Voice: A Biannual & Bilingual Journal 2024-01-05T09:58:29+00:00 Prof. Dr. Bed Raj KC Open Journal Systems <p>Voice: A Biannual &amp; Bilingual Journal is published by the Autar Dei Chaudharain Research Centre (ADCRC), Mahendra Multiple Campus, Nepalgunj, Banke, Nepal. The primary aim of 'Voice' is to facilitate the exchange of expertise among scholars at a global scale.</p> Prevalence of Sleep Disorders And Its Association With Socio-Demographic Variables Among Elderly People of Bardiya District, Nepal 2024-01-03T13:27:20+00:00 Ramesh Prasad Tharu <p>Sleep disorders constitute a substantial public health concern in an ageing society. It encompasses any disruption in the quantity or quality of sleep. This research aims to ascertain the prevalence of sleep disorders and its association with socio-demographic variables among the elderly residing in the Bardiya district of Nepal. A descriptive cross-sectional research design was adopted for the study. This study relies entirely on primary data, and a sample of 60 elderly people from community of Mainapohar-06, Badhaiyatal, Bardiya, Nepal was selected using simple random sampling method. The data were analyzed employing descriptive and inferential statistics through software (SPSS version 21). The findings of the research revealed that 75% of the sixty elderly had sleep disorders, while 25% did not, and 38.3% of them had daily trouble getting off to sleep. Among the various factors; gender, health condition, and educational status have a statistically significant association with sleep disorders. It can be inferred that a majority of the participants experienced sleep disturbances, thereby exposing themselves to more severe physical and mental health consequences.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ramesh Prasad Tharu Does Maila Speak? A Journey of a Common Man in Mahananda Dhakal’s Burhan 2024-01-03T15:14:49+00:00 Raj Kumar Tharu Bhagbat Paudel <p>This paper examines the reasoning behind the voice (lessness) of Maila Tharu and his son Somlal Tharu, the prominent characters in Mahananda Dhakal’s novel <em>Burhan, </em>representing the western Nepalese Tharu community, in the context of the discussion on subaltern awareness within Nepal’s caste-based elite structure. The paper observes the novel’s present presumptions regarding subaltern consciousness and resistance by looking at Maila, one of the leaders of the Nepali socio-political movement, and their seemingly unquestioned goal of mainstreaming. Furthermore, it highlights the Tharus’ social reality in the light of how the subaltern is misrepresented and altered during transitions, particularly in Nepal’s numerous political- cultural movements, both before and after the Maoist insurgency and the Tharu Liberation movement. The study, which is a qualitative analytical research work, tries to conclude that despite the political liberation movements that took place throughout Nepal’s political history, the voice for prosperity is still overshadowed by the contemporary governmental structure, where marginalized people like Tharus have turned into the victims of all kinds of wars and movements. In fact, Maila Tharu cannot speak nor is heard if today’s power politics continues. Characters like Maila Tharu and his son Somlal experience the biases of cultural interactions and political changes as well as so-called right-based activism, which, until this day, works against economic prosperity.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Raj Kumar Tharu, Bhagbat Paudel Globalisation and Pace of Economic Growth in Nepal 2024-01-03T15:32:05+00:00 Rajesh Keshar Khanal <p>Nepal faced serious economic crisis during mid 1980s. Overall balance of payment of the country turned negative in 1982/83 and it remained in the same pattern for three consecutive years. Nepal approached the IMF and the World Bank for their support in solving the economic crises that were being experienced at that time. In response to Nepal's approach these institutions helped Nepal with financial assistance with conditions in order to tide over the external imbalance. These institutions made reformation policies and Nepal had to implement these policies. Nepal entered into the new era of international economic order termed as 'Globalisation'. Nepal formulated and implemented many economic reformation policies compatible with the process of globalisation, liberalisation and privatisation in order to accelerate the process of economic globalisation. This paper aims at studying and analyzing effects of globalisation of Nepalese economy on GDP growth rate and its composition during last three decades starting from 1991/92. The study finds that the globalisation of Nepalese economy has not been able to accelerate the pace of economic growth at desired level.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Rajesh Keshar Khanal Speaking Proficiency of Bachelor Level First Year EFL Students 2024-01-03T15:55:45+00:00 Hari Prasad Tiwari <p>This study investigated the speaking proficiency of bachelor level first year students who studied English Education at four affiliated campuses under the Facultuy of education (FoE), Tribhuvan University (TU). The data was collected from 40 students who were sampled using simple random sampling. The data was collected using oral test which examined eight aspects of speaking proficiency: accuracy, fluency, pronunciation, vocabulary, appropriateness, comprehension, confidence and body language. Oral test was also complemented by observation. The students’ speaking performance was scored and the scores were analyzed and interpreted using statistical and descriptive methods. The findings indicated that the students scored an average of 15.85% in speaking, with 55% below the average and 45% above. The study recommended various interventions, such as interventions like communication workshops, peerassisted learning, cultural sensitivity training, and interactive language exposure, to address the specific challenges and improve the overall speaking proficiency of the students. Furthermore, Multimodal instruction is proposed to boost pronunciation, vocabulary, appropriateness, and body language to improve speaking skill.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Hari Prasad Tiwari Survey on Tree Carbon Stock inside Mahendra Multiple Campus, Nepalgunj, Banke 2024-01-03T16:20:47+00:00 Pramod Nag Gyanu Thapa Magar <p>Carbon stock in plant bodies is the significantly longer period reservoir for the atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> that causes adverse impacts on living and non-living climatic and environmental factors while increasing its proportional concentration in air. The present study aimed to estimate the carbon stock in trees of Mahendra Multiple Campus territory. The study was carried out by purposive sampling method, where altogether ten plots were laid of size 8.92m radii and measured diameter at breast height (DBH) (1.3m) and angle of inclination was taken from 5m horizontal distance from the tree pole. The calculation was made following the equation given by Chave et al., 2005 for wet forests. In total 17 species of trees were reported with the dominant species <em>Dalbergia sissoo </em>followed by <em>Corymbia citriodora </em>based on DBH and population density. The total carbon stored by trees inside the territory of MMC, Nepalgunj was 76.44 tons per hectare which is approximately 1/3<sup>rd</sup> of the world’s tropical forest average carbon stock. It implies the importance of trees outside the forest in carbon sequestration and balancing carbon emissions. Further estimation of carbon dioxide emitted from the territory, by different carbon emitters inside the area is recommended.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Pramod Nag, Gyanu Thapa Magar State of Sanitation in Public Schools of Banke District: Practices and Challenges 2024-01-04T01:58:00+00:00 Lalmani Acharya <p>The study aimed to assess the sanitary facilities and practices of public schools in Nepalgunj Sub Metropolitan. The study used a descriptive research design based on primary data from questionnaires. The data were analyzed using percentage and frequency tables. The results showed that the schools had concrete boundary walls, but lacked gardens and playgrounds. The water supply was adequate, but the purification was poor. Only 20% of the schools used purified water. The toilets were satisfactory, but 80% of them had no facilities inside. The waste disposal was haphazard and unmanaged. Only 20% of the schools cleaned their surroundings and classrooms daily. The study concluded that the sanitary facilities and practices were satisfactory, but not well managed. The schools had no plans or ideas for improving their physical plant. The study recommended that the government should include regular programs on sanitation in the curriculum and the schools should implement them properly.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Lalmani Acharya Nepal and China Trade Relations 2024-01-04T02:12:53+00:00 Subhash Gautam <p class="Default"><span style="font-size: 15.0pt;">Because landlocked countries can only access sea ports through neighbors, their economies </span><span style="transform: scaleX(1.03829);">are heavily influenced by them. A nation’s economy will grow slowly without strong </span><span style="transform: scaleX(0.988141);">trade. A country must have solid diplomatic relations with its neighbors in a globalizing globe. </span><span style="transform: scaleX(0.957759);">Many studies have examined commerce with India, but few with China. The Nepal-China </span><span style="transform: scaleX(0.959901);">commercial relationship is the topic of this study. From the 5th century to present, Nepal </span><span style="transform: scaleX(0.943117);">and China have cooperated. This relationship has grown. This report examines Nepal-China </span><span style="transform: scaleX(1.00527);">trade opportunities and difficulties. Trade connections and import-export trade between these </span><span style="transform: scaleX(0.932426);">countries are the focus of this study. The analysis covers 2007/08 to 2016/17 trade volumes </span><span style="transform: scaleX(0.99586);">between these countries. The trade imbalance expanded from 228 million to 1 billion between </span><span style="transform: scaleX(1.02483);">2007/08 to 2016/17, highlighting the significant difference between countries. The findings </span><span style="transform: scaleX(0.988756);">show Nepal has significant trade potential in agriculture, hydroelectricity, and banking sectors, </span><span style="transform: scaleX(0.940102);">but its economy, infrastructure, and political instability provide hurdles. Nepal is paving the </span><span style="transform: scaleX(0.99734);">path to prosperity with new trade agreements and existing and proposed activities with China.</span></p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Subhash Gautam Study of Price and Its Effects on Cosmetic Products 2024-01-04T02:24:31+00:00 Lal Mani Pokhrel <p>This article explores the vibrant cosmetics industry in Nepal, where a wide range of national and international brands serve a clientele that is becoming more discriminating and fashion-conscious. Due to increased emphasis on personal hygiene and appearance as well as a growing middle class, Nepal's cosmetics sector has grown significantly. Nepal's cosmetic market has a wide variety of brands, with most products coming from Europe, China, Singapore, Thailand, India, and the United Arab Emirates. The study looks at how customers' opinions and behaviors about cosmetic items are influenced by age, income, occupation, marital status, and education. It shows that quality, brand awareness, and value for money are highly preferred by consumers in the area. But the survey also shows that a certain customer sector is becoming more and more interested in herbal and natural cosmetics. According to the research, there are potential for marketers in Kohalpur, Nepal's cosmetic business to customize their approaches in order to better meet the diverse preferences and demands of their target audience. Understanding consumer attitudes and behavior is essential for product positioning, pricing, and promotional activities as the cosmetics business in Nepal develops further. According to the research, there are potential for marketers in Kohalpur, Nepal's cosmetic business to customize their approaches in order to better meet the diverse preferences and demands of their target audience. Understanding consumer attitudes and behavior is essential for product positioning, pricing, and promotional activities as the cosmetics business in Nepal develops further.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Lal Mani Pokhrel An inquiry into Reading Habit of Bachelor Level Students: A Case Study of Mahendra Multiple Campus, Nepalguj 2024-01-04T02:40:09+00:00 Shreedhar Adhikari <p>This paper aims to investigate the reading habits and attitudes of students in the Faculty of Management, Mahendra Multiple Campus, Nepalgunj. The importance of reading as a means to intellectual and emotional growth is discussed, emphasizing the advantages that reading can bring. To collect the necessary data, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to 80 students, probing into their reading habits, preferences, and attitudes. Through quantitative analysis of the findings, it was revealed that the students held an overall positive attitude towards academic and leisure reading, reading either daily or at least once a week. Additionally, digital materials were preferred to printed texts due to their availability and convenience. Based on these results, recommendations were made to improve the reading habits and attitudes of students, including the necessity of a national survey on Nepali students' reading habits. Finally, the importance of teachers in motivating students to read was highlighted, as the study showed that they can significantly impact students' reading habits and attitudes.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Shreedhar Adhikari रिब्दीकोट क्षेत्रमा प्रचलित फागुगीतकोे वस्तुविधान 2024-01-04T02:47:10+00:00 प्रदीपप्रसाद ज्ञवाली <p>प्रस्तुत अनुसन्धानात्मक लेखमा पाल्पा जिल्लाको रिब्दीकोट क्षेत्रमा प्रचलित फागुगीतहरूको संरचनात्मक अध्ययन पद्धतिका माध्ययमबाट यी गीतको वस्तुविधानको निरुपण गरिएको छ । रिब्दीकोट क्षेत्रमा प्रचलित फागुगीतहरूमा सामाजिक, ऐतिहासिक, भौगोलिक, धार्मिक, सांस्कृतिक एवं पौराणिक विषयवस्तु समाविष्ट भएको पाइन्छ । यी फागुगीतमा समाविष्ट विभिन्न विषयवस्तुका माध्यमबाट हर्ष र खुसियाली, विरह र वेदना, राष्ट्रप्रेमको भावना, धार्मिक एवं सांस्कृतिक चेतना, पाप र पुण्यसम्बन्धी विश्वास, मानव जीवनको महिमा गान तथा भौगोलिक र ऐतिहासिक चेतना मुखरित भएको पाइन्छ । यहाँ प्रचलित फागुगीतमा विशेषगरी विरह र वेदना एवं हर्षभावको अभिव्यक्ति पाइनुका साथै यी गीतले ईश्वर भक्तिको भावलाई उजागर गरी ईश्वरीय शक्तिको महिमा र यस संसारको पालन तथा संरक्षणमा ईश्वर वा दैवी शक्तिको भूमिकालाई प्रस्तुत गरेका छन् । यी धार्मिक गीतहरूको भावभूमि धर्म वा संस्कारजन्य कुरा र तिनको अर्थ तथा भक्तिमार्गसँग जोडिएको छ । यहाँ प्रचलित फागुगीतमा प्रखर रूपमा राष्ट्रियताको भावना प्रस्तुत भएको पाइन्छ । स्वर्गजस्तो सुन्दर नेपाल राष्ट्रको मुहार फेर्न र मातृभूमिलाई हँसाउन विदेशिएका युवाहरू स्वदेशमै फर्किएर यसलाई स्वाधीन बनाउनु पर्ने कुराको अभिव्यक्ति रहेको पाइन्छ भने भौगोलिक र ऐतिहासिक फागुगीतमा पाल्पा जिल्लाको भौगोलिक अवस्थितिको चित्रण गर्नुका साथै सेन वंशीय राजाले राजधानी बनाई राज्य गरेको पुरानोकोट दरबार अनि त्यसको नजिकै भैरवस्थानमा अवस्थित एसियाको सबै भन्दा ठुलो त्रिशुल भएको भैरवको मन्दिर, पाल्पाको सदरमुकाममा रहेको दरबार र त्यसको ठुलो ढोका तथा नेपालको ताजमहल भनेर चिनिने कालीगण्डकीको किनारमा रहेको रानीमहलको महिमागान गरी देशप्रेमको भावना अभिव्यक्त गरेको पाइन्छ ।</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 प्रदीपप्रसाद ज्ञवाली संस्कृत काव्यशास्त्रको रससिद्धान्तमा रसनिष्पत्ति सम्बन्धी मतमतान्तर र निष्कर्ष 2024-01-04T03:03:27+00:00 हरि प्रसाद तिमिल्सिना <p>संस्कृत साहित्य समालोचनामा रससिद्धान्त महत्त्वपूर्ण सिद्धान्तका रूपमा स्थापित रहेको छ । संस्कृत समालोचनाको सुदीर्घ परम्परामा द्रुहिण, नन्दिकेश्वर हुँदै भरतमुनिले रससूत्रको निर्माण सहित चर्चा गरी सिद्धान्तका रूपमा स्थापित रससिद्धान्त उत्तरवर्ती आचार्यहरूद्वारा व्यापक चर्चा परिचर्चा, व्याख्या, विश्लेषण भई विकसित हुन पुगेको साहित्यिक मान्यता हो । रसभाव सम्बन्धी चर्चाका क्रममा आचार्य भरतमुनिले आप्mनो लक्षणग्रन्थ नाट्शास्त्रमा ‘विभावानुभावव्यभिचारीसंयोगाद्रसनिष्पत्ति’ अर्थात् विभाव, अनुभाव र व्यभिचारी भावको संयोगले रसको निष्पत्ति हुन्छ भन्ने उल्लेख गरेका छन् । भरतमुनिले यस सूत्रमा आएका ‘संयोग’ र ‘निष्पत्ति’ शब्दले दिने अर्थको स्पष्ट व्याख्या गरेको पाइँदैन । भरतमुनिको नाट्यशास्त्रमा मूल पात्र, नटनटी वा पाठक, भावक, स्रोता कसमा रसास्वादन हुन्छ भन्ने स्पष्ट उल्लेख नभएकाले परवर्ती आचार्यहरूले ‘संयोग’ र ‘निष्पत्ति’ शब्दको अर्थ आआप्mनै ढङ्गले लगाएको र आआप्mनै ढङ्गले व्याख्या विश्लेषण गरेको पाइन्छ । यस क्रममा रसनिष्पत्ति सम्बन्धी मान्यताको व्याख्या, विश्लेषण र मत मतान्तरमा कास्मिरी आचार्य भट्टलोल्लटको उत्पत्तिवाद, श्रीशङ्कुकको अनुमितिवाद, भट्टनायकको भुक्तिवाद तथा अभिनव गुप्तको अभिव्यक्तिवाद प्रमुख छन् । यी आचार्यहरू भन्दा पछाडि पनि आनन्दवर्धन, मम्मट, विश्वनाथ, जगन्नाथ र धनञ्जय समेतले भट्टलोल्लट, श्रीशङ्कुक, भट्टनायक तथा अभिनव गुप्तका अभिमतको उल्लेख गरेको पाइन्छ । यिनै प्रमाणहरूका आधारमा रसनिष्पत्ति सम्बन्धी सिद्धान्त वा मान्यताको व्याख्या विश्लेषण हुँदै आएको छ । यस अध्ययनमा रसास्वादन मूलपात्र (अनुकार्य), नटनटी (अनुकर्ता) र दर्शक, पाठक, स्रोता कसमा हुन्छ भन्ने सन्दर्भमा आआप्mनो मत प्रस्तुत गर्दै जाँदा अनुकार्यदेखि पाठक, भावक, स्रोतासम्म रसास्वादन हुने धारणाबाट उत्पत्तिवाद, अनुमितिवाद, भुक्तिवाद र अभिव्यक्तिवादको स्थापना हुन पुगेको र अभिव्यक्तिवाद नै वैज्ञानिक तथा पाठक, भावक र दर्शकको रसाभिव्यक्तिसँग सम्बन्धित रहेको निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 हरि प्रसाद Hari Prasad तिमिल्सिना Timisina नेपाली राजनीतिमा वी.पी.कोइराला र उनको दर्शन, समिक्षात्मक अध्ययन 2024-01-04T03:16:17+00:00 अर्जुन प्रसाद पोखरेल <p>विश्वेश्वरप्रसाद कोइराला नेपालका प्रख्यात राजनीतीक नेता तथा विचारक थिए । नेपालको राजनीतिक परिवेश निर्माणमा उनको महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका रह्यो । कोइराला प्रजातान्त्रिक समाजवादका कट्टर पक्षधर थिए, जुन एक राजनीतिक विचारधारा हो जसले उत्पादनका साधनको सामाजिक स्वामित्वमा लोकतन्त्रका सिद्धान्तहरू जोड्न खोज्छ । बी.पी. कोइरालाले सामाजिक–आर्थिक समानताको आवश्यकतामा जोड दिँदै यो लक्ष्य हासिल गर्न लोकतान्त्रिक सिद्धान्तको प्रयोगमा विश्वास व्यक्त गरे । नेपालको लोकतान्त्रिक आन्दोलनमा महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका खेल्ने राजनीतिकदल नेपाली कांग्रेसको स्थापनामा उहाँ प्रमुख व्यक्तित्व थिए । कोइरालाको लोकतान्त्रिक समाजवादी विचारले समाजमा व्याप्त सामाजिक–आर्थिक असमानतालाई लोकतान्त्रिक माध्यमबाट सम्बोधन गर्ने लक्ष्य राखेको थियो । उनको विचारले नेपालको राजनीतिक परिस्थितीलाई प्रभाव पारेको थियो र उनले एक पटक नेपालको प्रधानमन्त्री भइ अल्पकालीन समय सरकार सञ्चालन समेत गरिसकेका थिए । बी.पी. कोइरालाको विरासतमा नेपालको राजनीतिको सन्दर्भमा लोकतन्त्र, सामाजिक न्याय र आर्थिक समानताको प्रवद्र्धन गर्ने प्रयासहरू समावेश छन् ।</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 अर्जुन प्रसाद पोखरेल भाषिक सिपको विकासमा उखान शिक्षण 2024-01-04T03:33:17+00:00 इन्द्रबहादुर भण्डारी <p>उखान लोकसाहित्यको महत्वपूर्ण विधा हो र लोकको बौद्घिक उक्ति हो । लोकले सदियौं देखिका अनुभवहरूलाई सूत्रात्मक रूपले प्रस्तुत गर्दा उखानहरू जन्मिएका हुन् । उखान शिक्षण भाषाशिक्षणका लागि अत्यन्तै महत्वपूर्ण सामग्री बन्न सक्छ । भाषाशिक्षणका लागि उखानलाई उपयोगी सामग्रीका रूपमा प्रयोग गर्दा सिकारुले पहिलो कुरा त भाषिक सिप सिक्न सरल माध्यम बन्न सक्छ भने अर्कातिर लोकले सदियौंदेखि संगालेका लोकअनुभवहरुको ज्ञान प्राप्त गर्दै नैतिक शिक्षा प्राप्त गर्न सक्छन् । उखानको अन्तिम लक्ष्य भनेको नीतिशिक्षा प्रदान गर्नु हो । कुनै पनि व्यक्ति भाषिक रूपले क्षमतावान नभएसम्म वा आफ्नो ज्ञानको क्षितीज नबढाएसम्म नीतिशिक्षा व्याबहारिक ज्ञान प्राप्त गर्न सक्दैन । उखानहरू नीतिसन्देशमूलक र व्यङ्ग्यार्थ मूलक हुन्छन् भने रसिला पनि हुन्छन् । त्यसो त उखानहरू समाजका विभिन्न विषय र क्षेत्रसँग सम्बन्धित हुन्छन् जसले समाजका हरेक क्षेत्रमा देखिएका समस्याहरूलाई सकारात्मक वा नकारात्मक दुबै रूपले व्यङ्ग्य गर्दै सकारात्मक सन्देश दिएका हुन्छन् । उखानले व्यक्त गर्ने नीतिसन्देश श्रोताको उमेर र स्तरअनुसार सामान्यदेखि उच्चस्तरको प्रतीयमान अर्थ दिने हुन्छ । त्यसैले उखानको अध्ययन गरी यसलाई भाषाशिक्षणको सामग्रीका रूपमा प्रयोग गरी एकातिर व्यावहारिक जीवनमा यसको प्रयोग गर्नु र अर्कातिर महत्वपूर्ण ज्ञान प्राप्त गर्नमा उखान शिक्षण उपयोगी साबित हुन सक्छ ।</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 इन्द्रेणी Editorial Vol.15(2) 2024-01-03T15:43:28+00:00 Bed Raj K.C. <p>Not applicable</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Bed Raj K.C.