The Geographic Base <p>An annual publication of the Nepal Geography Students' Society, The Geographic Base is academic journal of Nepal. The journal is designed to stimulate students and scholars and to provide a platform for publication of significant contribution in the field of Geography. It welcomes articles, research papers and book review with focus on themes of geographical significance. The papers should be well researched, documented and clearly described methodology. Results should be presented based on sound facts, scientific procedure and well founded arguments, be embedded in the relevant national or international debates, refer to the most recent academic literature on the issues discussed and be presented in a clearly structured and comprehensible manner.</p> Nepal Geography Students' Society, Central Department of Geography, Tribhuvan University, Nepal en-US The Geographic Base 2705-4616 <p class="Default">© Nepal Geography Students’ Society</p> Observed Climate Extreme in Nepal <p>The climate-induced disasters are causing more than half of the total economic and human losses annually due to natural disasters and that hampers the socioeconomic development of the country. In recent decades, these climate extreme induced disasters are increasingly becoming more pronounced and devastating, is further known to be intensified due to anthropogenic warming. In this context, this study endeavors to address the research gap on the spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation extremes in Nepal. Here, 26 climate extreme indices of temperature (13) and precipitation (13) as recommended by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) were calculated using RClimDex software for 90 meteorological stations. Then the statistical significance of the long-term trend of the indices was tested using the Mann-Kendall method, and true magnitude of the trend was identified utilizing Sens’ slope method for each index at each station. Overall, the hot (warm days, warm nights, summer days, tropical nights, and warm spells) and cold (cold days, cold nights, cold spells) extreme indices show significant positive and negative trends respectively. However, extreme precipitation indices also show an increasing trend, but the statistical significance and spatial coherence is low. Extreme temperatures increased more in the Mountain and Himalayan regions than the other regions. Extreme wet day precipitation events are significantly increasing in far western region, adjoining areas of mid-western and western Siwalik though Mountain regions and then again in the central and eastern Mountains and Himalayan regions.</p> Ram Prasad Awasthi Jeffrey S. Owen Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Geography Students' Society 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 7 1 14 10.3126/tgb.v7i0.34262 Livestock Movement in Gaurisankhar Valley, Dolakha, Nepal <p>Animals are an integral part of subsistence farming system. They are considered as assets and are the source of food and manure. In mountains of Nepal, transhumance ruminant production system is practiced this practice of herding of cattle like Yak (Nak, Chauri)/ sheep has been practiced for generation in the mountains of Nepal. This study is based on household questionnaire survey, FGD and interview in Gaurishankar gaupalika shows the movement of sheep ranged from 1,200m to 4,500m elevation and the movement of Yak ranged from 2,000m to 3,500masl. The agricultural fields around the settlements are cultivated when the herds remained in high mountain pasture. After returning to the village, they are tied to the field and their waste is used for manuring the agricultural lands. The types and size of livestock has also undergone a significant change. The number of sheep and buffalo have decreased due to lack of market while the Yak farming has been gaining popularity because of increase in national and international demand for Yak products.</p> Payaswini Ghimire Prem Sagar Chapagain Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Geography Students' Society 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 7 15 23 10.3126/tgb.v7i0.34263 Review of Flood Hazards Studies in Nepal <p>Flood, a common water-induced disaster of monsoon season, is a recurring phenomenon in Nepal. It causes many deaths and injuries besides severe impacts on the vital infrastructures of the nation. This paper reviews the published national and international journal articles related to flood hazard mapping in Nepal. Desinventar database from 1971-2016 shows that Bagmati province and province 2 are more affected than other provinces in Nepal. Here we review the previous studies on flood disasters at the regional and national levels. The results show that most of the papers are based on a steady flow model for inundation mapping and more focuses on hazard analysis rather than vulnerability and risk assessment.</p> Buddhi Raj Shrestha Raj Kumar Rai Saroj Marasini Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Geography Students' Society 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 7 24 32 10.3126/tgb.v7i0.34266 Efficacy of Different Level of Systemic Fungicides on Management of Rice Blast at Baitadi, Nepal <p>Rice blast (Pyriculariaoryzae Cavara) is one of the most devastating diseases affecting the rice crop in across the world. Systemic fungicides are used for the suppression of blast diseases caused by fungal pathogens. Propiconazole and Carbendazim are commercial chemical control products available in markets for the control of the fungal pathogen. An experiment was conducted to examine the effectiveness of systemic fungicide on suppression of rice blast incidence in farmers' field during wet seasons in 2016. The treatments consisted of the use of different levels of propiconazole and Carbendazim on ‘Rato Basmati’ a landrace rice variety. The experiments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The disease was scored according to the standard scale developed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). Disease severity and Area under Disease Progressive curve (AUDPC) was computed based on that scale score. Propiconazole and Carbendazim at different levels reduce disease development than no treatment (control). But its efficacy was not consistent. The magnitude of disease suppression by Propiconazole was high as compared to Carbendazim. The application of propiconazole at the rate of 1.5 ml effectively reduced disease severity and AUDPC at different dates. So propiconazole at the rate of 1.5 ml thrice at weekly intervals is effective to reduce the disease development</p> Ashok Acharya Prabin Ghimire Dhurba Raj Joshi Kishor Shrestha Govinda Sijapati Siddha Lal Bohara Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Geography Students' Society 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 7 33 42 10.3126/tgb.v7i0.34267 Soil Fertility Assessment of Sainamaina Municipality, Rupandehi, Nepal <p>Soil fertility assessment is a very fundamental task for farmers and agricultural planners to adopt appropriate fertility management practices, to recommend applying lacking fertilizers, to make fertility-based agricultural plans,s and to produce a large number of crops in their land. This study assesses the soil fertility status of Sainamaina Municipality, ward no. 5-9, Rupandehi district based on soil sample data collected from the field. Soil test based fertility assessment, calculation of overall fertility of area using fertility index, and preparation of soil fertility map is carried out. As soil fertility, the status of total nitrogen (TN), phosphorus (P2 O5), potassium (K), organic matter (OM), and soil pH are measured. As a result, the status of TN, (K2 O), and OM is found low, the status of (P2 O5 ) is found high and soil pH is found in range of very strongly acidic to slightly alkaline.</p> Bishal Gnyawali Umesh Kumar Mandal Ishwor Aryal Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Geography Students' Society 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 7 43 53 10.3126/tgb.v7i0.34268 A Survey on Nepali Migrants in India: An Empirical Study <p>This article examines the status of Nepali migrants in Delhi-NCR, India. Due to open border, shorter distance and long-established social network, migration from Nepal to India has been unending. India has been an origin and destination country for large numbers of migrants. A treaty in 1950, between Nepal and India facilitates movement between Nepal and India. This paper analyzed the nature and pattern of migrants’ employment, education, social network, and causes of migration. Nevertheless, the improved income level, the condition of most of the migrant workers is deplorable, most of them are staying together in either poor rented houses or at slums with sharing rooms without proper provision of hygienic sanitation. Social networks are the major entry point for getting jobs, shelter and loans and for saving money. Nepali migrants in Delhi are working for basic survival rather than improvement in their living standards.</p> Keshav Bashyal Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Geography Students' Society 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 7 54 64 10.3126/tgb.v7i0.34271 Yarsagumba Collection Trend and its Impact on Livelihood of People of Bajhang District in the Context of Climate Change <p>Yarsagumba is an endoparasitic fungus growing on insect larvae found in the high Himalayan region of Nepal, which is a very expensive and better income source for local peoples. The study was conducted randomly selecting 80 households of two rural municipalities namely Talkot and Saipal who are involved in Yarsagumba collection to assess the impact of Yarsagumba on the livelihood of local people of Bajhang district. The surveyed result revealed that climate change has highly affected the harvesting of Yarsagumba. Its selling price is affected by market value fluctuation. Yarsagumba plays a significant role in the livelihood of the local peoples. The surveyed data comparing the last five years (2068 to 2072) shows that the highest income was found to be NRs. 139,200 per household per season in the year 2068. The market price, trade, and marketing channels of Yarsagumba are unclear and commercial trading takes place illegally because of fear of being charged higher taxes. The temperature and humidity play an important role in the abundance and formation of Yarsagumba. The study showed that 43.8% of respondents perceived change in temperature and rainfall pattern over 10 years, and 73.7% of respondents perceived that temperature and rainfall affected Yarsagumba collection.</p> Narendra Bahadur Sing Dipak Khanal Laxmee Bhandari Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Geography Students' Society 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 7 65 78 10.3126/tgb.v7i0.34272 Disaster Vulnerability Assessment in Parshuram Municipality, Dadeldhura, Nepal <p>This study explores the disaster vulnerability of adjoining community of Mahakali River, Parshuram municipality, Dadeldhura. A questionnaire was used to collect information on various physical, social, economic, and environmental vulnerability. Key informant interview was conducted with ward chairpersons and community disaster management committee members. Likewise, three focus group discussions were conducted with the purpose of drawing insight on different factors of disaster vulnerability in the community. Moreover, five community disaster risk management plans were reviewed to understand the types of vulnerability of community. It has been found that weak geological structure and week physical infrastructure-house, bridge, buildings are the physical vulnerability. Likewise, lack of awareness on disaster preparedness, non-implementation of building code and traditional practice are the social vulnerability. Similarly, poverty, seasonal migration, lack of irrigation and land, low quality of soil are the economic vulnerability. Heavy rainfall, forest fire, lack of conservation of water source, encroachment of wildlife inhabitants and deforestation are factors to environmental vulnerability of study area. It is found that there are various vulnerability factors that need to be minimized through the capacity enhancement.</p> Raj Kumar Pariyar Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Geography Students' Society 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 7 79 90 10.3126/tgb.v7i0.34273 Knowledge and Attitude of Adolescents on Reproductive Health (Rh): A Case of Padmakanya Higher Secondary School, Kathmandu <p>The present study aims at finding out the essential knowledge and attitude on reproductive health among adolescents studying at the higher secondary level. It is a case study of Padmakanya H.S.S. of the total 110 girl students of class 11 and 12 were selected. This study is quantitative in design and descriptive in nature. A structured questionnaire was prepared for the collection of data in which 38 types of closed questions were asked to fulfill the objectives. The findings of the study reveal that irrespective of caste, religion, and ethnicity majority of the respondents have knowledge on reproductive health. About 90% of respondents have knowledge of it. Similarly, their attitude to have the knowledge of RH was entirely positive. Almost 91.8% answered positively for having its knowledge. They have the knowledge of family planning methods, birth spacing, appropriate age of marriage, and HIV/AIDS. They have acquired the required knowledge of components of RH such as infertility, safe motherhood, transmission and prevention of STIs and HIV, physical change, and menstruation cycle. However, some of them lack the knowledge of RH matter. Overall, the acquisition of knowledge of RH, the national birth rate, mortality, morbidity, and fertility is maintained at the national level.</p> Narayan Prasad Paudyal Shivaraj Paudyal Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Geography Students' Society 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 7 91 102 10.3126/tgb.v7i0.34274 Tourism Attraction, Facilities, Flow and Assessment of Tourism Product of Manaslu Conservation Area <p>This study aimed to understand the tourist attractions, major tourism products and their assessment in Manaslu Conservation Area of Nepal MCA). MCA is a place well known both, nationally and internationally, for its scenic beauty, unique ecology, and rich cultural heritage, given by its geographic position and unique topography. The number of tourists visiting this area has been increasing every year. In 2001 the tourist flow was only 798 whereas in 2019 it was 7655. Such tourism growth has several socio-economic and cultural consequences. Along with the increased number of tourists, tourism focused facilities and infrastructures like hotels and tea shops are also increasing in the area. There are 127 hotels with 1328 rooms and 2827 beds (as of 2019) providing food and accommodation services for the visitors. However, even though there are many potential areas for tourism development in the Manaslu Conservation Area, because of less promotional practices, there is very little tourism activity in the region. With the area's diverse physiography, unique landscape, biodiversity and the social-cultural dimension of the villages, the area could provide plenty of attractions for tourism.</p> Chandra Kanta Baral Basanta Kumar Neupane Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Geography Students' Society 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 7 103 112 10.3126/tgb.v7i0.34279 Analysis of Earthen Road Construction and Land Degradation in the Tankhuwakhola Watershed of Dhankuta District <p>Earthen road construction has resulted land degradation in the Tankhuwakhola watershed of Dhankuta district, eastern hills of Nepal. The community living near the highway has dramatically changed in their way of living with the adoption of commercial crops. As a result, the people who lived far from the access of roads have interested in the expansion of agricultural link roads to their community. The local government had prepared a District Transport Master Plan (DTMP) and identified 25 rural earthen road schemes in the Tankhuwakhola watershed. The local people have also given high priority to road construction for increasing access to markets, education, health services and other facilities. The analysis of both spatial and non-spatial data reveals that the watershed area losses 1.8 million cubic meter soils due to the cause of earthen road construction. As a result, the area is suffering from the problem of the landslide, soil erosion that ultimately result of land degradation. This paper concludes that the acceleration of land degradation has exerted to the sustainability of population-resource relation. The watershed area has been producing more profitable commercial crops for exporting outside from the hills since the construction of the Koshi highway. The watershed needs an integrated watershed management program to address human-induced vulnerability and sustainability of watershed resources.</p> Tika Ram Linkha Dil Kumar Rai Shambhu Prasad Khatiwada Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Geography Students' Society 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 7 113 126 10.3126/tgb.v7i0.34281 Morphometric Analysis of a Drainage Basin: A Study of Ghatganga River, Bajhang District, Nepal <p>This study attempts to study the morphometric characteristics of the Ghatganga basin by using Geographical information system (GIS). This analysis has shown that the relation of stream order (U) and stream number (Nu) which gives a negative linear pattern that order increases with a decreasing number of stream segment of a particular order. Different morphometric parameters such as stream length (Lu), bifurcation ratio (Rb), drainage density (D), stream frequency (Fs), texture ratio (T), elongation ratio (Re), circularity ratio (Rc), form factor ratio (Rf), relief ratio (Rh) and river profile have revealed the basin has a dendritic pattern of drainage, indicating high relief and steep ground slope with less elongated young and mature landforms in which geological structures don’t have a dominant influence on the basin.</p> Sandeep Adhikari Copyright (c) 2020 Nepal Geography Students' Society 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 7 127 144 10.3126/tgb.v7i0.34280