Tribhuvan Journal <p>The Tribhuvan Journal is published by the Research Management Cell, Tribhuvan Multiple Campus, Tansen, Palpa, Nepal.</p> en-US (Mr Jeevan Bahadur Thapa) (Sioux Cumming) Thu, 30 Nov 2023 09:53:34 +0000 OJS 60 Assessment of Physicochemical Parameters of Drinking Water in the Schools of Bagnashkali, Palpa, Nepal <p>This study aims to assess the physicochemical parameters of drinking water in schools in the Bagnashkali Rural Municipality in Nepal according to standard methods. Physicochemical analysis was performed at the Department of Chemistry at Tribhuvan Multiple Campus, Palpa, in March 2022 using samples collected randomly from different schools. The study found that water samples from schools in Bagnashkali meet NDWQS and WHO guidelines as pH (7.28- 7.98), hardness(60-140 mg/L), conductivity (65.3-173.2 µs/cm), alkalinity (46-96.6 mg/L), chloride (0.3-0.7 mg/L), dissolved oxygen (9.12-12.6 mg/L), total dissolved solids (9.12-12.6 mg/L), free CO<sub>2</sub> (7.04-10.56 mg/L) and iron (0.017-0.068 mg/L) which were all except for temperature within acceptable limits. The temperature of the water samples in this study ranged from 21°C to 28°C. The study found that the water quality in the selected schools was good and met the acceptable standards in terms of physicochemical parameters.</p> Devendra Khadka, Greeshma Khanal Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Strategic Management Accounting Practices on Financial Performance of Nepalese Manufacturing Firms <p>This study was carried out to examine the relationship between financial performance and the application of management accounting practices in the Nepalese manufacturing firms. The study adopted the survey research design. The population of the study consists of all listed manufacturing companies under Nepal stock exchange. The study used simple random sampling. Four manufacturing firms were randomly selected for the study. Data for the study were obtained through the administration of a self-designed questionnaire to managers or accountants of the sampled firms through mail survey. Regression and t-test were used to test the hypotheses postulated for the study. The study showed that application of management accounting tools has a positive relationship with financial performance of companies’ survey. The study also found a significant difference in effectiveness of decision making between application of management accounting tools and traditional management accounting techniques and concludes that implementation of strategic management accounting practice is necessary to enhance organizational performance of the firm. The study therefore recommends that manufacturing companies, especially the ones listed and still tradable under NEPSE, put in place appropriate measures to apply modern management accounting tools called strategic management accounting practices to ensure efficient and realistic decision-making process that will enhance financial performance.</p> Keshab Ghimire Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Experiences of Lactating Mothers on Breastfeeding and Additional Food Practices <p>The rate of exclusive breastfeeding and additional food practices rate remained low in Nepal. It's quite surprising, given the active promotion of breastfeeding and additional food practices by individuals, family members, communities, health institutions, hospital NGOs, INGOs, and the government. Nevertheless, we should continue to spread awareness about the importance of exclusive breastfeeding and healthy food practices for infants. The main objective of this study was to explore the experience of lactating mothers, who often struggle to manage additional food practices for their babies. The study was based on narrative theory and included a small sample group of two mothers, who shared their experiences of breastfeeding. Despite the challenges, the mothers in the study remained committed to providing their babies with the best possible nutrition and care. By sharing their stories, they hope to help other mothers who may be facing similar difficulties. During the research, a qualitative-descriptive research design was adopted, and purposive sampling was used to select participants. The data was gathered using verbatim audio recordings of in-depth interviews, and interview transcriptions were analyzed using the qualitative content analysis approach. It was found that all participants were still breastfeeding at the time of the interview. The analysis of the interview transcriptions generated 46 nodes, 8 sub-themes, and 2 key themes. The two key themes that emerged were "Challenge and support for breastfeeding" and "Nutrition and additional food practices." The research provided valuable insights into the experiences of breastfeeding mothers and the factors that impact their feeding practices. Our findings show that these mothers adopt positive practices such as feeding colostrum, exclusively breastfeeding, timely introduction of additional foods, and continuing to breastfeed. To ensure that more mothers have successful breastfeeding journeys, it is crucial to increase public awareness and support for breastfeeding through education, social support, and laws that promote it. Additionally, involving family members in the process can significantly contribute to the success of breastfeeding.</p> Krishna Bahadur G. C. Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Physico-Chemical Parameterization of some Commercially Available Toilets and Laundry Soaps in Tansen, Palpa <p>Nepalese market has witnessed an impressive upsurge in the production and consumption of a variety of soaps in recent times since 2022 after covid pandemic. The physicochemical parameterization determines the quality, competency and cleaning properties of soap so that we urge sagacious use of these soaps to keep skin healthy. Due to scant knowledge about the quality of soaps, there is need to assess them. Ten parameters namely foam height, surface tension, pH, moisture content, conductance, total fatty matter, total alkali, free caustic alkali and chloride content of commercially available toilet (Dettol, Lifebuoy, Liril, Lux, No.1, Haldi Kanti, Neem Kanti and Neem Chiuri) and laundry soap (Aaha, Darshan, Dhoni and Xpert) samples collected from local market of Tansen were determined using different standard documented method of analysis. The physicochemical parameters examined in collected different soap samples are found as; foam height (20-120) ml, surface tension (38.857-67.192) dynes/cm, pH (6.67-10.54), moisture content (6.68-34.40) %, conductance (115-327) µs/cm, Total Fatty Matter or T.F.M. (42-85.10) %, total alkali (0.31-1.178) %, free caustic alkali (0.54-0.91) % and chloride content (0.1-0.69) %, indicating most of examined parameters for soap were in standard limit as quality criteria set by Bureau of Indian Standards, IS 286: 1978 except that of free caustic alkali content in laundry soaps. This study has recommended public to use toilet soap for bathing purpose as it removes dirt more and laundry soap are found to have good cleansing action for clothes.</p> Madhab Gautam, Prajwal Acharya Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing of Physicochemical Parameters and Seasonal Variations in the Tinau River of Palpa, Nepal <p>The water quality and quantity parameters in lakes, rivers, marshes and lagoons are affected from both natural factors and human activities. The present study was undertaken to assess the quality of water samples with special reference to physicochemical properties of Tinau River. The water samples were collected from November 2021 to September, 2022 and analysed 17 physico-chemical parameters (Temperature, P<sup>H</sup>, dissolved oxygen, free CO<sub>2</sub>, total alkalinity, hardness, turbidity, Ammonia, Nitrogen, Chlorine, Chromium, Copper, Cyanide, Iron, Nitrate nitrogen, Phosphorus, Silica and Sulphide). The result physic-chemical parameters show that turbidity of water is with slightly basic property with P<sup>H</sup> 8, temperature between16-17°C, DO (9-10.1mg/L), Total alkalinity (65-98mg/l), Hardness (4.8-10.5mg/l), Free CO<sub>2 </sub>(3-4), Ammonia nitrate trace and other components are negative. This showed that research area are good to excellent quality water for different purposes. In addition, for the purpose of maintaining water quality, it is essential to understand specifics about many physico-chemical properties. These factors need additional study because they can induce water poisoning or chronic poisoning in aquatic animals.</p> Pit Bahadur Nepali, Hira Bahadur Rana, Santoshi Shrestha Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 EMI Strategy: A Misconception in Early Grade <p>This article discusses on the debatable EMI (English as a Medium of Instruction) issue as there is confusion either English must be taught right from the Nursery or at some later stage. Nepalese classrooms are the product of multilingual, multicultural and bilingual society. Without considering the fact of multilingual and multi-ethnic context, EMI (English as a medium of Instruction) is strictly adopted in schools in early grade. Our school system, including textbooks, instruction, curriculum, teaching practices, is influenced heavily by the dominant English hegemony in early grade. In this context, this paper aims to explore the difficulties and struggles of Nepali language speaking children’s experiences as they find in between the Nepali-speaking home environment and English-speaking school environment at their early grades. To fulfill this objective, the researcher adopted narrative research design under qualitative method incorporating interpretative philosophical guideline. It is based on the unstructured interviews aimed at eliciting personal stories and experiences related to EMI in early grade. Discussing on a narrative analysis, this paper revealed that how the learners are discouraged to what Bourdieu’s term symbolic violence with some examples of how such demotivation is seen in school’s teaching-learning practices. The results further concluded that to address the problematic nature of schooling for such learners in most of the schools in Nepal, this paper highlights the need for socially responsive school policies and pedagogy understanding local context entertaining the linguistic and cultural diversity of students.</p> Raju Parajuli Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Practice of Alternative Assessment at Tribhuvan University <p>Alternative assessment is a recent trend in the field of education. It helps the teachers and students to be more self reflective and responsible towards their tasks and activities. In this light, the present study aimed to explore the practice of alternative assessment system at Tribhuvan University. To accomplish the objective, the researcher adopted interpretivism as philosophical approach and narrative inquiry as research design. This research was based on the experience of university level teachers teaching at semester level. The total population of this study comprised all the teachers teaching at Tribhuvan University. However, the researcher selected only seven English language teachers from Tribhuvan Multiple Campus, Palpa using purposive sampling procedure. Similarly, the researcher made an interview guide, and interviewed with the sampled teachers using recording devices to obtain in-depth information. The results revealed that most of the teachers prefer to use traditional paper pencil test rather than using alternative assessment tools for student evaluation. They had their reluctance to use alternative assessment tools because of the time, resource and investment constraints. They were not properly updated and trained towards alternative assessment. However, they highlighted the importance of such tools for their students’ evaluation. The present study can be useful to the teachers of university level for gaining insights of the alternative assessment tools for student evaluation.</p> Ram Nath Neupane Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Expenditure on Human Capital and Economic Growth: Evidences form Nepal <p>Human capital expenditure is critical to utilizing and profiting from all of the country's resources. Economists have acknowledged that human capital improvement and usage are critical to a nation's economic prosperity. The research article investigates the relationship between human capital spending and Nepal's economic growth. The study analyzed data from 1985 to 2022 to investigate experimentally the relationship between Nepal's human capital spending and GDP. The study uses a variety of macroeconomic indicators, such as GDP as a measure of economic growth, capital expenditure on education, recurrent expenditure on education, health expenditure, higher education enrollment, and school enrollment. LNRGDP serves as both the explanatory variable and the dependent variable in the study's use of regression analysis. The Unit Root Test, OLS Estimation, Unit Root Residual and Error Correction Approach, and Econometric Analysis are all included. The results of the regression show that higher enrollment has a positive effect while capital expenditure on education has a negative impact on GDP. Spending on ongoing education, health, and school enrollment has no statistically significant effect on GDP. A long-term, positive correlation between the investment in human capital and economic growth is found by the cointegration test. According to the findings, funding higher education is essential for fostering Nepal's economy. In addition, the study highlights the significance of policymakers carefully considering resource allocation for education and human capital development in order to ensure the nation's sustainable growth</p> Santosh Khanal Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Determinants of Internal Migration in Nepal <p>Migration has become an important livelihood strategy for many poor people. This paper aims to examine the determinants of migration in context of Nepal; using secondary Nepal labour force survey (2017/18) survey data, by employing both descriptive and analytical tools on it. The theoretical background of this paper is pull-push theory of migration. This paper uses logistic regression model, misspecification test, multicollinearity test, heteroskedasticity test and marginal effect for empirical data analysis. Migration decisions are significantly affected by marital status, educational level, gender, household size and new-urban but insignificantly affected by unemployment. The finding results show that marital status, sex, unemployment, educational level, new urban and household size are the reasons behind the migration decisions. Based on findings, this paper recommends that the government should provide skilled oriented qualitative education and equal employment opportunities in rural areas. The quantative education enhances the volume of migration. Similarly, the govt. should also reduce regional disparities between urban and rural areas.</p> Sharda Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 “ग्रिन टावेल” कथामा यौनमनोविज्ञान {Sexual Psychology in the "Green Towel" Story} <p>प्रस्तुत अनुसन्धानमूलक लेख ग्रिन टावेल कथाको विश्लेषणमा केन्द्रित रहेको छ । शान्ति शर्माद्वारा लिखित प्रस्तुत कथा उनको कथासङ्ग्रह ग्रिन टावेलमा समाविष्ट छ । समकालीन कथालेखनका क्षेत्रमा विशिष्ट आख्यान लेखन क्षमताका कारण विशिष्ट पहिचान बनाएकी शर्माका कथाहरूले समसामयिक समाजका विविध विषयलाई प्रस्तुत गरेको पाइन्छ । मूलतः लैङ्गिकताका विषयलाई केन्द्रमा राखेर कथा सिर्जना गर्ने शर्माले यौन र मनोविज्ञानलाई समेत कथाहरूमा प्रस्तुत गर्ने गरेको देखिन्छ । ग्रिन टावेल कथासङ्ग्रहमा समाविष्ट पन्ध्रवटा कथामध्ये पाँचौँ क्रममा रहेको ग्रिन टावेल शीर्षकको कथा पात्रका मनोदशा र अचेतन मनमा दमित अवस्थामा रहेका अव्यक्त यौन मनोदशा तथा मनोभावनाको प्रकटीकरणका दृष्टिले विशेष देखिन्छ । उनका कथामा यौनमनोविज्ञानको अभिव्यक्ति रहेको कुराको साङ्केतिक चर्चा गरिएको पाइए पनि हालसम्म यौनमनोविश्लेषणका दृष्टिकोणबाट प्रस्तुत कथाको सम्यक अनुसन्धानमूलक अध्ययन हुन नसकेकाले यस कथामा यौनमनोविज्ञानको केकस्तो प्रस्तुति रहेको छ ? भन्ने मुख्य समस्यामूलक प्रश्नमा केन्द्रित रही प्रस्तुत कथालाई अनुसन्धानको मुख्य विषय बनाइएको हो । यौनमनोविज्ञानको सैद्धान्तिक पर्याधारका सापेक्षमा विश्लेषण गरी यस दृष्टिकोणले प्रस्तुत कथामा यौनमनोविज्ञान सबल रहेको निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ । अनुसन्धानको निष्कर्षमा पुग्नका लागि प्रस्तुत लेखमा पुस्तकालयीय स्रोत सामग्रीलाई प्रयोग गरी प्रायोगिक अध्ययन विधिअन्तर्गत पहिचानात्मक तथा विश्लेषणात्मक विधिलाई उपयोग गरिएको छ । अनुसन्धानबाट प्राप्त सत्यतथ्यका आधारमा यौनमनोविष्लेषणको प्रस्तुतिका दृष्टिले प्रस्तुत कथा महत्त्वपूर्ण रहेको निष्कर्ष निरूपण गरिएको छ ।</p> कमलादेवी Kamaladevi न्यौपाने Neupane Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 सगरमाथा एक पहाडको नाम होइन निबन्धसङ्ग्रहमा व्यङ्ग्य { Everest is not the name of a mountain satire in an essay collection } <p>प्रस्तुत लेखमा साहित्यमा प्रभावशाली मान्यताका रूपमा रहेको व्यङ्ग्य चेतनाका आधारमा व्यङ्ग्यकार चोलेश्वर शर्माको सगरमाथा एक पहाडको नाम होइन हास्यव्यङ्ग्य निबन्ध सङ्ग्रहलाई विश्लेषण गर्ने काम गरिएको छ । साहित्यमा व्यङ्ग्यको प्रभाव भानुभक्त आचार्यको समयभन्दा अघिदेखि रहेको पाइन्छ । नेपाली निबन्धका क्षेत्रमा यसको प्रभाव तथा शृङ्खला लामो रहेको छ । समाजमा भएका विकृतिमाथि उपहास गर्दा व्यङ्ग्यको अवस्था सिर्जना हुन्छ । नेपाली निबन्धमा देवकोटाभन्दा अगाडिबाट थालिएको व्यङ्ग्य लेखन भैरव अर्यालको समयमा उत्कर्षमा पुगेको देखिन्छ । चोलेश्वर शर्माको सगरमाथा एक पहाडको नाम होइन निबन्ध सङ्ग्रहमा निहित व्यङ्ग्यलाई पहिचान गर्नु यस लेखको प्रमुख समस्या हो । व्यङ्ग्यसम्बन्धी अवधारणामा केन्द्रित रहेर उक्त निबन्धसङ्ग्रहको विश्लेषण गरी निष्कर्षमा पुग्नु नै प्रस्तुत लेखको उद्देश्य रहेको छ । व्यङ्ग्यको सिद्धान्तमा टेकेर कृतिको विश्लेषण गरिएको हुनाले प्रस्तुत लेखमा समालोचनाको सैद्धान्तिक विधिलाई उपयोग गरिएको छ । सगरमाथा एक पहाडको नाम होइन निबन्ध सङ्ग्रहमा केकस्ता विकृतिमाथि प्रहार गरिएको छ ? भन्ने प्राज्ञिक समस्याका केन्द्रमा रही यो लेख तयार गरिएको छ । शर्माका सबैजसो निबन्धमा नेपाली समाजमा मक्किएर रहेका विकृतिमाथि व्यङ्ग्य प्रहार गरिएको पाइन्छ । विश्लेष्य कृतिमा प्रयुक्त विषयवस्तु, मानवीय प्रवृत्ति तिनीहरूको व्यवहारलाई कटाक्षपूर्ण शैलीमा प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । लेखकले सामाजिक, राजनीतिक, साहित्यिक, आर्थिक, प्रशासनिक लगायतका क्षेत्रमा रहेका कमजोरीहरूलाई उठान गरी कटाक्षपूर्ण प्रहार गरेकाले उक्त कृतिमा व्यङ्ग्य सघन बनेर आएको पाइन्छ । प्रस्तुत लेखमा निगमनात्मक विधिको उपयोग गरिएको छ । व्यङ्ग्यसम्बन्धी मान्यता र अवधारणालाई सैद्धान्तिक आधार बनाई आवश्यकताअनुरूप प्राथमिक र द्वितीयक स्रोतबाट सामग्रीको सङ्कलन गरी लेखलाई व्यवस्थित गरिएको छ । समकालीन समाजमा जरा गाडेर रहेका विकृति र विसङ्गतिमाथि मार्मिक रूपमा प्रहार गरी सुधार र परिष्कारको अपेक्षा राखिएकाले व्यङ्ग्यको प्रभावकारी प्रस्तुति भएको छ भन्नु नै प्रस्तुत लेखको निचोड रहेको छ ।</p> टंकप्रसाद Tanka Prasad पन्थ Pantha Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 “मेरी सानी भतिजी प्रतिमा” कथामा आलोचनात्मक यथार्थवाद { Critical realism in the story “Meri Sani Bhatiji Pratima” } <p>प्रस्तुत लेखमा रमेश विकलको ‘मेरी सानी भतिजी प्रतिमा’ कथाको विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । नेपाली साहित्यमा विकललाई प्रगतिवादी कथाकार मान्दै उनले लेखेका सबै कथाहरूलाई प्रगतिवादी दृष्टिकोणबाट अध्ययन विश्लेषण गर्ने परम्परा बसेको पाइन्छ । परन्तु प्रगतिवादी साहित्यले रचनामा जुन प्रकारको वर्गीय विभेदका विरुद्धमा विद्रोहको अपेक्षा गर्दछ त्यस प्रकारको विद्रोही चेतना यिनका कथाका पात्रहरूमा भेटिँदैन । विकलको मेरी सानी भतिजी प्रतिमा’ उनका कथामध्येको लोकप्रिय र चर्चित कथा मानिन्छ । प्रस्तुत कथामा समाजमा विद्यमान विभिन्न प्रकारका विभेदमध्येको लैङ्गिक विभेदलाई विषय बनाएको पाइन्छ । युगौँदेखि पितृसत्तात्मक समाजको प्रभावबाट ग्रसित बनेको समाजमा लैङ्गिक विभेदका कारण पुरुषले महत्त्व पाउने र नारीले महत्त्व नपाउने अवस्था देखिन्छ । यसरी नारीलाई महत्त्व नदिने र पुरुषलाई महत्त्व दिने कार्यमा स्वयं नारीहरूसमेत देखिन्छन् । यसले समाजलाई यतिसम्म ग्रसित तुल्याएको छ जसले गर्दा स्वयं जन्मदिने आमाले आफ्ना सन्तानमा समेत विभेद गर्ने र छोरालाई काखा र छोरीलाई पाखा गर्ने गरेको देखिन्छ । समाजको यही सत्यलाई प्रस्तुत गरेको यस कथामा विभेदको चरम अवस्थालाई प्रस्तुत गरिएको देखिन्छ परन्तु विभेदको विरुद्धमा कसैले पनि आवाज उठाउन सकेको पाइँदैन । यसरी अन्याय अत्याचार हुनु तर त्यसका विरुद्धमा आवाज नउठाउनुजस्ता अवस्थाको प्रस्तुति भएका कृति वा रचनालाई यस दृष्टिकोणबाट अध्ययन विश्लेषण नगरिएकाले मेरी सानी भतिजी प्रतिमा’ कथामा आलोचनात्मक यथार्थवादको केकस्तो प्रस्तुति रहेको छ ? भन्ने मुख्य समस्यामूलक प्रश्नमा केन्द्रित रही विश्लेषणात्मक विधिको प्रयोग गरेर आलोचनात्मक यथार्थवादका सैद्धान्तिक दृष्टिकोणबाट प्रस्तुत कथा सशक्त रहेको निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> टंकप्रसाद Tanka Prasad भट्टराई Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 जरत्कारु उपन्यासमा नारीवाद { Feminism in Jaratkaru Novel } <p>प्रस्तुत अनुसन्धानमूलक समालोचनात्मक लेख जरत्कारु उपन्यासको विश्लेषणमा केन्द्रित रहेको छ । जरत्कारु पौराणिक विषयमा आधारित औपन्यासिक कृति हो । प्रस्तुत कृतिले अगस्त्य ऋषिका सन्तानमध्ये कद्रुकी पुत्री जरत्कारुलाई केन्द्रीय पात्रका रूपमा चयन गरी उक्त पात्रका माध्यमबाट युगौँदेखि समाजमा विद्यमान लैङ्गिक विभेदलाई प्रस्तुत गरेको पाइन्छ । मूलतः कन्या पूजाको सन्दर्भलाई लिएर रचना गरिएको प्रस्तुत उपन्यासले पौराणिक विषयको कथ्यका माध्यमबाट त्यस्ता थुप्रै महत्त्वपूर्ण विषयवस्तुहरूलाई उठाएको देखिन्छ जो वर्तमान समाजलाई समेत प्रतिबिम्बित गर्दछन् । समाज व्यवस्था, वर्ग विभाजन, ऋषिहरूका वैज्ञानिक चिन्तन, सामाजिक द्वन्द्वजस्ता विविध विषयमा आवाज उठाएको प्रस्तुत उपन्यासले समाजमा विद्यमान लैङ्गिक विभेदलाई महत्त्वपूर्ण विषयका रूपमा उठाएको देखिन्छ । प्रस्तुत उपन्यासले एकातिर नारीहरू युगौँदेखि पुरुषबाट शासित थिए, उनीहरू पुराणकालमा पनि विभिन्न बहानामा पुरुषबाट शासित र प्रताडित थिए भन्ने कुराका साथै पुरुषले नारीलाई भोग्याको रूपमा, उपयोगी वस्तुको रूपमा प्रयोग गर्ने गरेको सन्दर्भलाई उठाइएको पाइन्छ । प्रस्तुत उपन्यासले पौराणिक कथ्यका माध्यमबाट वर्तमान समाजले नारीलाई गर्दै आएको उपेक्षालाई समेत प्रतिबिम्बित गर्दछ । प्रस्तुत उपन्यास नारी शोषण तथा नारी अधिकारका विषयमा आवाज उठाउने कृति हो भन्ने कुराको सङ्केत प्राप्त भए पनि यस दृष्टिकोणबाट प्रस्तुत उपन्यासको विहङ्गम अध्ययन विश्लेषण नभएकोले नारीवादका सापेक्षमा जरत्कारु उपन्यास केकस्तो रहेको छ ? भन्ने प्राज्ञिक समस्यामूलक प्रश्नमा केन्द्रित रहेर प्रस्तुत उपन्यासलाई नारीवादी सिद्धान्तका सापेक्षमा विश्लेषण गर्ने लक्ष्य राखी अध्ययनलाई अगाडि बढाइएको छ । विश्लेषणात्मक विधिको प्रयोग गरी प्रस्तुत उपन्यास नारीवादको सैद्धान्तिक दृष्टिकोणले महत्त्वपूर्ण र प्रभावकारी रहेको निष्कर्ष निरूपण गरिएको छ ।</p> शंकरप्रसाद Shankar Prasad गैरे Gaire Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 राधा उपन्यासमा नारीवाद { Feminism in the Radha Novel } <p>प्रस्तुत लेखमा उपन्यासकार कृष्ण धराबासीको राधा उपन्यासको नारीवादका आधारमा अध्ययन गरिएको छ । प्रस्तुत उपन्यासको विभिन्न आधारमा अध्ययन गर्न सकिने भए पनि नारीवादका आधारमा अध्ययन नभइसकेको अवस्थामा प्राज्ञिक रिक्तता देखिन्छ । यही रिक्ततालाई पूरा गर्ने उद्देश्यले प्रस्तुत अध्ययन नारीवादअन्तर्गत पर्ने नारीशोषणप्रतिको विद्रोहमा केन्द्रित भई नारीमाथि हुँदै आएका पितृसत्तात्मक, लैङ्गिक, पारिवारिक, सामाजिक, कुल र धमर्, संस्कृति, यौनजन्य, राजनीतिक शोषण जस्ता अवस्थितिलाई आधार बनाइएको छ । पुस्तकालय कार्यबाट सङ्कलित प्रथम र द्वितीयक स्रोतका सामग्रीहरूको सूक्ष्म पठन गरी सघन पाठविश्लेषण विधिअनुसार नारीवादसम्बन्धी सैद्धान्तिक आधार लिएर सन्दर्भपरक अध्ययन समेत गरिएको हुनाले प्रस्तुत अध्ययन गुणात्मक प्रकृतिको छ । समाजको महत्त्वपूर्ण भूमिकामा रहेर पनि युगौंदेखि शोषणयुक्त, मूल्यहीन, अमानवीय र अत्यन्त अपमानजनक जीवन बाँच्दै आएका नारीका चेतनाका आँखा खुल्दै गएपछि आफूहरूमाथि हुँदै आएका विभिन्न खाले विभेदको भण्डाफोर गरी आफ्नो अस्तित्व रक्षाका लागि विद्रोह गरेका छन् । पितृसत्तात्मक सामन्तवादी समाजले नारीको स्वाभिमान र अस्तित्वलाई महत्त्व नदिने, पुरुषको सुखसुविधाका लागि स्वेच्छाचारी नियम बनाएर नारीलाई दोस्रो दर्जाको नागरिकका रूपमा आफ्नै दासी वा भोगविलासको साधनका रूपमा मनलागी उपयोग गर्ने, नारीअस्मितामाथि प्रश्नचिन्ह उठाउने, समाजमा चल्दै आएका रीतिरिवाज, चालचलन, धर्म, संस्कृतिका आडमा नारीलाई उपेक्षा, किनारीकृत र अधिकारबाट वञ्चित गर्ने जस्ता गलत र विभेदपूर्ण परिपाटीप्रति यस उपन्यासका राधा, सुशीला, विशाखा, यशोदा जस्ता सचेत नारीद्वारा विद्रोह गरी नारीहरूको पनि पुरुषकै बराबर अधिकार स्थापित गर्न खोजेको निष्कर्ष प्राप्त भएको छ ।</p> शारदा Sharada खनाल Khanal Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000