Influenza: An Emerging and Re-emerging Public Health Threat in Nepal
Influenza virus type A and B are responsible for seasonal epidemics as well as pandemics in human. Influenza A viruses are further divided into two major groups namely, low pathogenic seasonal influenza (A/H1N1, A/H1N1 pdm09, A/H3N2) and highly pathogenic influenza virus (H5N1, H5N6, H7N9) on the basis of two surface antigens: hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Mutations, including substitutions, deletions, and insertions, are one of the most important mechanisms for producing new variant of influenza viruses. During the last 30 years; more than 50 viral threat has been evolved in South-East Asian countriesof them influenza is one of the major emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases of global concern. Similar to tropical and sub-tropical countries of Southeast Asia; circulation of A/H1N1 pdm09, A/H3N2 and influenza B has been circulating throughout the year with the peak during July-November in Nepal. However; the rate of infection transmission reach peak during the post-rain and winter season of Nepal.
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