Tribhuvan University Journal of Microbiology 2019-02-05T17:31:27+00:00 Dr. Megha Raj Banjara Open Journal Systems The Tribhuvan University Journal of Microbiology is published by the Central Department of Microbiology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal. Microbiology Education in Nepal 2019-02-05T17:31:27+00:00 Megha Raj Banjara <p>No abstract available.</p> 2018-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antimicrobial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Medicinal Plants against Human Pathogenic Bacteria 2019-02-05T17:31:27+00:00 Hira Sakha Rejila Hora Shilpa Shrestha Shreeya Acharya Dinesh Dhakal Srijana Thapaliya Kamil Prajapati <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants against human pathogenic bacteria and perform Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of plants extracts.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Rhizome of <em>Curcuma longa, </em>dried buds of <em>Synzygium aromaticum, </em>seeds of <em>Zanthoxylum armatum </em>and leaves of <em>Elaeocarpus ganitrus, Psidium guajava, Azadirachta indica, </em>and <em>Artemisia vulgaris </em>were collected from hilly regions of Nepal. The plant parts were air-dried at room temperature for several days and grinded to powder form. The ethanolic extracts of medicinal plants were prepared by using the percolation process of extraction using separating funnel and tested against human pathogenic bacteria by disc diffusion method. Then, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the plant extracts were performed.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>All plants extracts exhibited antibacterial properties against bacteria under study. However, extract from <em>S. aromaticum </em>(Clove), <em>P. guajava </em>(Guava) and <em>E. ganitrus </em>(Rudraksh) leaves showed most promising result against <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>with zone of inhibition of 14mm, 16mm and 16 mm respectively. Likewise, <em>S. aromaticum </em>(Clove), <em>C. longa </em>(Turmeric) and <em>P. guajava </em>(Guava) showed good antibacterial activity against <em>Escherichia coli </em>with zone of inhibition of 11mm, 11mm and 10mm respectively<em>. A. vulgaris </em>(Titepati) and <em>A. indica </em>(Neem leaves) showed promising activity against <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>with zone of inhibition of 11mm. <em>Z. armatum </em>(Timur) showed good result against <em>E. coli </em>with zone of inhibition 10mm. MIC values of ethanolic extracts of <em>S. aromaticum </em>and <em>E. ganitrus </em>were found to be at the range of 12.5-25mg/ml.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study has helped to understand the use of these plants as traditional medicine in an economic and safe alternative to treat infectious diseases.</p> 2018-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Quality Analysis of Milk in Kathmandu Valley 2019-02-05T17:31:26+00:00 Astha Parajuli Prasiddhi Rimal Rujisha Maharjan Richa Chaudhary Shashi Bhusan Chaturwedi <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>This study was carried out to evaluate physiochemical, adulteration and microbial quality of milk sold in Kathmandu Valley.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The study was carried out in Microbiology Laboratory of DAV College. The total of 20 milk samples randomly collected from different places of the valley including 10 pasteurized milk sample and 10 were raw milk sample, were processed for Physiochemical and Microbiological analysis.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The laboratory analysis revealed that the pasteurized samples has less mesophilic count as well as coliform count than raw milk samples. About 55% milk samples showed neutralizer test positive and 10% of milk samples were found to be positive for sugar test. However, none of the samples were found to contain starch as an adulterant. The average fat content of milk samples of Kathmandu Valley was 3%. Fat percent was significantly different among different sources of sampling points. The highest milk fat content value was recorded at Pulchowk (3.7%). The average SNF of Kathmandu Valley was 7% in which the pasteurized sample had the highest average SNF (7.3%) and the raw milk had lowest average SNF (6.8%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The significant variation in the physiochemical properties and microbial properties of the milk samples showed that people should be conscious about the consumption of market milk. &nbsp;</p> 2018-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Diversity of Insecticidal Crystal proteins (ICPs) of indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis strains 2019-02-05T17:31:26+00:00 Ganga G.C. Charu Arjya Yamuna Khadka Sabina Dhamala <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The purpose of this study was to characterize the indigenous <em>Bacillus thuringiensis </em>(Bt) isolated from the soil samples of central development region of Terai.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A total of 50 soil samples collected from cultivated and barren fields of Terai region. Isolation was carried out using the acetate selection protocol as described by (Russell and Al 1987) with a slight modification. The Nutrient broth (NB) was acetated by using 0.25M sodium acetate which is a selective enrichment method for isolation of Bt<em>. </em>Characterization of the isolate was done by phenotyping methods (microscopy and biochemical).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>No distinct variation was observed between the isolates of cultivable and uncultivable lands. Bt were categorized into7 different types based on colony morphology. The dominant colony was fried egg type identical with the reference strain, followed by flat white type of colony. The result showed that even though the colony morphology is same but the ICPs (Insecticidal crystal proteins) shapes produced by them vary, rod shapes (53.57%), spherical (10.71%), ovoid (8.3%), amorphous (17.85%), capheaded (9.5%). ICPs morphology reveal the <em>cry1, cry2, cry3, cry4, cry8, cry 9, cry10 </em>and <em>cry11 </em>types of gene may be present in the native isolates.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study represents the first report of several indigenous <em>Bacillus thuringiensis </em>strains with significantly different ICPs producing stains from hot tropical climate.</p> 2018-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Wound Infections 2019-02-05T17:31:26+00:00 Jyoti Shrestha Krishan Govinda Prajapati Om Prakash Panta Pramod Poudel Santosh Khanal <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of methicillin resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>(MRSA) and antibiotic resistance pattern of the isolates from wound infections.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A total of 706 wound specimens including pus and wound swab were analyzed in the laboratory of B and B Hospital, Lalitpur from May to October 2014. The specimens were cultured on Blood Agar and Mannitol Salt Agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Strains resistant to cefoxitin (30mcg) with inhibition zone ≤ 21mm were identified as MRSA.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of 366 bacterial isolates, 90 (24.6%) were <em>S. aureus </em>and among them 16.7% were MRSA and 54.4% multi-drug resistant (MDR). All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin and most of the isolates were sensitive to cefoxitin (83.3%). High rate of resistance was observed towards penicillin (98.9%) and ampicillin (86.7%). All MRSA isolates and 52.9% of methicillin sensitive <em>S. aureus </em>(MSSA) were MDR.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>MRSA incidence is increasing in the population, and therapeutic measures are few and accompanied by diverse side effects. It is noteworthy to state that vancomycin is still the first line drug although vancomycin-resistant strains have been reported.</p> 2018-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## In vitro Antibacterial Effect of Medicinal Plants Against Multidrug Resistant Gram Negative Bacteria 2019-02-05T17:31:26+00:00 Bishnu Thapa Anjana Singh Reshma Tuladhar <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The aim of this work was to determine the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of herbal plants against the Multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram negative bacteria isolated from clinical samples.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Gram negative bacteria isolated from various clinical samples were processed for antibiotic susceptibility test by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method and MDR bacteria were selected. Methanol extracts of six different medicinal plants <em>Acorus calamus </em>(bojho), <em>Ocimum sanctum </em>(tulsi), <em>Azadirachta indica </em>(neem), <em>Cinnamomum tamala </em>(tejpatta), <em>Aloe vera </em>and <em>Zanthoxylum alatum </em>(timur), were tested for antibacterial activity against the selected MDR bacteria by agar well diffusion method.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>From clinical samples, 8 different MDR Gram negative bacteria isolated were <em>Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter </em>spp., <em>Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris</em>, <em>Acinetobacter </em>spp. and <em>Pseudomonas </em>spp. with <em>E. coli </em>dominated the number. Out of six medicinal plants extracts, <em>Z. alatum</em>, <em>C</em>. <em>tamala </em>and <em>Ocimum sanctum </em>were found to be effective with zones of inhibition ranging from 9-13 mm. The medicinal plants with antibacterial activity can be an alternative source of medicine against MDR Gram negative bacteria.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Several herbal plants extracts exhibit antibacterial activity against MDR Gram negative bacteria. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts can vary with type of plant and extraction methods. Thus, for optimal benefit of plant extract, an appropriate extraction method and use of purified product is essential.</p> 2018-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Microbial Profile of Various Catheter Tips among Hospitalized Patients 2019-02-05T17:31:26+00:00 Pushpa Man Shrestha Nisha Thapa Navraj Dahal Nabaraj Adhikari Upendra Thapa Shrestha <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>This study aimed to identify the microbiological profile of various catheter tips, and multidrug resistance pattern of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing <em>E. coli and Klebsiella </em>spp. isolates.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A descriptive analysis of 263 catheter tip specimens processed for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out in B&amp;B Hospital, Lalitpur. Five different types of catheter tips were analyzed for microbiological growth and antimicrobial susceptibility testing.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Among catheter tips, the highest percentage of microbial growth was observed in tracheostomy tip. Monomicrobial growth was recorded in 82.9% catheter tips and polymicrobial growth was observed in 17.1% tip samples. Of 180 isolates, gram negative rods (76.6%) followed by yeast (19.4%) and gram-positive cocci (3.9%) were isolated. Gram negative <em>Acinetobacter </em>spp. (25%) <em>and Pseudomonas </em>spp<em>. </em>(23.3%) and gram-positive <em>Enterococcus </em>spp. (2.2%) were the most frequently isolated bacteria. However, carbapenam was the most effective antibiotic for both groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Of the total isolates tested, 61.4% were found to be multidrug resistant (MDR). Among gram negative rods, 22.2% <em>E. coli </em>and 27.3% <em>Klebsiella </em>spp. were confirmed as ESBL producer. It is recommended to apply standard protocol during insertion and removal of catheter which may help in managing nosocomial infection associated with catheters.</p> 2018-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Bacteraemia and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of isolates from patients visiting a private hospital of Kathmandu 2019-02-05T17:31:26+00:00 Nandalal Jaishi Pramila Pathak Pradeep Kumar Shah Puspa Raj Dahal <p><strong>Background: </strong>Bacteraemia can develop a broad array of complications that may be difficult to recognize initially and can increase morbidity. The study was thus conducted to identify the causative agents of bacteraemia and to assess antibiogram of the isolates among the patients suspected of blood stream infection visiting Everest hospital, New Baneshwor Kathmandu.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Altogether 400 blood cultures were processed during March, 2015 to August, 2015. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) was followed during the processing of the specimens. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates was done by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method with Muller-Hinton agar using the guidelines and interpretive criteria of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI 2013).</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The positivity of blood culture was found to be 48 (12%). Gram negative bacterial were found to be more predominant 27(56.2%) than gram positive bacteria 21(43.7%) in causing bacteraemia. The most prevalent isolate was <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>15 (31.2%) followed by <em>Salmonella </em>Paratyphi A 10 (20.8%) and <em>Salmonella </em>Typhi 8 (16.6%), <em>E. coli </em>&amp; CoNS 4 (8.3%), <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>3 (6.2%) and <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae &amp; Streptococcus pneumoniae 2 (4.1%) </em>respectively. All gram-positive isolates were found to be sensitive to Cefoxitin, Ceftriaxone and Vancomycin followed by Ampicillin (90.42%), Erythromycin (85.71%), Ciprofloxacin (83.33%), Doxycycline (75%) and Cephalexin (70.58%) whereas gram negative isolates were sensitive to Ceftriaxone followed by Chloramphenicol (92%), Gentamicin (88.8%), Cefixime (85.71%), Ofloxacin (83.3%) and Amoxycillin and Ciprofloxacin (71.3%)</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The isolation of etiological agents of blood stream infection should be assessed by proper microbiological analysis and it would be helpful for controlling of the outbreaks of resistance strains through effective empirical therapy.</p> 2018-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase and Metallo Beta Lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa at Tertiary care Hospital of Nepal 2019-02-05T17:31:26+00:00 Pallavi Shrestha Saroj Sharma Roshani Maharjan <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To assess the prevalence of Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) and Metallo beta lactamase (MBL) producing <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>from pus samples.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional study was conducted at Kanti Children’s Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal during which 316 pus samples were collected and tested using standard microbiological procedures. Antibiotic Susceptibility Test (AST) was done by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and the detection of ESBL and MBL production were done using Ceftazidime/clavulanic acid combined disk test and Imipenem- Ethylenenediaminetetraacetic acid combined disk test respectively as per CLSI guideline 2014.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The prevalence rate of <em>P. aeruginosa </em>was found to be 7.9% in pus samples. Out of 25 <em>P. aeruginosa </em>isolates 9(36%) were ESBL producers and 2(8%) were MBL producers. ESBL producers were predominant in the age group 2-3 years (33.3%) and in male patient (55.6%). Out of 2 MBL producing <em>P. aeruginosa, </em>1(50%)was isolated from the age group below 2 years and male patient and 1(50%) from the age group 8-9 years and female patient. 96% of isolates showed sensitive to Polymyxin B.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study showed increasing trend of ESBL and MBL production in <em>P. aeruginosa </em>so constant survey of prevalence of ESBL and MBL producing isolates is essential to control and manage spread of these isolates in different units of health institutions.</p> 2018-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Detection of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Public Transportation of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal 2019-02-05T17:31:25+00:00 Kkadga Bikram Angbuhang Mukesh Neupane Aditya Adhikari Binita KC Sabina Jha <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The purpose of this study was to assess microbial load and Methicillin Resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>from surfaces of public transport vehicle.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The surfaces of public transport vehicle were sampled by swabbing. A total of 56 samples from 28 different vehicles operating in Kathmandu valley were collected and processed according to the standard methodology. The isolates were identified by culture, biochemical tests and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method following CLSI 2013 guidelines. Methicillin resistant species of <em>Staphylococcus </em>were detected by the virtue of cefoxitin resistance.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>All 56 samples from the 28 different vehicles were found to have bacterial growth with average bacterial load of 2.47±1.22 x 10<sup>5</sup> CFU/cm<sup>2</sup>. The gas vehicles were found to be the most contaminated. Out of 56 samples, 35 (25.9%) were found to be <em>S. aureus </em>growth positive 11 (31.4%) of them being MRSA.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The high flow of people with different health conditions in public transport makes the exchange of microorganism more significant. High bacterial load along with MRSA indicates the threats of transmission of infection among travellers. This is of a great public health concern as the mass population of different health condition is in direct exposure and is prone to get infected.</p> 2018-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## In-Vitro Biofilm Detection among Uropathogens and their Antibiogram Profile 2019-02-05T17:31:25+00:00 Bijayata Shrestha Basudha Shrestha Asia Poudel Binod Lekhak Milan Kumar Upreti <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The study was carried out in Kathmandu Model Hospital, Kathmandu with the aim of <em>in- vitro </em>biofilm detection among uropathogens and its correlation with antibiotic resistance.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Uropathogens (n=234) were isolated, and identified with standard microbiological techniques and further subjected to Modified Congo Red Agar Method for the biofilm detection <em>in-vitro</em>; antimicrobial susceptibility testing (10 antibiotics) was performed by Modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. The MIC and MBEC values of Levofloxacin were determined by agar dilution for planktonic forms and by microdilution method for biofilm phase respectively.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Among 234 urine isolates, 134(57%) were positive for <em>in-vitro </em>biofilm production and 88(37.6%) were multidrug resistant (MDR). <em>E. coli </em>was the predominant biofilm forming uropathogens. The incidence of biofilm producers was found to be independent of age-wise, gender wise and indoor-outdoor distribution of patients. The association between biofilm production and multidrug resistance among uropathogens was found statistically non-significant (p-value&gt;0.05). The MBEC values of biofilm phase of growth were found to be greater than the MIC values for their planktonic counterparts. The MBEC values ranged from 4 to more than1024 μg/ml whereas the MIC values ranged from 0.003-16 μg/ml.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The results of the present study suggest that biofilm detection is a critical step to fight against biofilm-involved infections. However, further studies are needed for the development of effective preventive and treatment strategies of biofilm associated UTIs to avoid recurrence and persistence. &nbsp;</p> 2018-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Drug Susceptibility Profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolated from Patients Visiting National Tuberculosis Centre, Nepal 2019-02-05T17:31:25+00:00 S. Dahal M.R. Banjara D. Khadka G. Ghimire S. Sharma <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The objective of this study was to assess drug susceptibility pattern of <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis </em>(MTB).</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This cross-sectional study was carried out among 145 clinically suspected and previously treated pulmonary tuberculosis patients visiting National Tuberculosis Centre, Bhaktapur, Nepal. After obtaining written informed consent, questionnaire was administered and sputum samples were collected from each patient. Each sample was subjected to Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining and cultured on Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) medium at 37ºC for 8 weeks. MTB isolates were identified by growth rate and colony morphology, confirmed by biochemical tests and drug susceptibility testing (DST) of identified isolates was performed by proportion method.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 49.7% (n=72) sputum samples were positive for MTB by culture and 46.9% (n=68) were positive by ZN staining. Among culture positive isolates of MTB (n= 72), 25% (n=18) were resistant to at least one drug. The prevalence of multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) was 15.3% (n=11) of which 5.56% (n=4) were resistant to rifampicin (RIF) only, 1.39% (n= 1) were resistant to isoniazid (INH) only. Out of 18 resistant isolates, 61.1% (n=11) were resistant to both RIF and INH, 21.43% (n=3) resistant to INH were susceptible to RIF and 26.67% (n=4) resistant to RIF were susceptible to INH. Smoking (P=0.001) and coughing (P=0.009) were statistically significant with isolation of MTB.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Since the prevalence of MDR-TB was high, MDR-TB strains should be identified in order to initiate second line treatment.</p> 2018-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Organic Extracts of Aloe barbadensis against Multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Wound Specimens 2019-02-05T17:31:25+00:00 Mamata Adhikari Anil Kumar Sah Dev Raj Joshi <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>In order to investigate alternate therapeutic option, this study was carried out to assess the in vitro antibacterial activity of gel extract of Aloe barbadensis against multiple antibiotic resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from wound specimens.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A total of 180 different wound specimens collected in a hospital, were subjected to isolate and identify P. aeruginosa by cultural methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by Kirby- Bauer disc diffusion method to screen multidrug resistant isolates. A. barbadensis extracts were prepared using aqueous and organic solvents and their in vitro inhibitory action was evaluated by agar well diffusion methods.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of total, 38 (21.1%) of the wound specimens showed the occurrence of P. aeruginosa, among which 15 (39%) isolates were multi-drug resistant. Organic extracts of various concentrations (0.2 - 0.8 v/v %) inhibited 66.7% of MDR and all non-MDR (n = 23) P. aeruginosa with zone of inhibition ranging from 9.5 ±1.0 to 21.3 ± 2.2 mm but not by aqueous extract. A positive Pearson’s correlation (r=0.983) was found between antibacterial effect and concentrations of the extracts. The antibacterial activity of organic extracts was statistically associated with antibiotic resistance profile of the organism (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Organic extracts of A. barbadensis revealed variable in vitro inhibitory action against both MDR and non-MDR P. aeruginosa isolated from wound specimens. Although further confirmation is needed, aloe gel extract may be applied as an alternate treatment option.</p> 2018-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Prevalence and Antibiogram in Various Clinical Specimens at Alka Hospital 2019-02-05T17:31:25+00:00 Kushal Shahi Komal Raj Rijal Nabaraj Adhikari Upendra Thapa Shrestha Megha Raj Banjara Vijay K. Sharma Prakash Ghimire <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>This study aimed to study the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of methicillin-resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>(MRSA) isolated from clinical specimen.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>During the study period (April-September, 2013), 754 various clinical samples collected from patients visiting at Alka Hospital were cultured for isolation of <em>S. aureus</em>. The isolates were characterized as <em>S. aureus </em>by their morphology on Gram staining, growth characteristics and coagulase production. Screening of methicillinresistant <em>S. aureus </em>was determined using cefoxitin disk as recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute. The diameter of the zone of inhibition was measured and interpretation was done in accordance with the CLSI guidelines. An isolate was considered to be a MRSA strain if cefoxitin inhibition zone diameter was &lt; 22 mm. All isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion methods.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Total 109 (14.46%) isolates were confirmed as <em>S. aureus </em>and 36 (33.02%) <em>S. aureus </em>isolates of them were screened as methicillin resistant <em>S. aureus</em>. Maximum percentage (63.9%) of methicillin resistant <em>S. aureus </em>strains were comprised of pus specimens. Highest percentage (47.6%) of MRSA was isolated from the age group of above 60 years. Maximum percentage of MRSA strain was detected in admitted patients which accounts for 63.9% of total MRSA. Majority of MRSA isolates were observed to be multidrug resistant. All 36 isolates of MRSA showed that vancomycin, a reserved drug for the multidrug resistant MRSA found to be 100% sensitive. Beside vancomycin, ceftriaxone (83.3%) found to be most sensitive drug for the MRSA isolates.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The emergence of drug resistance and its dissemination in MRSA is worrisome. So we need to develop newer agents as well as slow down the spread of resistant strains by various control measures.</p> 2018-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Poor Quality of Treated Water in Kathmandu: Comparison with Nepal Drinking Water Quality Standards 2019-02-05T17:31:25+00:00 Sujan Maharjan Tista Prasai Joshi Sujen Man Shrestha <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>In order to evaluate the quality assurance of drinking water in Kathmandu valley, this study analyzed selected physiochemical and microbial parameters of treated water samples and compared with Nepal Drinking Water Quality Standards (NDWQS).</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Treated water samples were collected from all over the Kathmandu valley and analyzed in terms of physicochemical and microbiological parameters over the period of one year from July 2017 to July 2018. The physio-chemical parameters of water samples were performed according to standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. The total coliforms were enumerated by standard membrane filtration technique.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>We report that microbiological aspect of treated water was the major problem as 66% of the water samples crossed the guideline value for total coliform count. Above 92% of jar water samples, 77% of tanker water samples and 69% of filtered water samples had the total coliform count exceeding the NDWQS. Moreover, 20% of bottled water was contaminated by coliform bacteria. Iron and ammonia content were found to be higher than the guideline values in 16% and 21% of the total treated water samples respectively. Analyzing the types of treated water samples showed that 35% and 15% of tanker water samples had higher ammonia and iron content respectively, and the same parameters were higher in 23% and 19% in the filtered water samples respectively than the standard criteria recommended by NDWQS.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The treated water samples exceed the standard values set by NDWQS and hence had poor quality. The presence of faecal pollution indicating coliform bacteria was the key problem for treated drinking water of Kathmandu valley. Therefore, monitoring and proper treatment of water should be conducted to prevent dissemination of waterborne diseases.</p> 2018-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Intestinal Parasitosis among the School Children of Kathmandu, Nepal 2019-02-05T17:31:25+00:00 Chetana Dahal Puja Katwal Anju Thapa Deepa Sharma Rama Khadka <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The present study was conducted to determine the intestinal parasitosis among the school children of Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This study was carried out from February 2018 to May 2018. During the study, a total of 194 stool samples were collected from school going children of age above 5 years to below 15 years old and processed in Padma Kanya microbiology laboratory. The detection technique used for the parasites was concentration technique (Formal-ether Sedimentation method) and iodine mount was used for slide preparation. Data were entered into SPSS and analysis was done employing Chi square test.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>Among 194 total cases, 12.4% (24/194) children were infected with parasites where female were highly infected (70.8%) and children of age group 9-11 were highly infected (58.3%).Parasitic infection was high in non-vegetarian children (83.3%) than vegetarian, symptomatic cases (66.7%, 16/24) than asymptomatic cases, public school (66.7%, 16/24) compared with private school, higher in children who don’t wash hands with soap before meal (87.5%) than who wash hands before meal and in children not taking anti helminthic drugs (95.8%) than children taking anti-helminthic drugs recently within six months. Further, children using direct tap water for drinking purpose were highly infected than others.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The parasitic infection among school children was found closely related to their health hygiene, sanitary condition, water consumption and other activities. &nbsp;</p> 2018-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Qualitative analysis of milk available in local market of Janakpurdham, Nepal 2019-02-05T17:31:24+00:00 N.P. Yadav R.K. Yadav B. Pokhrel <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To determine the microbial quality of milk available in market of Janakpurdham, Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Total 20 samples of milk were collected aseptically from the market and processed for MBRT test as per standard protocol given in a monograph. Reduction time test for each sample of the milk was recorded in a specified format and analysed statistically.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>Out of 20 samples, 2 (10%) samples were found excellent quality, 3 (15%) were of good quality, 6 (30%) were of fair quality and 9 (45%) were of poor quality. Among these 20 samples, 6 samples were of processed milk, 5 samples were of unprocessed/raw milk and 9 samples were of DDC milk. Unprocessed milk was found to be highly contaminated in comparison to the processed milk.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Unprocessed milk was found to be highly contaminated and not fi t for the human consumption. &nbsp;</p> 2018-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##