Sotang, Yearly Peer Reviewed Journal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/sotang <p>Sotang, Yearly Peer Reviewed Journal is published by the Sotan Public Campus (affiliated to Tribhuvan University), Sotang, Solukhumbu, Nepal. It is a blind peer reviewed journal committed to publishing articles/papers on researching, teaching, and learning of multi-disciplinary subjects.</p> en-US journalsotang@gmail.com (Prof. Rishi Ram Sharma) sioux.cumming@ubiquitypress.com (Sioux Cumming) Thu, 16 Jun 2022 12:41:17 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.6 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 लक्ष्मीप्रसाद देवकोटाका बालकाव्यको विधातात्विक अध्ययन {Etymological study of Laxmi Prasad Devkota's children's poetry} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/sotang/article/view/45831 <p>वि.सं. १९८७ देखि बाल कविताको रचना गर्न थालेका देवकोटाले नेपाली साहित्यमा अनगिन्ती बालकविताका साथै ‘राजकुमार प्रभाकर’ र ‘कटक’ बाल काव्यको पनि रचना गरे । उनले रचेको ‘राजकुमारप्रभाकर’ नेपाली साहित्यकै पहिलो बालकाव्य हो भन्ने कुराको सूचना यस लेखमा दिइएको छ । यस लेखमा‘राजकुमार प्रभाकर’ दन्त्यकथामा आधारित बालकाव्य हो भने ‘कटक’ नेपालको ऐतिहासिक विषयवस्तुमाआधारित बालकाव्य हो भन्ने पनि प्रस्ट पारिएको छ । यी दुबै बालकाव्यको विषयवस्तु बालग्राह्य छ भन्नेकुराको चर्चा गर्दै देवकोटाका यी दुई बाल काव्य स्वाभाविक भाषाशैली, गीतिचेतनायुक्त लयविधान,चामत्कारिक विम्बालङ्कार, स्वाभाविक पात्रविधान अनि नैतिकतामूलक र वीरचेतनायुक्त सन्देशले युक्त भईबालकलाई मनोरञ्जन प्रदान गर्न सक्षम छन् भन्ने कुराको निक्र्याेल यस लेखमा गरिएको छ ।</p> <p>{V.S. Devkota, who started composing children's poems in 1987, has written countless children's poems in Nepali literature as well as children's poems 'Rajkumar Prabhakar' and 'Cuttack'. In this article, information has been given that 'Rajkumar Prabhakar' composed by him is the first children's poem of Nepali literature. In this article, it has been clarified that 'Rajkumar Prabhakar' is a children's poem based on a fairy tale and 'Cuttack' is a children's poem based on a historical theme of Nepal. Discussing that the subject matter of these two children's poems is child-friendly, these two children's poems of Devkota are able to entertain the children with their natural language style, lyrical-conscious rhythm, miraculous imagery, natural characterization and moral and heroic message.}</p> अम्बिका Ambika घिमिरे Ghimire Copyright (c) 2019 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/sotang/article/view/45831 Thu, 01 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 कर्तव्य कथाका पात्रमा साङ्ख्य दर्शनका त्रिगुणको प्रभाव {The effect of the triple of Sankhya philosophy on the characters of the duty story} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/sotang/article/view/45832 <p>प्रस्तुत आलेखमा गुरूप्रसाद मैनालीरचित कर्तव्य कथाका प्रमुख पात्रका चारित्रिक क्रियाकलापलाई सांख्यदर्शनद्वारा प्रस्तावित त्रिगुणसम्बन्धी सैद्धान्तिक पर्याधार निर्माण गरी समस्याअनुरूप खोजिएका साक्ष्यका आधारमा विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यस विश्लेषणबाट मुरलीधरको चरित्रमा जिउनी खेतको विषयमा गरिएको मुद्दामामिलाका घटनाका साथै सनातन धर्मसंस्कृतिप्रतिको अनुराग, कर्तव्यबोध र जिम्मेवारीको पालनबाट रजोगुण तिरोहित भई सत्वगुण उद्रेक भएको देखिन्छ भने श्रीधरका चारित्रिक क्रियाकलापमा सनातनधर्मसंस्कृतिप्रति अनास्था, सत्ता र शक्तिको उन्मादका घटनामा तमोगुण, छोराको वैवाहिक कार्यक्रममादाजुभाउजूलाई उपेक्षा गरेका घटनामा रजोगुण एवम् नबोलाउँदा नबोलाउँदै पनि दाजु छोराको बिहेमा गएरकुलपरम्पराको रीतिरिवाज पालना गरेका घटनाबाट कृतकार्यप्रति पछुतो मान्दै क्षमायाचना गरेका सन्दर्भमा सत्वगुणको मात्रा अधिक देखिन्छ । विनानिम्ता वैवाहिक कार्यमा जान नहुने कमलाको प्रस्तुतिमा आक्रोश रप्रतिशोधको भाव झल्किएको हुँदा यसबाट उनको चारित्रिक कार्यकलापमा रजोगुणको मात्रा रहेको छ । पौरस्त्य दर्शनको यही त्रिगुणवादी मान्यतामा आधारित भई प्रमुख पात्रका चारित्रिक कार्यकलापको तुलनात्मक अध्ययन गर्दा भाइ भए भरोस गाई भए गोरसको उखान चरितार्थ भएकाले तम र रजोगुणको गोपन भई सत्वगुणको मात्रा अधिक रहेकाले प्रस्तुत कथालाई आदर्शवादी मान्ने आधार पुष्टि हुने देखिन्छ ।</p> <p>{In the present article, the characteristic activities of the main characters of the Duty Story written by Guruprasad Mainali have been analyzed on the basis of the evidence sought according to the problem by constructing the theoretical basis for the three qualities proposed by Sankhyadarshan. From this analysis, it is seen that in the character of Muralidhar, along with the incidents in the case of Jiuni Khet, as well as devotion to Sanatan religion and culture, sense of duty and observance of responsibility, Rajoguna has disappeared and Sattva Guna has emerged On the other hand, in Shridhar's characteristic activities, in the cases of disbelief in traditional religion and culture, in the incidents of power and power frenzy, in the incidents of neglecting the son's marriage program, in the incident of Rajogun, and in the incident of not calling him, Kamala, who should not go to the wedding without any reason, has a sense of resentment and revenge, which adds to the amount of Rajogun in her characteristic activities Has been A comparative study of the character activities of the protagonists based on this triune belief of Eastern philosophy seems to confirm the premise that the present story is considered idealistic as the proverbial character of Goras is the character of brother and brother is trustworthy.}</p> केशवराज Keshabraj पोखरेल Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2019 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/sotang/article/view/45832 Thu, 01 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 फरक क्षमताको अध्ययनका दृष्टिले ’लङ्गडाको साथी’ उपन्यास {The novel 'Langada's Friend' from the point of view of studying different abilities} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/sotang/article/view/45835 <p>सभ्य भनिने समाज, परिवार र व्यक्तिको अपमान र दुव्र्यवहारबाट आक्रान्त भई सीमान्तीकृत बन्न पुगेकोउपन्यासको नायक शिक्षा, स्वास्थ्य र रोजगारीका अभावमा मागेर खानु पर्ने तथा अर्काकै आश्रममा बस्नु पर्नेवाध्यताका कारण शारीरिक र मानसिक पीडाको चरम अवस्थामा पुगेको तथ्य उपन्यासमा प्रतिविम्बित छ । मानिसको उपहास, घृणा र दुव्र्यवहारबाट थिलोथिलो भएको अन्तस्करणको संवेदना र चरम आघातकोअङ्कनका दृष्टिले यो उपन्यास शक्तिशाली रहेको छ । राज्यसत्ताको कुनै पनि अङ्ग र सामाजिकसङ्घसंस्थाले समेत उसको नागरिक अधिकार र पहुँचका विषयमा आवाज उठाएको वा सहयोगी भूमिकाखेलेको देखिँदैन । अपाङ्गता, गरिवी र समाजलाई हेर्ने वैज्ञानिक दृष्टिका अभावमा सङ्गठित शक्तिको निर्माणगरी अधिकार प्राप्तिका लागि विद्रोह गर्ने चेतना समेत उसमा विकासित भएको देखिँदैन । </p> <p>{The protagonist of the novel, who has become marginalized due to the humiliation and mistreatment of the so-called civilized society, family and individual, has reached the extreme stage of physical and mental pain due to lack of education, health and employment. This novel is powerful in terms of the sensation of conscience and the assessment of extreme trauma. No organ of state power and no social organization seems to have raised its voice or played a supportive role in its civil rights and access. In the absence of a scientific view of disability, poverty and society, he does not seem to have developed the consciousness of rebellion for the attainment of rights by building an organized force.}</p> जीवलाल Jibalal बस्याल Basyal Copyright (c) 2019 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/sotang/article/view/45835 Thu, 01 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 दोस्रो भाषाका रूपमा नेपाली शिक्षण {Teaching Nepali as a Second Language} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/sotang/article/view/45837 <p>मातृभाषापछि बालकले सिकेको जुनसुकै भाषा भएता पनि त्यो दोस्रो भाषा हो । पहिलो भाषा स्वतः प्राप्त हुन्छभने दोस्रो भाषा सिकिन्छ । नेपालमा दोस्रो भाषाका रूपमा नेपाली मातृभाषी बाहेकका अन्य सम्पूर्ण १२२भाषाभाषी बालकहरूले नेपाली भाषालाई दोस्रो भाषाका रूपमा सिक्नुपर्ने अवस्था रहेको छ । नेपाली भाषासरकारी कामकाजको भाषा र शिक्षाको माध्यम भाषा भएकोले यो सबै नेपालीले अनिवार्य रूपमा सिक्नुपर्दछ । दोस्रो भाषा शिक्षणमा नेपाली शुद्धसँग लेख्न र बोल्नका लागि सुनाइ, बोलाइ, पढाइ र लेखाइमा सक्षमबनाउनु हो । दोस्रो भाषा शिक्षण त्रुटिरहति र स्तरीय नेपाली भाषाका दृष्टिले हुने उच्चारण, वाक्यगठन,शब्दभण्डार, लिखित रचना र वर्णविन्यास आदिमा हुने विभिन्न त्रुटिहरू पहिचान गरी शिक्षार्थीमा भएकोपहिलो मातृभाषाको प्रभाव र बानीले गर्दा दोस्रो भाषामा हुने त्रुटि हटाउन शिक्षकले पहल गर्नुपर्छ । दोस्रो भाषाशिक्षणमा निम्नानुसारका शिक्षण विधिहरू अपनाई नेपाली भाषा शिक्षण गर्न सकिन्छ । जसमा साहित्यिकपाठ्यक्रम विधि, व्याकरण अनुवाद विधि, श्रवणभाषा शिक्षण विधि, पत्यक्ष विधि, भाषाशास्त्रीय विधि,भाषिक अनुभव पद्धति र वैयक्तिक प्रशिक्षण पद्धतिका आधारमा दोस्रो भाषा शिक्षण गरी पहिलो मातृभाषामादक्षता बनाउन नेपाली भाषा शिक्षण गर्नु नै दोस्रो भाषा शिक्षण हो ।</p> <p>{After the mother tongue, whatever language the child learns, it is a second language. The first language is obtained automatically and the second language is learned. As a second language in Nepal, all 122 language children except Nepali mother tongue have to learn Nepali as a second language. As Nepali is the official language and medium of instruction, all Nepalis must learn it. The second language teaching is to enable listening, speaking, reading and writing to write and speak Nepali fluently. The teacher should take initiative to eliminate the errors in the second language due to the influence and habit of the first mother tongue in the learner by identifying the errors in the pronunciation, syntax, vocabulary, written composition and spelling etc. of the second language teaching error and standard Nepali language. In the second language teaching, Nepali language can be taught by adopting the following teaching methods. Including literary curriculum method, grammar translation method, auditory language teaching method, direct method, linguistic method, linguistic experience method and individual Teaching Nepali language to make the first mother tongue proficient by teaching second language on the basis of training method is second language teaching.}</p> दावा Dawa शेर्पा Sherpa Copyright (c) 2019 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/sotang/article/view/45837 Thu, 01 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 बहुसांस्कृतिक सद्भाव र नेपाली भाषा शिक्षण {Multicultural harmony and Nepali language teaching} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/sotang/article/view/45840 <p>भाषा र संस्कृति एकअर्काबाट प्रभावित छन् । संस्कृतिकै आधारमा भाषाको शब्दभण्डार, शैली, पदसङ्गति आदि निर्धारित हुन्छन् । सन्दर्भजनित अर्थ निष्पन्न गर्नाका लागि पनि संस्कृतिको भूमिका महŒवपूर्ण रहन्छ ।नेपाल बहुसांस्कृतिक, बहुधार्मिक र बहुभाषिक मुलुक भएकाले यसको प्रभाव भाषामा पनि देखिन्छ । योअध्ययनमा नेपालको सन्दर्भमा बहुसांस्कृतिक सद्भाव र नेपाली शिक्षणको महत्वको खोजीमा केन्द्रित छ । गुणात्मक ढाँचाको अवलम्बन गरी तयार पारिएको यस लेखमा द्वितीयक स्रोतबाट सामग्री सङ्कलन गरिएकोछ । तथ्याङ्कको उदाहरणीकरका लागि भने लेखकीय अनुभव प्रयोग भएको छ । संस्कृतिले रङ्गबोधक शब्द, नाताव्यवस्था बोधक शब्द, सम्बोधन शब्द, सामान्य र आदरार्थी शब्द तथा लिङ्गबोध शब्दमा प्रभाव पार्छ ।नेपाली भाषा शिक्षणका सन्दर्भमा भने पाठ्यक्रमको उद्देश्य चयन, पाठ्यवस्तु छनोट र उपयोग, सामग्री सङ्कलन, निर्माण र प्रस्तुतिमा, बहुविध संस्कृतिको प्रभाव स्वीकार, शिक्षण सिकाइ सहजीकरण, मूल्याङ्कनात्मक गतिविधि सञ्चालन, भाषिक सिपको शिक्षण, कार्यमूलक व्याकरण शिक्षण र उखान टुक्का शिक्षणमा सांस्कृतिक प्रभाव भेटिन्छ । यसर्थ भाषा शिक्षणका प्रत्येक गतिविधिमा संस्कृतिको प्रभाव पर्ने निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ । यस अध्ययनले भाषा पाठ्यक्रम र पाठ्यपुस्तक निर्माणकर्ता लगायत शिक्षण सिकाइमा संलग्न सम्पूर्ण जिज्ञासु पाठकलाई संस्कृतिको भाषा शिक्षणमा उपयोगिता पहिचान गर्न सहयोग पुग्ने देखिन्छ ।</p> <p>{Language and culture are influenced by each other. Language vocabulary, style, rank, etc. are determined on the basis of culture. The role of culture is also important in extracting contextual meaning. As Nepal is a multicultural, multi-religious and multi-lingual country, its influence can be seen in language as well. This study focuses on the search for multicultural harmony and the importance of Nepali teaching in the context of Nepal. This article is prepared using a qualitative format and collects material from secondary sources. Writing experience is used as an example of statistics. Culture influences words of color, words of kinship, words of address, common and respectful words and words of gender. , Cultural influence is found in conducting evaluative activities, teaching linguistic skills, teaching functional grammar and teaching proverbs. Therefore, it has been concluded that culture has an effect on every activity of language teaching. This study seems to help all curious readers involved in teaching and learning, including language curriculum and textbook creators, to recognize the usefulness of culture in language teaching.}</p> उमेश Umesh काफ्ले Kafle Copyright (c) 2019 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/sotang/article/view/45840 Thu, 01 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 कक्षामा बहुभाषिकता सम्बोधनका चुनौती {Challenges of addressing multilingualism in the classroom} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/sotang/article/view/45843 <p>विश्वव्यापी रूपमामानव अधिकार, बाल अधिकार, अल्पसङ्ख्यक अधिकार, आदिबासी जनजाति अधिकारआदि विभिन्न अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय सन्धि सम्झौताहरूमा भाषिक विविधता सम्बोधन गर्नका लागि व्यवस्था गरिएको पाइन्छ । नेपालले ती विभिन्न अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय सन्धिसम्झौता तथा समझदारी पत्रमा हस्ताक्षर गर्नुका साथैसंविधान, ऐननियम, पाठ्यक्रम, शैक्षिक योजना तथा कार्यक्रममा बहुभाषिकता सम्बोधनका लागि स्पष्टव्यवस्था गरेको छ तर यस्तो व्यवस्था प्रभावकारी रूपमा कार्यान्वयन हुन नसकेको देखिन्छ । विगतको लामोएकभाषिक नीतिको प्रभाव र बहुभाषिक शिक्षाको व्यवहारिक अनुभवको अभावले बहुभाषिकता सम्बोधनमाविभिन्न चुनौतीहरू देखिएका छन् । नेपालको समग्र बहुभाषिकताको भाषिक सर्वेक्षण तथा विश्लेषण नहुनु,विभिन्न भाषाभाषीको बसोवास छरिएर रहनु, एउटै कक्षामा धेरै मातृभाषी विद्यार्थीको असमान वितरण हुनु, अभिभावकहरूमा मातृभाषाप्रति अनास्था र अंग्रेजी तथा नेपाली भाषाको मोह हुनु, पाठ्यक्रम एवं पाठ्यसामग्री निर्माण तथा शिक्षणका लागि दक्ष एबं तालिम प्राप्त जनशक्तिको अभाव, एउटै कक्षामा बहुभाषिक विद्यार्थीहुनु, स्तरीय पाठ्यसामग्रीको अभाव जस्ता समस्याले बहुभाषिकताको सम्बोधनमा चुनौती थपेका छन् । साथैअधिकांश भाषाको लेख्य रूप नहुनु, लेख्य रूप भएका भाषाको पनि मानक चयनमा समस्या हुनु, लिपिगत समस्या हुनु, आवश्यक पूर्वाधारको कमी तथा सरोकारवाला निकाय बीच समन्वयको अभाव पनि चुनौतीकारूपमा रहेका छन् ।</p> <p>{Provisions have been made to address linguistic diversity in various international treaties, such as human rights, child rights, minority rights, and indigenous peoples' rights. Nepal has signed various international treaties and memoranda of understanding and has made clear provisions for addressing multilingualism in constitutions, by-laws, curricula, educational plans and programs, but such provisions have not been implemented effectively.&nbsp; The impact of the long monolingual policy of the past and the lack of practical experience in multilingual education has posed various challenges in addressing multilingualism. Lack of linguistic survey and analysis of the overall multilingualism of Nepal, scattering of different language speakers, unequal distribution of many mother tongue students in the same class, distrust of parents towards mother tongue and love of English and Nepali language, skilled and trained manpower for curriculum development and teaching Problems such as lack of multilingual students in the same class, lack of standard textbooks have added challenges in addressing multilingualism. In addition, most of the languages ​​do not have written form, even the written language has problems in standard selection, script problems, lack of necessary infrastructure and lack of coordination among the concerned bodies are also challenging.}</p> सुरेन्द्र कुमार Surendra Kumar बम Bam Copyright (c) 2019 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/sotang/article/view/45843 Thu, 01 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 नेपाली व्याकरणको विकास परम्परा {Development tradition of Nepali grammar} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/sotang/article/view/45844 <p>नेपाली भाषाको सङ्क्षिप्त परिचय, व्याकरणको प्रारम्भिक स्थिति, नेपाली भाषाको लेख्य अभिलेख, नेपालीभाषा तथा साहित्यको विकासमा भएका केही आन्दोलनहरूबारे सङ्क्षिप्त चर्चा गर्दै नेपाली व्याकरणको परम्परासम्बन्धी यस लेखमा बिमर्श गरिएको छ । व्याकरण भाषाको अनुशासन हो । भाषालाई व्याकरणलेअनुशासित बनाउँछ । मनुष्यले आफ्ना मनका भाव आपसमा बुझाउनका लागि प्रयोग गर्ने माध्यम नै भाषा हो ।कथ्य भाषा प्रयोगको धेरै समय पछि लेख्य स्वरूप प्रयोग हुन थाल्यो, लेख्य स्वरूप प्रयोगसँगै भाषानुशासन व्याकरणको आवश्यक भयो । नेपाली भाषामा गोरखापत्र प्रकाशन हुन थालेको समय विन्दुलाई एउटा ऐतिहासिक कोसेढुङ्गाको रूपमा लिदैे एटन (१८२०) देखि गोरखा पत्र प्रकाशन बीचको अवधीलाई नेपालीमा व्याकरण विकासको पृष्ठभूमि काल वा पहिलो चरण मानिएको, नेपाली भाषाको पहिलो पाठ्यपुस्तक अक्षराङ्क शिक्षा र गोरखापत्र (१९५८) प्रकाशन भएपछि भने नेपाली भाषामा व्याकरणको अभाव भएको सम्बन्धमा मन्थन हुन थालेको , १९५८ देखि झर्रो आन्दोलन (२०१३) सम्मको अवधीलाईनेपाली व्याकरण लेखन परम्पराको दोस्रो चरण मानिएको, वि.सं. १०१४ मा नेपाली विद्वान् रामराज पन्तकोनेपाली भाषा विज्ञान प्रकाशित भएपछि नेपाली व्याकरण परम्पराले नयाँ मोड लिएको, यस अवधीमा विदेशीभाषा अध्येताहरूबाट पनि भाषावैज्ञानिक अध्ययनका कार्य अघि बढाउने कार्य भएको यस अवधीलाई तेस्रोचरण मानिएको देखिन्छ । भाषाशास्त्रीय अध्ययन तथा लेखन, भाषा व्याकरण लेखन, शैक्षणिक व्याकरणलेखन तथा वर्णविन्यास सम्बन्धी चिन्तन र बहस हालसम्म पनि निरन्तर प्रक्रियाकै रूपमा चलिरहेको रचलिरहने निष्कर्ष प्रस्तुत गरिएको प्रस्तुत लेख तयारीका क्रममा मूलत ः पुस्तकीय अध्ययनलाई आधारबनाइएको छ । </p> <p>{Brief introduction of Nepali language, initial status of grammar, written records of Nepali language, some movements in the development of Nepali language and literature are briefly discussed in this article on the tradition of Nepali grammar. Grammar is the discipline of language. Grammar is disciplined by language. Language is the medium used by human beings to communicate their feelings to each other. The period between Eton (1820) and the publication of Gorkhapatra is considered as the background period or the first stage of development of grammar in Nepali. The period from 1958 to the Jharro movement (2013) is considered to be the second phase of the Nepali grammar writing tradition. In 1014, Nepali scholar Ram Raj Pantako nepali After the publication of Linguistics, the Nepali grammar tradition took a new turn. Thoughts and debates on linguistic studies and writing, language grammar writing, academic grammar writing and alphabet are still a continuous process.}</p> हेरम्वराज Herambaraj वास्तोला Bastola Copyright (c) 2019 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/sotang/article/view/45844 Thu, 01 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 बहुभाषिक कक्षामा भाषिक परीक्षण तथा मूल्याङ्कनको महत्व {The importance of language testing and evaluation in multilingual classes} https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/sotang/article/view/45846 <p>भाषा राष्ट्रको मेरुदण्ड हो । भाषालाई जीवित राख्न, संरक्षण, संवर्धन गर्न बहुभाषिक शिक्षाको ठूलो महत्व हुन्छ । बहुभाषी शिक्षा दिने ठाउँ भनेको कक्षाकोठा हो । बहुभाषिक कक्षामा बालबालिकाहरूको भाषिक क्षमताजाँच्नका लागि भाषिक परीक्षण गर्नुपर्दछ । बालबालिकाहरूलाई पढाइ, बोलाइ, पढाइ, लेखाइलाई केन्द्रविन्दूमा राखेर भाषिक मूल्याङ्कन गर्नुपर्दछ । बहुभाषिक कक्षामा हरेक भाषाभाषी बोल्ने मातृभाषी समुदायबाट आएका बालबालिकाहरूको क्षमता अभिवृद्धि, सिकाइप्रतिको रुचि र हरेक भाषाप्रतिको सम्मान जगाउँदै विषयवस्तुमा निखारता ल्याउनका लागि भाषिक परीक्षण तथा मूल्याङ्कन गर्नु औचित्यपूर्ण हुन्छ । विद्यालयमा बालबालिकालाई तिनले नबोल्ने र नबुझ्ने भाषा प्रयोग गर्न बाध्य गर्नु हुँदैन । यसले उनीहरूलाई समाजकाउत्पादनशील सदस्य हुन मद्दत गर्दैन बरु त्यसमा बाधा पु¥याउँछ । बहुभाषी शिक्षाले भाषाहरूको प्रयोगलाई सीमित नगरी बढीभन्दा बढी भाषा प्रयोग गर्न र सिक्न प्रेरित गर्दछ । यसरी हेर्दा बहुभाषिक कक्षामा भाषिकमूल्याङ्कनको महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका रहेको पाइन्छ । यस लेखमा बहुभाषिकता, बहुभाषिक कक्षा शिक्षण, बहुभाषिक कक्षामा भाषिक परीक्षण तथा मूल्याङ्कन र यसको महत्व तथा प्रयोजनका बारेमा चर्चा गर्ने प्रयत्न गरीएको छ ।</p> <p>{Language is the backbone of the nation. Multilingual education is of great importance in keeping, preserving and promoting the language. Classrooms are a place for multilingual education. Linguistic testing should be done to test the linguistic ability of children in multilingual classrooms. Children should be given linguistic assessment with a focus on reading, speaking, reading and writing. In a multilingual classroom, it is justified to conduct language tests and assessments in order to enhance the abilities of the children coming from the mother tongue community who speak each language, to develop their interest in learning and respect for each language. At school children should not be forced to use language they do not speak or understand. It does not help them to be productive members of the society but it hinders them. Multilingual education encourages the use and learning of more and more languages ​​without limiting the use of languages. Seen in this light, linguistic assessment plays an important role in multilingual classes. This article attempts to discuss multilingualism, multilingual classroom teaching, linguistic testing and evaluation in multilingual classrooms, and its importance and purpose.</p> झगिन्द्रराज Jhagindraraj ढकाल Dhakal Copyright (c) 2019 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/sotang/article/view/45846 Thu, 01 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Critical Perspective of Health And Illness https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/sotang/article/view/45742 <p>Health and Illness is a text that looks at health and healthcare through the lens of social epidemiology, critical sociology, political economics and human rights. These perspectives and analyses provide dramatic new insights into our understanding of health, illness and healthcare. Sociological emphasize the health and illness of people is depend on social background. Good health is effective health care system in society; health and illness depend on social construction. Marxist approaches emphasize the causal role of economics in the production and distribution of disease, as well as the role that health knowledge plays in supporting the class structure where as Feminist approaches that pregnancy and child birth is a natural process. Functional talks about the empowerment of women in the society.</p> Bishnu Sapkota Copyright (c) 2019 Sotang Public Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/sotang/article/view/45742 Thu, 01 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Socio Cultural Diversity Interplays on Motivational and Learning https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/sotang/article/view/45743 <p>Cultural diversity plays an important role in motivation and learning to the individuals. Effective learning depends on the learner’s motivations it depends on socio cultural environment. Such as learner’s age, sex, cast and ethnicity, religion, culture etc. This article reports how social and cultural diversity interplays on motivation and learning. The study was conducted based on library study and internet search. Articles related to interplays of cultural diversity in motivation and learning was reviewed extensively. Cultural diversity affects human behavior in the choice of a particular action, the persistence with it and the effort expended on it. It is an opportunity to gain various sources of knowledge. Cultural diversity helps to find out the cultural knowledge and skills to the learners and communicate with other ethnic groups. Multicultural knowledge is significant to make the learning motivational and respect the cultural diversity.</p> Dawa Sherpa Copyright (c) 2019 Sotang Public Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/sotang/article/view/45743 Thu, 01 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Dimension of Multicultural Education: Issues for School Reform in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/sotang/article/view/45744 <p>Multicultural education is very important and necessary concept. It is an educational approach designed to ensure equal educational opportunities for all students, including those in marginalized groups. Multicultural issue in the present context is a global issue of socialization. It has not yet been materialized into the education system in Nepal. The education system of a country should prepare students to function in today’s diverse society. There are issues emerging in the electiveness of the multicultural education and the concerns how to better shape the multicultural classroom in Nepal. There are many views on the benefits and/or shortcomings of the multicultural education. The question is not whether a multicultural education should be adopted but it is rather what we understand from multicultural education and how we are going to initiate such a reform within an educational system. In this article, the five dimensions of multicultural education and issues of school reform are described in the Nepalese context.</p> Dhana Krishna Mahat Copyright (c) 2019 Sotang Public Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/sotang/article/view/45744 Thu, 01 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Critical Theory and its Educational Implications in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/sotang/article/view/45745 <p>Critical theory is the output of a herd of German social theorists, first associated with the Institute for Social Research begun in Frankfurt Germany in 1923, and who later moved to and were influential in the US. Critical theory incorporates a wide range of approaches all focused on the idea of freeing people from the modern state and economic system – a concept known to critical theorists as emancipation. This paper aims to provide a concise introduction about the critical theory with its principal tenets and critiques along with philosophical root(s) and the research components. It also overviews the overall educational implications of critical theory in contrast to the other sociological theories in the field of educational research. Moreover, the paper provides insights into how researchers contextualize the critical theory in the educational landscape of Nepalese scenario.</p> Nani Babu Ghimire Copyright (c) 2019 Sotang Public Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/sotang/article/view/45745 Thu, 01 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Preparing New Principals in Developing countries: Selection and Induction https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/sotang/article/view/45746 <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>This paper aims to overview of the challenges facing new principals in developing country and to explore the provision for leadership and management development for new and experienced school leaders.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>Based on recent research and literature, the paper analyses the experience of principals and proposes an induction model for principalship in developing countries.</p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Literature review</p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>School principals in developing country face a daunting challenge. They often work in poorly equipped buildings with inadequately trained staff. There is rarely any formal leadership training and principals are appointed on the basis of their teaching record rather than their leadership potential. Induction and support are usually limited.</p> <p><strong>Originality/value: </strong>The paper provides an overview of the limited literature and research on new principals in developing country and develops a grounded conceptualisation of their role.</p> Tulasi Ram Ghimire Copyright (c) 2019 Sotang Public Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/sotang/article/view/45746 Thu, 01 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Religious Theoryan Implications in Classroom Teaching https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/sotang/article/view/45747 <p>Religion is an elusive phenomenon, with agreed definitions hard to find. A theory of religion as a cultural artefact with historical significance that lies beyond historical facticity or the lack of it. An individual or group’s religion connotes above all a belief system that constitutes an option among a myriad of options, rather than a single inherent truth based on historical fact. While challenging to institutional religion and its many adherents, it is contended that such an appreciation of religion is not necessarily a threat to either but in fact has potential to be a source of enrichment to both, as well as to religion’s enhancement of global harmony. It is when such an appreciation is not present that an exclusivist ‘trigger’, lying hidden in any religion, can be released and become the cause of immeasurable conflict. Since respect for human life and dignity is fundamental to all religious tradition, it follows that respect for the freedom of through and expression must likewise be recognized as a fundamental principle of religions. The defense of civil liberties is a religious as well as a civic obligation. There are many conflict is growing up due to diversity of religious theory. Religious principle compels to obey involuntary work individual, collective and society too. Many people are depriving from education, humankind because of racism. World are conflict due to religious proudness. Indigenous people all over the world are in discrimination due to religious classify. Religious theory is not valuable every time. Religious theory must flexible where same religious can adjust. Religious theory should be correction if necessary. Different religious people should respect each other. &nbsp;</p> Sapana Adhikari Copyright (c) 2019 Sotang Public Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/sotang/article/view/45747 Thu, 01 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Editorial Vol.1(1) https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/sotang/article/view/45741 <p>No abstract available.</p> Rishi Ram Sharma Copyright (c) 2019 Sotang Public Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/sotang/article/view/45741 Thu, 01 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000