2022 Central Department of English, Tribhuvan University and Authors 2022-08-11 2022-08-11 4 2 1 17 10.3126/sjah.v4i2.47418 Preserving Culture and Heritage of the Yoruba of Southwest Nigeria: An Ethnographic Study of the Twin Figure (Ere Ibeji) <p><em>Ere Ibeji </em>is the carved wooden figure used to commemorate the death of twin(s) among the Yoruba people of Southwest, Nigeria. Existing literature focuses on myth, sacred and artistic values of this traditional wood carving while issues of protection and preservation of its tangible as well as intangible belief system are gradually fading out. This study aimed at sustaining the twin’s figuring carving tradition, which seems to be winding out due to civilization. The study examined available data surrounding twins’ birth, thereby advocating the preservation of the surviving <em>ere ibejis</em>. The findings of the study show a reasonable number of <em>ere ibejis </em>that have been taken outside Nigeria while others are in the national museums. The study recommends the retrieval of the ones taken abroad, the use of improved conservation methods in the museums as well as the promotion of cultural heritage management in Nigeria.</p> Michael Abiodun Oyinloye Afeez Babatunde Siyanbola Evelyn O. Adepeko Adedola Olayinka Adeyemi Copyright (c) 2022 Central Department of English, Tribhuvan University and Authors 2022-08-11 2022-08-11 4 2 18 31 10.3126/sjah.v4i2.47419 Customary Practices in African Print Fabric Design Process in the Nigerian Textile Industry <p>African print fabrics is commonly referred to as Ankara fabrics. It is a major textile product produced in Nigeria, which has the high economic value. This study focused on the customary practices in the African print fabric design process in the Nigerian textile industry. The study adopted survey research design. The population of the study comprised of African print fabric designers in the functioning textile companies in Nigeria. Ten African print fabric designers were sampled. Questionnaires and interviews were used for data collection. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistical tools. The study revealed that textile companies in Nigeria do not have value for quality designers, intellectual property right and originality of designs. It was recommended that the design institutes and professional design bodies should intervene in the design process in the Nigerian textile industry so as to generate designs that are original and capable of promoting the Nigerian textile industry.</p> Adebayo Abiodun Adeloye Sunday Roberts Ogunduyile Tolulope Lawrence Akinbogun Copyright (c) 2022 Central Department of English, Tribhuvan University and Authors 2022-08-11 2022-08-11 4 2 32 42 10.3126/sjah.v4i2.47420 Indigenous Characters and Their Nation: A Socio-Political Analysis of Selected Nepali Plays <p class="Default"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt;">The rise of modern Nepali intellectuals especially in Kathmandu during the 1930s inspired many writers and political leaders to articulate new narratives of the nation. For instance, Balkrishna Sama’s <em>Mukunda Indira</em>, Bhimnidhi Tiwari’s <em>Sahanshila Sushila </em>(<em>Permissive Sushila</em>) present characters from various strata of Nepali society. In the plays, indigenous communities speak about the psycho-social realities of the time. The indigenous characters of the plays are humble and hardworking. But in the play <em>Simma </em>written by Rayan right before the 1980 referendum, the time the Panchayat regime became stronger and kept denying the people’s democratic rights the indigenous characters in plays become politically vocal. They question the polity based on modern social and political theories. However, the indigenous characters of <em>Mayadevika Sapana (Dreams of Mayadevi) </em>written by Abhi Subedi and staged in 2004 and later years speak for the universal peace and brotherhood. By drawing upon Ludwig Stiller and Mahesh Chandra Regmi’s social, economic and political interpretation of Nepal’s history, particularly of the nineteenth century, the article concludes that while presenting the indigenous characters, the playwrights directly and indirectly address the social and political ills of the Nepal society. These indigenous characters' attitude towards their masters and the representatives of the state around reflects the political and historical courses that Nepal has gone through over the centuries and the rise of a force that might free them from such lines of control.</span></p> Shiva Rijal Copyright (c) 2022 Central Department of English, Tribhuvan University and Authors 2022-08-11 2022-08-11 4 2 43 50 10.3126/sjah.v4i2.47421 The Mystery of Akudaaya in Yoruba Films: Interrogating Death and Destiny in Aye Loja, Directed by Seun Olaiva <p>The study of afterlife has remained within the mythic mode because of its non-empirical but impelling nature. Many scholars insist that death cannot be annihilative and the debate is intensified as Wole Soyinka proposes robust African perspectives on existential issues of life and death. <em>Akudaaya </em>(‘transmigrated soul’) describes people returning to life after death, a phenomenon, which is regularly explored in Yoruba films. This paper expounds the mysteries surrounding this <em>Akudaaya </em>and the dramatic/filmic techniques deployed to present the phenomenon. It also addresses how Yoruba films have presented the phenomenon to define the relationship between death and destiny. With the film directed by Seun Olaiya and titled <em>Aye Loja </em>as the primary text, more information is accessed through interaction with notable traditionalists, and relevant works in literature, religion and philosophy were consulted. While <em>Akudaaya </em>remains a mystery, the phenomenon is discovered to be driven by unfulfilled destiny. <em>Akudaaya </em>is therefore seen as a metaphor for the continuity of life in death and a measure through which the conflict between death and destiny is mediated.</p> Abayomi Agboade Adegbamigbe Copyright (c) 2022 Central Department of English, Tribhuvan University and Authors 2022-08-11 2022-08-11 4 2 51 64 10.3126/sjah.v4i2.47422 The Making of Immigrant Identities in Chang-rae Lee’s Native Speaker <p class="Default"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt;">This article analyzes the formation of multiple and hybird identities of an immigrant in Korean American writer Chang-rae Lee's <em>Native Speaker </em>(1995). Growing up between Korean ancestry and American surrounding, the second-generation immigrant Henry feels uncertainty and dilemma in his sense of belonging. He simultaneously travels in both cultural spaces in his quest of sense of belonging. At times, he attempts to identify himself with American cultural space along with his White wife. However, the reaction of the mainstream society to the immigrants of Asian origin like him makes him aware of his marginalized status in the US. In the same way, he cannot wholeheartedly identify with his Korean ancestry. His upbringing in the American cultural milieu problematizes his sense of belonging in the Korean cultural space. He negotiates between his origin and upbringing in the third space of the diaspora. This negotiation renders multiplicities and pluralities of self, which reflects in his evolving subjectivities that deconstruct the binary of home and host culture. This article examines the formation of hybrid and multiple subjectivities of Henry through his negotiations between his native and host cultural space. Homi Bhabha’s notion of the third space, including hybridity, multiplicities and immigrant identities, has been employed to substantiate evolving multiple subjectivities of immigrants.</span></p> Nagendra Bahadur Bhandari Copyright (c) 2022 Central Department of English, Tribhuvan University and Authors 2022-08-11 2022-08-11 4 2 65 73 10.3126/sjah.v4i2.47429 Identity Economics in Emily Brontë’s Wuthering Heights: An Empathetic Inquiry into Psychoanalysis <p class="Default"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt;">This paper aims to connect the interlocking ideas of how social signifiers psychologically develop utility function, theorized by George A. Akerlof and Rachel E. Kranton, in characters like Heathcliff, the protagonist of nineteenth-century English fiction <em>Wuthering Heights </em>by Emily Brontë. Heathcliff's motivation is a desire born out of circumstantial consequences, for example, to be with Catherine in life or wealthy like Linton's family. This paper pinpoints how only material wealth fails to give a sense of belongingness in Heathcliff's life, which he aimed at achieving in the second half of his transformative journey. In addition, this paper attempts to reason for the absence of identity in Heathcliff’s decision-making process, which means a lack of empathy or belongingness in Heathcliff’s ambition. This research leads to a hypothesis that if Heathcliff had been brought up in an empathetic environment, the readers would not have perceived such degradation of mental health as abusive actions that he performs. Through a qualitative inductive method, this paper analyzes the aspect of identity economics that focuses on empathy. Thus, this paper gives insight into how material wealth without empathy only amplifies, particularly Heathcliff's violent nature, thereby leading the protagonist to an end where peace is a hallucination like Catherine’s ‘ghost.’</span></p> Ashfaque Akhter Ahmed Tahsin Shams Copyright (c) 2022 Central Department of English, Tribhuvan University and Authors 2022-08-11 2022-08-11 4 2 74 80 10.3126/sjah.v4i2.47423 The Interface between Environmental Hostility and Human Perversity in Bapsi Sidhwa’s The Pakistani Bride <p>Ecocriticism is popularly thought of as a unidirectional exercise for preserving nature in its pristine and uncontaminated form. This view is grossly reductive because ecosystems are many, not one, local and not global. The natural green world is not always necessarily friendly to human aspirations. In fact, ‘green’ is the colour of falsehood, unreliability and deception in medieval English literature. The colonial medical discourses also endorse this diversity of the natural world. In these discourses, the tropical world of the European colonies is described as a ‘diseased world’ in contrast to the sanitized temperate world of the west. Since the boundary between humans and the environment is porous, human nature is perverted in environments hostile to human habitation. Bapsi Sidhwa’s <em>The Pakistani Bride </em>documents the interrelationship between the arid, bleak and closed world of mountains in Kohistan and the perversity of the isolated pockets of feuding tribes that inhabited it. It foregrounds that it is impossible to improve human nature if we simply surrender to uncontrollable natural forces and abandon all efforts to ameliorate our living conditions. It is, therefore, essential to realize that ecocriticism is not merely concerned with the protection of pristine external nature. It is an effort to reframe our interactions with nature not as mastery but as negotiation. If human-made changes have endangered the life-supporting systems of the world, we should instead, as Rachel Carson urges, explore what alternatives are available to us.</p> Samita Mishra Copyright (c) 2022 Central Department of English, Tribhuvan University and Authors 2022-08-11 2022-08-11 4 2 81 89 10.3126/sjah.v4i2.47424 Ecology and Making Sense of Place in Barbara Kingsolver’s The Poisonwood Bible <p class="Default"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt;">The paper analyses bioregional aspects of place in the novel <em>The Poisonwood Bible </em>written by Barbara Kingsolver. The characters having a sense of bioregionalism and eco-cosmopolitanism live in harmony with the ecology of given space. The inseparability of human beings with the place’s life supports the idea of bioregionalism and eco-cosmopolitanism. Both enhance the concept of ecological links that span a region, a continent, or the world. The main character Orleanna Price, as portrayed in the novel, urges her husband (Nathan Price) and daughters to see themselves in a wider context of beings — animals, vegetables and minerals. She is an embodiment of eco-cosmopolitanism. Nathan is an evangelical Baptist preacher who takes his family into the Belgian Congo to do missionary work. He never thinks of his family’s survival despite the fact that the things they carried from Georgia to Congo did not work well due to the different climatic and atmospheric situation in Congo. His wife – Orleanna Price managed everything for the family in the difficult situation due to the humidity, poisonous insects, animals, and potential diseases in the Congo’s unfamiliar climate. For her, the forest is alive; the trees vibrate with animals and vegetation. She suggests her husband to leave Congo but he does not listen to her, rather he exploits her, the native people, and Congo. Nathan’s hatred to African people is vehemently foregrounded in the novel as he denigrates Congolese people, his wife- Orleanna, and Congo itself and stands in sharp contrast with the concepts of bioregionalism and ecological connection. Since the paper is qualitative in nature, it is carried out through textual analysis in the light of the concepts related to eco-cosmopolitanism and bioregionalism. The paper concludes that Orleanna Price having eco-cosmopolitan sensibilities adapts in the new ecological region of Congo so that she feels the same whether she is in Georgia or Congo.</span></p> Kamal Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 Central Department of English, Tribhuvan University and Authors 2022-08-11 2022-08-11 4 2 90 101 10.3126/sjah.v4i2.47425 The Rhetoric of Early American Ethnography: Framing Politics in the Texts by Crèvecoeur, Jefferson and Tyler <p>This paper studies early American manners and customs chapters in the texts written by J. Hector St. John De Crèvecoeur, Thomas Jefferson, and Royall Tyler as precursors to ethnography, and demonstrates how these writers use ethnographic mode to explore their contemporary political issues. The paper argues that the ethnographic accounts in these chapters are less the objective representations of cultures than the political views shrouded in ethnographic modes. The argument then is that the chapters should be treated as rhetorical frames. To exemplify this argument, the paper analyzes Crèvecoeur’s Nantucket sequence in <em>Letters from an American Farmer </em>and demonstrates its pro-capitalist political aspirations. The paper also takes up Jefferson’s descriptions of Native Americans in Notes <em>on the States of Virginia </em>and shows how he used the ethnographic descriptions and scientific methodology to test whether the European settlers could prosper in the new land—particularly in the early nineteenth-century context of the theory of biological degeneration that assumed that a particular geographic context could determine the intellectual and moral aspects of a race. Finally, the paper reads the ethnographic accounts in Tyler’s <em>The Algerine Captive </em>and demonstrates how the whole book was a persuasive attempt to solidify support for the strong national government amidst the continued opposition within American states to join the new federal structure instituted by the new 1789 Constitution.</p> Bhushan Aryal Copyright (c) 2022 Central Department of English, Tribhuvan University and Authors 2022-08-11 2022-08-11 4 2 102 113 10.3126/sjah.v4i2.47426 Redefining the Other: Sexual Politics in Ismat Chughtai’s “The Mole” and “The Homemaker” <p>In presenting the sexual politics in her stories, Ismat Chughtai is often quite deconstructive. In her stories, “The Mole” and “The Homemaker,” she breaks the traditional power nexus of man as the subject and woman as the Other in the politics of sexuality by presenting the characters of Rani and Lajo respectively. These characters, with their bold and authoritative sexuality, choose their sexual relationships on their own and posit themselves at the centre of those relationships—Rani in her relationships with Choudhry, Chunnan and Ratna; and Lajo in hers with Mirza. By portraying these two women as the subject in their sexual politics, Chughtai redefines the Other to be the man, instead of the woman. The pattern that Chughtai weaves here to do that has two distinct threads: first, empowering both Rani and Lajo with their sexuality and second, making them reciprocal in the sexual politics they share with the men in the stories. Drawing on the theoretical perspective from Simone de Beauvoir’s <em>The Second Sex</em>, this paper examines Chughtai’s process of redefining the Other in the sexual politics between the men and the women in her stories. The study demonstrates that the author has redefined the Other to be the men in the stories when it comes to the question of a reciprocal sexual politics and thus she has contributed to the gynocentric Urdu narratives by manifesting an intellectual rebellion against the phallocentric notions of her time.</p> Shantanu Das Copyright (c) 2022 Central Department of English, Tribhuvan University and Authors 2022-08-11 2022-08-11 4 2 114 123 10.3126/sjah.v4i2.47427 Orwell’s “A Hanging” and Kingston’s “Girlhood Among Ghosts”: Narratives of the Imperial World <p>George Orwell’s “A Hanging” unfolds sordid realities of the colonial enterprise in South Asia when humans remain subservient to imperial power politics whereas Maxine Hong Kingston’s “Girlhood Among Ghosts” explores some of the issues existent in Asian–American society. These narratives employed in these essays express individual subjective speculations and collective experiences from historical perspectives as the narrators collect the events from their past life in societies different from their original locations. Considering the protagonists’ experience of their past life, this paper exposes the protagonists’ experiences and their sufferings in exile. In this paper, I argue that Orwell’s and Kingston’s narratives of hanging and throat-cut embody a realistic picture of the British imperial police against the native Hindu Brahmin and American hegemony respectively. Orwell’s narrative anticipates anticipate the fall of the British Empire in South Asia that actually took place in 1947 whereas Kingston sheds light on Asian–Americans’ predicament in decline from the world scene.</p> Mani Bahadra Gautam Copyright (c) 2022 Central Department of English, Tribhuvan University and Authors 2022-08-11 2022-08-11 4 2 124 134 10.3126/sjah.v4i2.47428